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MACMILLAN      AND      CO. 





J.  G.  A.   .  .  J.  G.  ALGEB. 
R.  E.  A.  .  .  R.  E.  ANDERSON. 
W.  A.  J.  A. .  W.  A.  J.  ARCHBOLD. 
G.  F.  R.  B.  .  G.  F.  RUSSELL  BARKER. 



G.  T.  B.   .  .  G.  T.  BETTANT. 

G.  C.  B.    .  .  G.  C.  BOASB. 

G.  S.  B.    .  .  G.  S.  BOULQEB. 

E.  T.  B.  .  .  Miss  BRADLEY. 

A.  R.  B.  .  .  THE  REV.  A.  R.  BUCKLAND. 

A.  H.  B.  .  .  A.  H.  BULLEN. 

E.  C-N.  ...  EDWIN  CANNAN. 

H.  M.  C.  .  .  H.  MANNERS  CHICHESTEB. 

A.  M.  C.  .  .  Miss  A.  M.  CLERKE. 



W.  P.  C.  .  .  W.  P.  COURTNEY. 

J.  C-N.  .  .  .  JAMES  CRANSTOUN,  LL.D. 




A.  I.  D.    .  .  ARTHUR  IRWIN  DASBNT. 


C.  H.  F.   .  .  C.  H.  FIRTH. 

J.    G.    F.      .    .    J.    G.    FOTHERINGHAM. 


J.  T.  G.    .  .  J.  T.  GILBERT,  F.S.A. 


J.  M.    G.  .  .  J.  M.  GRAY. 

W.  A.  G. .  .  W.  A.  GREENHILL,  M.D. 
J.  C.  H.    .  .  J.  CUTHBERT  HADDEN. 
J.  A.  H.   .  .  J.  A.  HAMILTON. 



W.  J.  H.  .  .  W.  JEROME  HARRISON. 

T.  F.  H.   .  .  T.  F.  HENDERSON. 

W.  H.     ...  THE  REV.  WILLIAM  HUNT. 

B.  D.  J.    .  .  B.  D.  JACKSON. 


C.  K.  .  .  .  .  CHARLES  KENT. 
C.  L.  K.  .  .  C.  L.  KINGSFORD. 

J.  K.  L.    .  .  PBOFESSOB  J.  K.  LAUGHTON. 


A.  G.  L.   .  .  A.  G.  LITTLE. 
W.  R.  LL.   .  COLONEL  W.  R.  LLUELLYN. 
W.  B.  L.  .  .  THE  REV.  W.  B.  LOWTHEB. 
M.  M.    ...  JENEAS  MACKAY,  LL.D. 
E.  H.  M.  .  .  E.  H.  MAKSHALL. 

L.    M.    M.  .    .    MlSS   MlDDLETON. 

A.  H.  M. .  .  A.  H.  MILLAR. 


List  of  Writers. 


J.  B.  M.   .  .  J.  BASS  MUI.I.INGER. 



F.  M.  O'D.  .  F.  M.  O'DoNOGHCE. 
J.  F.  P..  .  .  J.  F.  PAYNE,  M.D. 

B.  L.  P.  .  .  R.  L.  POOLE. 

B.    P MlSS   PORTER. 

R.  B.  P.    .  .  R.  B.  PROSSEH. 
E.  J.  R.    .  .  E.  J.  RAPSOX. 
J.  M.  R.  .  .  J.  M.  RIGG. 

R.    F.    S.      .    .    R.    FARQfHARSON    SHARP. 

AY.  A.  S.  .  .  AY.  A.  SHAW. 
L.  S.   .         .  LESLIE  STEPHEN. 

C.  W.  S.  .  .  C.  W.  SUTTON. 
W.  C.  S.  .  .  W.  C.  SroNBY. 

J.  T JAMES  TAIT,  of  Oxford. 

H.  R.  T.    .  .  H.  R.  TEDDER. 

D.  LL.  T. .  .  D.  LLKCFKR  THOMAS.' 

E.  M.  T.    .  .  E.   MAUNDE    THOMPSON,    D.C.L. 

T.  F.  T.    .  .  PROFESSOR  T.  F.  TOUT. 


R.  H.  V.  .  .  COLONEL  R.  H.  ATETCH,  R.E. 
A.  W.  AY.    .  A.  AV.  AYARD,  Litt.D. 

M.  G.  W.  .  .  THE  REV.  M.  G.  WATKINS. 

F.  W-T.    .  .  FRANCIS  WATT. 

C.  W-H.    .  .  CHARLFS  WELCH,  F-S.A. 
W.  W.    ...  WARWICK  WROTH,  F.S.A. 






INGLIS,  CHARLES  (1731  P-1791),  rear- 
admiral,  a  younger  son  of  Sir  John  Inglis  of 
Cramond,  bart.,  entered  the  navy  in  1745  on 
board  the  Ludlow  Castle,with  Captain  George 
Brydges  (afterwards  Lord)  Rodney  [q.  v.] 
He  followed  Rodney  to  the  Eagle,  and  in 
that  ship  was  present  in  Hawke's  action  with 
L'Etenduere  on  14  Oct.  1747.  After  three 
years  in  the  Eagle  he  was  appointed  to  the 
Tavistock  with  Captain  Francis  Holburne. 
He  passed  his  examination  on  5  Feb.  1755, 
being  then,  according  to  his  certificate,  more 
than  twenty-three  years  of  age,  and  the  next 
day  he  was  promoted  to  be  lieutenant  of  the 
Monarch,  with  Captain  Abraham  North.  In 
April  1756  he  was  appointed  to  the  Magna- 
nime,  with  Captain  Wittewronge  Taylor; 
turned  over,  with  him,  to  the  Royal  William 
on  3  June  1757  [cf.  HOWE,  RICHAKD,  EARL], 
and  a  fortnight  later  was  promoted  to  the 
command  of  the  Escort  sloop,  attached  to 
the  expedition  to  Rochefort  under  Sir  Edward 
(afterwards  Lord)  Hawke  [q.  v.]  In  June 
1759  he  was  appointed  to  the  Carcass  bomb, 
part  of  the  force  under  Rodney  which  bom- 
barded Havre  and  destroyed  the  flat-bot- 
tomed boats  there  in  July.  On  15  Dec.  1761 
he  was  posted  to  the  Newark  of  80  guns, 
which  early  in  the  following  year  went  out 
to  the  Mediterranean  with  the  broad  pennant 
of  Commodore  Sir  Peircy  Brett.  He  re- 
turned to  England  after  the  peace,  and  on 
the  occasion  of  the  Spanish  armament  in 
1770  was  appointed  to  command  the  Lizard 
frigate.  In  August  1778  he  commissioned 
the  Salisbury  of  50  guns,  in  which  he  went 
out  to  Jamaica,  and  on  12  Dec.  1779  cap- 
tured the  San  Carlos,  a  Spanish  privateer  of 
60  guns,  and  laden  with  military  stores,  in 


the  Bay  of  Honduras.  In  the  following  sum- 
mer he  returned  to  England,  and  when  the 
Salisbury  was  paid  off  was  appointed  to  the 
64-gun  ship  St.  Albans,  one  of  the  fleet  under 
Vice-admiral  Darby  at  the  relief  of  Gibraltar 
in  March  1781.  Towards  the  end  of  the 
year  he  was  sent  out  to  the  West  Indies  in 
charge  of  convoy,  and  having  joined  the  flag 
of  Sir  Samuel  (afterwards  Viscount)  Hood 
[q.  v.]  at  Barbadoes,  was  with  him  during 
his  attempt  to  relieve  St.  Kitts,  25  Jan.  1782. 
Afterwards,  in  the  battle  of  12  April,  the 
St.  Albans  was  the  second  ship  astern  of  the 
Formidable,  and  passed  through  the  enemy's 
line  closely  following  her  and  the  Namur. 
In  August  1782  the  St.  Albans  went  to  North 
America  with  Admiral  Pigot,  and  returned 
to  England  after  the  peace.  Inglis  had  no 
further  service,  but  was  promoted  to  be  rear- 
admiral  on  21  Sept.  1790.  and  died  on  10  Oct. 

His  son  Charles,  first  lieutenant  of  the 
Penelope  in  her  remarkable  engagement  with 
the  Guillaume  Tell  [see  BLACKWOOD,  SIK 
HENRY],  was  immediately  promoted  to  com- 
mand the  Petrel,  and  in  her  led  the  fleet  under 
Lord  Keith  into  the  harbour  of  Marmorice, 
during  a  violent  gale,  on  1  Jan.  1801  (PARSON, 
Nelsonian  Reminiscences,  p.  80).  He  was  ad- 
vanced to  post  rank  on  29  April  1802,  and 
died,  still  a  captain,  on  27  Feb.  1833. 

[Charnock's  Biog.  Nav.  vi.  455 ;  Commission 
and  Warrant  Books  in  Public  Eecord  Office  ] 

J.  K.  L. 

INGLIS,  CHARLES  (1734-1816),  bishop 
of  Nova  Scotia,  was  born,  apparently,  in -Near 
Yorkj-in  1734.  From  1755  to  1758  he  con- 
ducted a  free  school  at  Lancaster,  Pennsyl- 
vania, and  gained  the  goodwill  of  the  neigh- 

No.1    M-t, 


hours,  who  recommended  him  to  the  Society 
for  the  Propagation  of  the  Gospel.  He  came 
to  England,  was  ordained  by  the  Bishop  of 
London,  and,  returning  to  America,  began 
work  on  the  Dover  mission  station,  which 
then  included  the  county  of  Kent,  Delaware, 
1  July  1759.  In  1765  he  became  assistant 
to  Dr.  Auchnutz,  at  Holy  Trinity  Church, 
New  York,  and  catechist  to  the  negroes. 
While  there  he  took  part  in  the  controversy 
on  the  subject  of  the  American  episcopacy, 
advocating  its  foundation  in  a  pamphlet,  and 
being  a  member  of  the  voluntary  convoca- 
tion which  met  21  May  1766.  In  conjunc- 
tion with  Sir  William  Johnson  he  actively 
assisted  in  evangelical  work  among  the  Mo- 
hawk Indians.  The  university  of  Oxford 
created  him  by  diploma  M.A.  6  April  1770, 
and  D.D.  25  Feb.  1778  (FOSTER,  Alumni 
Oxon.  p.  728).  In  1776,  when  Washington 
obtained  possession  of  New  York,  Inglis,  as  a 
loyalist,  retired  to  Long  Island  for  a  time, 
but  Dr.  Auchnutz  died  4  March  1777,  and  I 
Inglis  was  chosen  to  succeed  him  in  the  bene- 
fice of  Holy  Trinity.  The  church  had  just 
been  burnt  down,  and  Inglis  was  inducted 
by  Governor  Tryon  among  the  ruins.  His 
loyalty  to  the  English  crown  rendered  him 
obnoxious  to  the  new  American  government. 
His  property  was  taken  from  him,  and  he 
appeared  in  the  Act  of  Attainder  of  1779. 
He  resigned  his  living  1  Nov.  1783,  and 
visited  England.  On  12  Aug.  1787  he  was 
consecrated  first  bishop  of  Nova  Scotia,  thus 
becoming  the  first  British  colonial  bishop ; 
he  proceeded  to  his  diocese,  and  in  1809 
was  made  a  member  of  the  council  of  Nova 
Scotia.  He  died  at  Halifax,  Nova  Scotia,  in 
1816.  Inglis  married  Margaret  Crooke,  daugh- 
ter of  John  Crooke  of  Ulster  county,  New 
York,  and  by  her  had  two  daughters  and  a 
son,  John,  who  became  in  1825  third  bishop 
of  Nova  Scotia,  died  in  London  in  1850,  and 
was  the  father  of  Sir  John  Eardley  Wilmot 
Inglis  [q.  v.]  Inglis  published  a  few  pam- 

[Sabine's  Loyalists  of  the  American  Revolu- 
tion, i.  563-5 ;  Notes  and  Queries,  1st  ser.  vi. 
151,  516,  vii.  263,  ix.  527,  2nd  ser.  461,  4th 
ser.  viii.  87  ;  Magazine  of  American  Hist.  ii.  59  ; 
Nichols's  Lit.  Illustr.  vii.  488;  Perry's  Hist,  of 
the  Amer.  Episc.  Ch.  i.  242,  &c.,  ii.  50  n.  &c. ; 
Winsor's  Hist,  of  Amer.  vi.  270,  608 ;  Ander- 
son's Hist,  of  the  Colonial  Church,  i.  420,  iii. 
435,  602-7,  716;  Documentary  Hist,  of  New 
York,  vols.  iii.  and  iv.]  "W.  A.  J.  A. 

INGLIS,  HENRY  DAVID  (1795-1835), 
traveller  and  miscellaneous  writer,  the  only 
son  of  a  Scottish  advocate,  was  born  at  Edin- 
burgh in  1795,  and  was  educated  for  commer- 
cial life ;  but  he  found  work  in  an  office  un- 


congenial,  turned  to  literature,  and  travelled 
abroad.  Under  the  nom  de  guerre  of  Derwent 
Conway,  he  published  his  first  work, '  Tales 
of  the  Ardennes,'  1825.  It  met  with  a  favour- 
able reception,  and  there  followed  in  quick 
succession  '  Narrative  of  a  Journey  through 
Norway,  part  of  Sweden,  and  the  Islands  and 
States  of  Denmark,'  1826,  '  Solitary  Walks 
through  many  Lands,'  1828,  and  '  A  Tour 
through  Switzerland  and  the  South  of 
France  and  the  Pyrenees,'  1830  and  1831. 
For  a  short  time  before  1830  he  edited  a 
local  newspaper  at  Chesterfield  in  Derby- 
shire, but  soon  relinquished  it  for  further 
foreign  travel.  Of  his  j  ourneys  through  Spain 
and  the  Tyrol  in  1830  and  following  years, 
he  published  valuable  accounts,  'Spain  in 
1830'  appearing  in  1831,  and  'The  Tyrol, 
with  a  Glance  at  Bavaria,'  in  1833.  The 
former  is  his  best  work.  In  1832  Inglis  wrote 
a  novel,  in  three  volumes,  entitled '  The  New 
Gil  Bias,  or  Pedro  of  Pennaflor,'  1832,  de- 
lineating social  life  in  Spain,  but  this  effort, 
though  not  without  merit,  was  a  failure. 
In  the  same  year  he  went  to  the  Channel 
islands,  and  edited  a  Jersey  newspaper,  called 
'  The  British  Critic,'  for  two  years.  He  pub- 
lished in  1834  a  description,  in  two  volumes, 
of  the  Channel  islands.  Later,  in  1834,  he 
made  a  tour  through  Ireland,  publishing  an 
interesting  and  impartial  account  of  his  ob- 
servations under  the  title  of 'Ireland  in  1834.' 
The  book  attracted  attention,  was  quoted  as 
an  authority  by  speakers  in  parliament  in 
1835,  and  reached  a  fifth  edition  in  1838. 
Subsequently  Inglis  settled  in  London,  and  in 
1837  contributed  to '  Colburn's  New  Monthly 
Magazine '  his  last  literary  work, '  Rambles  in 
the  Footsteps  of  Don  Quixote,' with  illustra- 
tions by  George  Cruikshank.  He  died  of 
disease  of  the  brain,  the  result  of  overwork, 
at  his  residence  in  Bayham  Terrace,  Regent's 
Park,  on  Friday,  20  March  1835.  All  his 
books  are  agreeably  written,  and  supply  ser- 
viceable information. 

[Athenaeum,  28  March  1835  ;  Chambers'sBiog. 
Diet,  of  Eminent  Scotsmen,  ii.  336  ;  Gent.  Mag. 
September  1835 ;  Brit.  Mus.  Cat]  W.  C.  S. 

INGLIS,  HESTER  (1571-1624),  cali- 
grapher  and  miniaturist.  [See  KELLO.] 

INGLIS,  JAMES  (d.  1531),  abbot  of  Cul- 
ross,  was  clerk  of  the  closet  to  James  IV  in 
1511,when  he  received,  according  to  the '  Trea- 
surer's Accounts,'  his  livery  and  the  instalment 
of  his  annual  salary  of  40/.  He  seems  to  have 
had  the  confidence  of  the  king,  who  thanks 
him  in  one  of  his  letters  (Epistolce  Regum  Sco- 
torum)  for  an  offer  of  certain  rare  books  on 
alchemy.  He  became  chaplain  to  Prince 




James  (afterwards  James  V),  to  whom  Sir 
David  Lyndsay  was  usher,  and  in  1515  was 
secretary  to  Queen  Margaret.  lie  was  also 
entrusted  with  money  for  the  purchase  of 
clothes,  &c.,  for  the  young  prince  and  his 
brother.  In  1515  Inglis  was  in  England  on 
the  queen's  business  (cf.  his  letters  in  the 
Cottonian  MSS.)  Like  Lyndsay,  he  had  a 
share  in  providing  dramatic  entertainments 
for  royalty,  and  in  1526  received  money,  '  be 
the  king's  precept,'  to  purchase  stage  apparel 
(cf.  Treasury  Records}.  In  1527  he  is  de- 
scribed in  a  charter  as  chancellor  of  the  Royal 
Chapel  of  Stirling,  and  in  the  same  year  was 
*  master  of  werk,'  at  an  annual  salary  of  40£, 
superintending  the  erection  of  buildings  for 
the  king  (cf.  ib.*).  About  the  same  time  he 
was  appointed  abbot  of  Culross.  On  1  March 
1531,  for  a  reason  unknown,  he  was  murdered 
by  his  neighbour,  John  Blacater,  baron  of  Tul- 
liallan,  and  a  priest  named  William  Lothian. 
Summary  vengeance  followed  on  28  Aug., 
when  '  John  Blacater  of  Tullyalloune  and 
William  Louthian  (publicly  degraded  from 
his  orders  in  the  Kingis  presence  the  preced- 
ing day),  being  convicted  by  an  assize  of  art 
and  part  of  the  cruel  slaughter  of  James  In- 
glis, abbot  of  Culross,  were  beheaded '  (PiT- 
CAIEN,  Criminal  Trials,  i.  *151). 

Sir  David  Lyndsay,  in  stanza  v.  of  the  pro- 
logue to  '  The  Testament  and  Complaynt  of 
•our  Soverane  Lordis  Papyngo,'  regrets  the 
repression  of  Inglis's  poetic  gift  owing  to  his 
holding  ecclesiastical  preferment : — 

Quho  can  say  more  than  Schir  James  Inglis  sayis, 
In  ballattis,  farses,  and  in  plesand  playis  ? 
Bot  Culrose  hes  his  pen  maid  impotent. 

His  writings  are  lost,  although  the  Maitland 
MS.  credits  him  with  a  vigorous  onslaught 
on  the  clergy  entitled  '  A  General  Satyre,' 
which,  however,  the  Bannatyne  MS.,  with 
•distinct  plausibility,  assigns  to  Dunbar.  Mac- 
kenzie's rash  assumption,  in  his  '  Writers  of 
the  Scots  Nation,'  that  Inglis  wrote  the 
'  Complaynt  of  Scotland '  (which  was  not 
printed  till  1549),  has  unnecessarily  compli- 
cated the  question  regarding  the  authorship 
of  that  work.  Another  ecclesiastic  named 
Inglis  figures  in  the  '  Treasurer's  Accounts '  of 
1532  as  singing '  for  the  kingis  saule  at  Banak- 
burne/andif  an  Inglis  wrote  the*  Complaynt,' 
this  may  have  been  the  man.  Robert  Wed- 
derburn,  however,  is  the  most  likely  author 
(see  LAING,  Dunbar). 

[Lesley's  De  Rebus  G-estis  Scotorum ;  Pinker- 
ton's  Hist,  of  Scotland,  vol.  ii. ;  Dunbar's  Poems, 
ed.  Laing,  ii.  390,  and  Laing's  preface  to  The 
Gude  and  Godlie  Ballates ;  Chambers's  Eminent 
Scotsmen ;  Irving's  Hist,  of  Scotish  Poetry.] 


INGLIS,  JOHN,  D.D.  (1763-1834),  Scot- 
tish divine,  born  in  1763,  was  the  youngest  son 
of  Harry  Inglis,  M.A.,  minister  of  Forteviot, 
Perthshire.  He  graduated  at  the  university  of 
Edinburgh,  studying  divinity  under  the  Rev. 
Dr.  Hunter,  and  completed  a  distinguished 
academical  course  in  1783.  He  was  ordained 
as  minister  of  Tibbermore,  Perthshire,  on 
20  July  1786.  He  took  an  active  share  in 
presbyterial  administration,  and  early  showed 
his  ability  as  an  ecclesiastical  politician.  On 
3  July  1799  he  was  presented  by  the  town 
council  of  Edinburgh  to  the  Old  Greyfriars 
Church  as  proximate  successor  to  Principal 
Robertson  the  historian.  The  degree  of  doctor 
of  divinity  was  conferred  upon  him  by  the 
university  of  Edinburgh  in  March  1 804,  and  he 
presided  as  moderator  of  the  general  assembly 
held  in  that  year.  He  was  appointed  one  of 
the  deans  of  the  Chapel  Royal  by  George  III 
in  February  1810,  and  was  continued  in  the 
office  by  William  IV.  He  died  on  2  Jan.  1834. 
Inglis  married,  in  1798,  Maria  Moxham  Pass- 
more,  daughter  of  Abraham  Passmore,  of 
Rollefarm,  Devonshire,  and  had  four  sons  and 
one  daughter.  The  youngest  son,  John,  who 
became  lord  justice-general  of  Scotland,  is 
separately  noticed. 

Inglis's  name  is  principally  associated  with 
his  scheme  for  the  evangelisation  of  India. 
Through  his  efforts  a  committee  was  ap- 
pointed for  this  purpose  by  the  general  as- 
sembly on  27  May  1824,  and  it  was  largely 
owing  to  his  perseverance,  tact,  and  energy 
that  the  scheme  was  successfully  carried  out. 
As  a  preacher  he  was  too  profound  and  argu- 
mentative to  catch  the  popular  ear,  and  his 
influence  was  greater  in  the  church,  courts 
than  in  the  pulpit.  His  principal  wotka,  all 
published  in  Edinburgh,  were,  besides  four 
single  sermons,  1803-26:  1.  'An.  Exami- 
nation of  Mr.  Dugald  Stewart's  Pamphlet 
relative  to  the  election  of  a  Mathematical 
Professor,'  1805.  2. '  Reply  to  Professor  Play- 
fair's  Letter  to  the  Author,'  1806.  3.  'A 
Vindication  of  Christian  Faith,'  1830.  4.  '  A 
Vindication  of  Ecclesiastical  Establishments,' 
1833.  5.  Account  of  Tibbermore  in  Sinclair's 
'  Statistical  Account.' 

A  portrait  is  in  the  National  Portrait  Gal- 
lery of  Scotland. 

[Hew  Scott's  Fasti,  i.  44,  iv.  668;  Cockburn's 
Memoirs,  p.  232.]  A.  H.  M. 

1891),  lord  justice-general  of  Scotland, 
youngest  son  —  not  eldest,  as  sometimes 
stated— of  John  Inglis  [q.  v.],  minister  of 
Tibbermore,  Perthshire,  by  Maria  Moxham 
Passmore,  was  born  in  his  father's  house  in 
George  Square,  Edinburgh,  on  21  Aug.  1810. 



After  attending  the  high  school  of  Edinburgh 
and  the  university  of  Glasgow,  he  entered 
Balliol  College,  Oxford,  where  he  graduated 
B.A.  in  1834  and  M.A.  in  1836.  He  was 
admitted  a  member  of  the  Faculty  of  Advo- 
cates, Edinburgh,  in  1835,  and  soon  acquired 
a  reputation  as  an  eloquent  and  skilful  pleader. 
As  an  advocate  his  most  famous  achievement 
•was  his  brilliant  defence  in  1857  of  Madeline 
Smith,  accused  of  poisoning.  The  jury  re- 
turned a  verdict  of  not  proven. 

In  politics  Inglis  was  a  conservative,  and 
on  the  accession  of  Lord  Derby  to  power  in 
February  1852  he  was  made  solicitor-general 
of  Scotland,  this  office  being,  after  the  general 
election  three  months  later,  exchanged  for  that 
of  lord  advocate.  He  resigned  his  post  on  the 
defeat  of  Lord  Derby's  government  in  No- 
vember, and  was  elected  immediately  after- 
wards dean  of  the  Faculty  of  Advocates.  On 
the  return  of  Lord  Derby  to  power  in  1858,  he 
again  became  lord  advocate,  and  on  3  March 
was  returned  to  the  House  of  Commons  as 
member  for  Stamford,  but  his  political  career 
was  brought  to  a  close  on  13  July  of  the  same 
year,  when  he  was  raised  to  the  bench  as  lord 
justice-clerk  and  president  of  the  second  divi- 
sion of  the  court  of  session.  The  only  im- 
portant piece  of  legislation  associated  with  his 
name  is  the  Universities  of  Scotland  Act  of 
1858.  Though  founded  on  a  bill  drafted  by  his 
predecessor  in  office,  it  was  rendered,  by  the 
introduction  of  material  modifications,  prac- 
tically a  new  measure.  It  met  with  general 
approbation,  and  his  services  both  in  preparing 
it  and  guiding  it  through  the  House  of  Com- 
mons were  acknowledged  by  his  election  to  the 
permanent  chairmanship  of  the  commission 
appointed  by  the  act,  and  the  conferment  on 
him  in  December  1858  of  the  degree  of  doctor 
of  laws  by  the  university  of  Edinburgh.  In 
1859  he  was  also  created  a  D.C.L.  by  the  uni- 
versity of  Oxford.  In  the  same  year  he  was 
sworn  a  member  of  the  privy  council. 

On  the  death  of  Lord  Colonsay  [see  MAC- 
NEILL,  DTJNCAN],  Inglis  was  on  26  Feb.  1867 
installed  lord  justice-general  of  Scotland,  and 
lord  president  of  the  court  of  session,  taking 
the  title  of  Lord  Glencorse.  Except  Lord 
Stair,  no  Scottish  judge  has  ranked  so  high  as 
a  jurist.  As  an  exponent  of  law  he  owed 
much  to  his  severe  conscientiousness  and  im- 
partiality, and  to  his  reverence  for  Scottish 
jurisprudence  as  an  independent  national 
system.  But  his  chief  strength  as  a  judge 
lay  rather  in  a  '  certain  beneficent  sagacity, 
a  luminousness  of  mind,  a  humanity  of  in- 
telligence, which  might  almost  be  regarded 
as  unique '  (Scots  Observer,  19  July  1890). 
He  was  uniformly  patient,  courteous,  and 

1  •          •  /»      t 



Outside  his  judicial  duties  Inglis  did  much 
useful  work.  He  was  an  active  member  of 
the  board  of  manufactures,  and,  besides  ren- 
dering important  services  to  higher  educa- 
tion in  Scotland  as  permanent  chairman  of 
the  university  commission  appointed  in  1858, 
he  was  a  governor  of  Fettes  College,  Edin- 
burgh ;  was  in  1857  chosen  lord  rector  of 
King's  College,  Aberdeen,  and  in  1865  of 
the  university  of  Glasgow;  and  as  chancellor 
of  the  university  of  Edinburgh,  to  which,  in 
opposition  to  Mr.  Gladstone,  he  was  elected 
in  1869,  took  a  practical  share  in  the  admi- 
nistrationof  university  affairs.  His  inaugural 
addresses  at  Aberdeen,  Glasgow,  and  Edin- 
burgh (1869)  were  published  separately.  He 
was  president  of  the  Scottish  Text  Society,  and 
of  his  antiquarian  tastes  he  gave  incidental 
evidence  in  1877  in  a  privately  printed  paper 
on  the  name  of  his  parish,  Glencorse,  which 
was  identical  with  the  name  of  his  own 
estate.  The  paper  was  written  in  protest 
against  a  proposal  officially  to  change  the 
name  to  Glencross.  A  valuable  and  succinct 
paper  on  '  Montrose  and  the  Covenanters  of 
1638,'  was  published  in  '  Blackwood's  Maga- 
zine '  for  November  1887.  Its  chief  aim  is  to 
vindicate  the  character  of  Montrose.  Inglis's 
'Historical  Study  of  Law,  an  Address  to  the 
Juridical  Society,'  appeared  at  Edinburgh  in 

Inglis  was  a  keen  golfer,  and  was  once 
elected  to  the  annual  honorary  captaincy  of 
the  golf  club  of  St.  Andrews.  On  his  estate 
of  Glencorse  he  took  a  special  interest  in  the 
cultivation  of  trees.  Though  latterly  some- 
what broken  in  bodily  health,  he  continued  in 
office  to  the  close  of  his  life.  He  died,  after 
a  few  days  of  prostration,  at  his  residence  of 
Loganbank,  Midlothian,  on  20  Aug.  1891, 
just  before  completing  his  eighty-first  year. 
By  his  wife  Isabella  Mary,  daughter  of  the 
Hon.  Lord  Wood,  a  judge  of  the  court  of 
session,  he  left  two  sons,  A.  W.  Inglis,  secre- 
tary to  the  board  of  manufactures,  and 
H.  Herbert  Inglis,  writer  to  the  signet. 

The  original  portraits  of  Inglis  are  a  chalk 
drawing  by  John  Faed,  R.S.A.,  in  possession 
of  A.  W.  Inglis,  esq.,  engraved  by  Francis 
Holl,  about  1852 ;  a  full-length  portrait  by  Sir 
John  "Watson  Gordon,  P.R.S.A.,  1854,  now 
in  the  university  of  Edinburgh ;  a  Kit-Cat 
portrait  in  his  justiciary  robes  as  lord  jus- 
tice-clerk, by  Sir  Francis  Grant,  P.R.A.,  in 
possession  of  A.  W.  Inglis,  esq. ;  bust  in 
marble  by  William  Brodie,  R.S.  A.,  engraved 
privately  for  James  Hay,  esq.,  Leith,  now  in 
the  hall  of  the  Parliament  House,  Edin- 
burgh; portrait,  in  a  group  representing  a 
family  shooting-party,  by  Gourlay  Steell, 
U.S.A.,  1867,  in  possession  of  A.  W.  Inglis, 


esq. ;  half-length  portrait,  in  robes  of  chan- 
cellor of  the  university  of  Edinburgh,  by  Sir 
Daniel  McNee,  afterwards  P.R.S.A.,  1872, 
now  in  the  dining-hall  of  Fettes  College, 
Edinburgh ;  full-length  portrait,  in  robes 
of  lord  justice-general,  by  George  Reid, 
P.R.S.A.,  now  in  the  hall  of  the  Parliament 
House,  Edinburgh ;  and  water-colour  sketch 
in  the  possession  of  J.  Irvine  Smith,  esq., 
Great  King  Street,  Edinburgh,  taken  in  1890 
by  W.  Skeoch  Cumming,  for  his  picture  of 
the  interior  of  the  first  division  of  the  court 
of  session. 

[Obituary  notices  in  Scotsman  and  other 
daily  papers  of  21  Aug.  1891  ;  Scots  Observer, 
19  July  1890 — 'Modern  Men  '  series;  National 
Observer,  29  Aug.  1891  ;  Journal  of  Jurispru- 
dence for  September  1891  ;  Blackwood's  Maga- 
zine for  October  1891 ;  information  kindly  sup- 
plied by  A.  W.  Inglis,  esq.]  T.  F.  H. 


MOT  (1814-1862),  defender  of  Lucknow, 
born  in  Nova  Scotia  15  Nov.  1814,  was  sou 
of  John  Inglis,  D.D.,  third  bishop  of  Nova 
Scotia,  and  his  wife,  the  daughter  of  Thomas 
Cochrane,  member  of  the  council  of  Nova 
Scotia.  Charles  Inglis,  D.D.  [q.v.],first  bishop 
of  that  colony, was  his  grandtather.  On  2  Aug. 
1833  he  was  appointed  ensign  by  purchase 
in  the  32nd  foot  (now  1st  Cornwall  light  in- 
fantry), in  which  all  his  regimental  service 
was  passed.  He  became  lieutenant  in  1839, 
captain  in  1843,  major  in  1848,  brevet  lieu- 
tenant-colonel in  1849,  regimental  lieutenant- 
colonel  20  Feb.  1855,  brevet-colonel  5  June 
1855.  He  served  with  the  32nd  during  the 
insurrection  in  Canada  in  1837,  including  the 
actions  at  St.  Denis  and  St.  Eustache;  in  the 
Punjab  war  of  1848-9,  including  the  first  and 
second  sieges  of  Mooltan,  and  in  the  attack 
on  the  enemy's  position  in  front  of  the  ad- 
vanced trenches  12  Sept.  1848,  succeeding  to 
the  command  of  the  right  column  of  attack 
on  the  death  of  Lieutenant-colonel  D.  Pat- 
toun.  He  commanded  the  32nd  at  Soorj- 
khoond,  and  was  present  at  the  storm  and 
capture  of  Mooltan,  the  action  at  Cheniote, 
and  the  battle  of  Goojerat  (brevet  of  lieu- 
tenant-colonel and  medal  and  clasps). 

Inglis  was  in  command  of  the  32nd,  lately 
arrived  from  the  hills,  at  Lucknow  on  the 
outbreak  of  the  mutiny  in  1857.  He  was 
second  in  command  under  Sir  Henry  Law- 
rence [q.  v.]  in  the  affair  at  Chinhut,  30  June 
1857  (see  MALLESON,  iii.  276-388),  and  after- 
wards in  the  residency  at  Lucknow,  whither 
the  garrison,  numbering  927  European  officers 
and  soldiers  and  765  loyal  native  soldiers, 
•withdrew  on  1  July.  When  Lawrence  was 
mortally  wounded  on  2  July,  Inglis  succeeded 
to  the  command,  at  Lawrence's  wish,  and 

;  Inglis 

defended  the  place  until  the  arrival  of  Sir 
Henry  Havelock,  26  Sept.  1857,  and  remained 
there  until  the  arrival  of  Sir  Colin  Campbell 
on  18  Nov.  (medal).  Inglis  was  wounded 
during  the  defence,  but  was  not  included  in 
the  casualty  returns.  He  was  promoted  to 
major-general  from  26  Sept.  1857,  and  made 
K.C.B. '  for  his  enduring  fortitude  and  perse- 
vering gallantry  in  the  defence  of  the  resi- 
dency of  Lucknow  for  87  days  against  an 
overwhelming  force  of  the  enemy ; '  and  the 
legislature  of  his  native  colony  presented  him 
with  a  sword  of  honour,  the  blade  formed  of 
steel  from  Nova  Scotian  iron.  He  commanded 
a  brigade  in  the  attack  on  Tantia  Topee, 
6  Dec.  1857  (ib.  iv.  188).  He  was  appointed 
colonel  32nd  light  infantry  5  May  1860,  and 
soon  after  was  given  the  command  of  the 
troops  in  the  Ionian  islands.  Inglis  died  at 
Hamburg  27  Sept.  1862,  aged  47.  He  was, 
wrote  a  contemporary,  '  entitled  to  admira- 
tion for  his  unassuming  demeanour,  friendly 
warmth  of  heart,  and  sincere  desire  to  help 
by  all  means  in  his  power  every  one  with 
whom  he  came  in  contact '  (  United  Service 
Mag.  November  1862,  p.  421).  Inglis  mar- 
ried in  1851  the  Hon.  Julia  Selina  Thesiger, 
daughter  of  the  first  Lord  Chelmsford,  who, 
with  her  three  children,  was  present  in  the 
Lucknow  residency  throughout  the  defence. 

[Dod's  Knightage ;  Hart's  Army  Lists.  For 
particulars  of  the  operations  in  Canada  in  1837 
see  Henry's  Events  of  a  Military  Life,  London, 
1843,  ii.  275-311.  For  accounts  of  Punjab  war 
see  despatches  in  London  Gazettes,  1848-9.  For 
particulars  of  the  defence  of  the  Lucknow  re- 
sidency, see  Malleson's  Indian  Mutiny  (ed.  1888- 
1889),  vols.  iii.  iv. ;  Quarterly  Keview,  ciii.  505 
et  seq.,  and  personal  narratives  there  noticed; 
Professional  Papers,  Corps  of  Eoyal  Engineers, 
vol.  x. ;  obituary  notices  in  Colburn's  United  Ser- 
vice Mag.  November  1862.]  H.  M.  C. 

WELL (1774-1843),  Scottish  poetess,  born 
on  27  Oct.  1774  at  Sanquhar,  Dumfriesshire, 
•was  daughter  of  Dr.  Alexander  Murray.  Her 
decided  literary  and  musical  gifts  were  de- 
veloped by  a  good  education.  When  very 
young  she  was  married  to  a  Mr.  Finlay,  who 
was  in  the  navy,  and  who  soon  died  in  the 
WTest  Indies.  After  some  vears  at  home 
with  her  relatives,  Mrs.  Finlay,  in  1803,  be- 
came the  wife  of  John  Inglis,  son  of  the 
parish  minister  of  Kirkmabreck  in  East  Gal- 
loway, and  an  officer  in  the  excise.  On  his 
death  in  1826,  his  widow  and  three  children 
had  to  depend  solely  on  a  small  annuity  de- 
volving from  his  office.  Mrs.  Inglis  now 
studied  hard,  and  wrote  much,  publishing  in 
1828  '  Miscellaneous  Collection  of  Poems, 
chiefly  Scriptural  Pieces.'  These  are  gene- 



rally  spirited  and  graceful  in  expression.  One 
of  the  lyrics  is  a  memorial  tribute  to  James 
Hogg,  the  Ettrick  Shepherd,  whose  manner 
Mrs.  Inglis  frequently  followed  with  consi- 
derable success.  She  died  in  Edinburgh  on 
21  Dec.  1843.  According  to  Rogers,  Burns 
commended  her  for  her  exquisite  rendering 
of  his  songs,  especially '  Ca'  the  yowes  to  the 

[Rogers's  Scottish  Minstrel ;  Wilson's  Poets 
and  Poetry  of  Scotland.]  T.  B. 

1855),  politician,  born  in  London  on  12  Jan. 
1786,  was  only  son  of  Sir  Hugh  Inglis,  bart., 
for  many  years  a  director  of  the  East  India 
Company,  and  sometime  M.P.  for  Ashburton, 
by  his  first  wife,  Catherine,  daughter  and  co- 
heiress of  Harry  Johnson  of  Milton  Bryant, 
Bedfordshire.  He  was  educated  at  Win- 
chester and  at  Christ  Church,  Oxford,  where 
he  matriculated  21  Oct.  1803,  and  graduated 
B.  A.  1806,  M.  A.  1809,  and  was  created  D.C.L. 
7  June  1826.  He  was  admitted  a  student 
of  Lincoln's  Inn  on  17  July  1806,  and  acted 
for  some  time  as  private  secretary  to  Lord 
Sidmouth,  an  old  friend  of  his  father  (PEL- 
LEW,  Life  of  Lord  Sidmouth,  1847,  iii.  108). 
In  1814  he  was  appointed  one  of  the  com- 
missioners for  investigating  the  debts  of  the 
nabobs  of  the  Carnatic,  an  office  which  he 
retained  to  the  final  close  of  the  commission 
in  March  1830.  He  was  called  to  the  bar 
on  8  June  1818,  but  did  not  attempt  to  prac- 
tise, and  on  21  Aug.  1820  succeeded  his  father 
as  the  second  baronet.  On  the  occasion  of 
the  coronation  of  George  IV  it  is  said  that 
he  was  deputed  to  meet  Queen  Caroline  at 
the  abbey  door  in  order  to  intimate  to  her 
that  the  government  had  determined  to  re- 
fuse her  admission  (Christian  Observer,  Ixv. 
526).  At  a  by-election  in  May  1824  Inglis 
was  returned  to  parliament  in  the  tory  in- 
terest for  the  borough  of  Dundalk.  In  "May 
1825  he  strenuously  protested  against  the 
third  reading  of  the  Roman  Catholic  Relief 
Bill,  denying  that  the  Roman  catholics  had 
either  under  the  treaty  of  Limerick  or  under 
the  articles  of  the  union  any  claim  whatever 
to  relief  (Par/.  Debates,  new  ser.  xiii.  489- 
504).  At  the  opening  of  the  new  parliament 
in  November  1826  Inglis  was  without  a  seat 
in  the  House  of  Commons,  but  was  returned 
for  Ripon  at  a  by-election  in  February  1828. 
In  the  same  month  he  opposed  Lord  John 
Russell's  motion  for  the  repeal  of  the  Test 
and  Corporation  Acts  (ib.  xviii.  710-15), 
and  in  the  following  May  again  protested  at 
length  against  any  concession  to  the  Roman 
catholic  claims  (ib.  xix.  417-527).  In  Fe- 
bruary 1829  he  accepted  the  Chiltern  Hun- 

dreds to  contest  the  representation  of  Oxford 
University  against  Sir  Robert  Peel,  who  had 
resigned  his  seat  on  changing  his  opinions 
on  the  Roman  catholic  question,  in  order 
that  his  constituents  might  express  an  opinion 
on  his  policy.  Inglis  defeated  Peel  by  755 
votes  to  609,  and  continued  thenceforth  to 
represent  the  university  until  he  retired  from 
parliamentary  life.  On  30  March  1829  he 
both  spoke  and  voted  against  the  third  read- 
ing of  the  Roman  Catholic  Relief  Bill  (ib. 
xx.  1596-1609,  1637),  and  on  1  March  1831 
made  a  learned  and  elaborate  speech  against 
!  the  ministerial  plan  of  parliamentary  reform 
|  (ib.  3rd  ser.  ii.  1090-1128).  On  12  March 
j  1831  Inglis  was  appointed  a  commissioner 
•  on  the  public  records  (Parl.  Papers,  1837, 
vol.  xxxiv.  pt.  i.),  and  with  Hallani  made  a 
!  minute  examination  of  all  the  principal  de- 
positories of  records,  making  a  full  report  to 
the  board  on  the  subject,  which  was  printed 
!  in  April  1833.  In  May  1832,  when  the  Duke- 
of  Wellington  made  an  abortive  attempt  to 
form  a  ministry  for  the  purpose  of  carrying- 
!  a  moderate  reform  bill,  Inglis  warmly  de- 
j  nounced  any  compromise  of  the  kind  (Parl. 
'  Hist.  3rd  ser.  xii.  944-8).  In  February  1833 
he  protested  against  Lord  Althorp's  bill  for 
the  reform  of  the  Irish  church  (ib.  xv.  578- 
585),  and  in  April  1834  opposed  the  intro- 
duction of  Grant's  Jewish  Relief  Bill  (ib. 
xxii.  1373)  [see  GRAXT,  SIR  ROBERT].  On 
the  presentation  of  the '  Report  of  the  Eccle- 
siastical Commissioners  for  England  and 
Wales'  in  March  1836,  Inglis  announced  his 
opposition  to  the  reduction  of  the  episcopal 
revenues  (ib.  xxxii.  162-3).  In  May  1838- 
he  carried  an  address  condemning  the  foreign 
slave-trade  (ib.  xlii.  1122-37).  In  April  1842r 
when  the  income-tax  was  under  discussion, 
Inglis  suggested  that  not  only  incomes  under 
ISO/,  should  be  exempted,  but  that  that 
amount  should  be  deducted  from  all  incomes 
of  a  higher  value  (ib.  Ixii.  126-8).  In  1845 
he  led  the  opposition  to  the  Maynooth  grant, 
and  branded  the  proposed  establishment  of 
queen's  colleges  in  Ireland  '  as  a  gigantic 
scheme  of  godless  education '  (ib.  Ixxx.  378). 
In  the  following  year  he  opposed  the  repeal 
of  the  corn  laws,  and  in  August  1847  was 
returned  at  the  head  of  the  poll  for  the  uni- 
versity as  a  protectionist.  In  1851  he  sup- 
ported Lord  John  Russell's  Ecclesiastical 
Titles  Assumption  Bill,  though  in  his  opinion 
it  was  not  stringent  enough.  Inglis  retired 
from  parliament  at  the  opening  of  the  session 
in  January  1854,  and  was  sworn  a  member 
of  the  privy  council  on  11  Aug.  following. 
He  died  at  his  house  in  Bedford  Square  on 
5  May  1855,  aged  69. 

Inglis  was  an  old-fashioned  tory,  a  strong 


churchman,  with  many  prejudices  and  of  no 
great  ability.  He,  however,  accurately  re- 
presented the  feelings  and  opinions  of  the 
country  gentleman  of  the  time,  and  his  genial 
manner  and  high  character  enabled  him  to 
exercise  a  considerable  influence  over  the 
House  of  Commons,  where  he  was  exceed- 
ingly popular.  He  was  a  frequent  speaker 
in  the  debates.  He  supported  Lord  Ashley 
in  his  attempts  to  amend  the  factory  system. 
He  also  took  an  active  part  in  many  learned 
and  religious  societies.  He  was  elected  a  fel- 
low of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  on  22  Feb. 
1816,  and  was  for  several  years  one  of  the 
vice-presidents.  He  was  also  president  of 
the  Literary  Club  and  a  fellow  of  the  Royal 
Society,  and  in  1850  was  elected  the  anti- 
quary of  the  Royal  Academy.  He  mar- 
ried, on  10  Feb.  1807,  Mary,  eldest  daughter 
of  Joseph  Seymour  Biscoe  of  Pendhill  Court, 
Bletchingley,  Surrey,  who  survived  him  many 

In  default  of  issue  the  baronetcy  became 
extinct  upon  his  death.  His  portrait,  by 
George  Richmond,  R.A.,  was  exhibited  at 
the  Royal  Academy  in  1855.  A  verse  task 
of  Inglis  at  Winchester  on  '  the  influence  of 
local  attachment'  is  preserved  among  the  Ad- 
ditional MSS.  in  the  British  Museum  (29539, 
ff.  15-16).  The  authorship  of  the  '  Sketch  of 
the  Life  of  Sir  Hugh  Inglis,  Bart.'  (London, 
1821, 8vo,  privately  printed),is  ascribed  in  the 
'  Grenville  Catalogue '  to  his  son.  There  does 
not,  however,  appear  to  be  any  authority  for 
this,  and  the  pamphlet  is  identical  with  the 
obituary  notice  given  in  the  fifth  volume  of 
the  'Annual  Biography  and  Obituary '  (1821, 
pp.  320-8). 

Inglis  published  the  following  works  : 
1.  '  Speech  ...  in  the  House  of  Commons 
on  the  Third  Reading  of  the -Roman  Catholic 
Relief  Bill,'  &c.,  London,  1825,  8vo.  2.  '  On 
the  Roman  Catholic  Question.  Substances 
of  two  Speeches  delivered  in  the  House  of 
Commons  on  10  May  1825  and  9  May  1828. 
[With  an  appendix],'  London  and  Oxford, 
1828,  8vo.  3.  '  Reform.  Substance  of  the 
Speech  delivered  in  the  House  of  Commons, 
1  March  1831,  on  the  Motion  of  Lord  John 
Russell  for  a  Reform  in  the  Representation,' 
London,  1831,  8vo.  4.  '  Parliamentary  Re- 
form. Substance  of  the  Speech  delivered  in 
the  House  of  Commons  17  Dec.  1831,'  &c., 
London,  1832,  8vo.  5.  'The  Universities 
and  the  Dissenters.  Substance  of  a  Speech 
delivered  in  the  House  of  Commons  .  .  . 
26  March  1834  ...  in  reference  to  a  Peti- 
tion from  certain  Members  of  the  Senate  of 
the  University  of  Cambridge,'  London,  1834, 
8vo.  6.  'Family  Prayers.  [By  Henry  Thorn- 
ton, edited  by  R.  H.  I.],'  London,  1834, 8vo ; 


15th  edition,  London,  1843,  8vo  ;  26th  edi- 
tion, London,  1851,  8vo ;  31st  edition,  Lon- 
don, 1854,  8vo.  7.  'Family  Commentary 
upon  the  Sermon  on  the  Mount.  [By  H. 
Thornton,  edited  by  R.  H.  I.],'  London,  1835, 
8vo.  8.  'Family  Commentary  on  portions 
of  the  Pentateuch ;  in  Lectures,  with  Prayers 
adapted  to  the  Subjects.  [By  Henry  Thorn- 
ton, edited  by  R.  H.  I.],'  London,  1837,  8vo. 
9.  '  Sermons  on  the  Lessons,  the  Gospel,  or 
the  Epistle,  for  every  Sunday  in  the  Year. 
(Vol.  iii.,  Sermons  ...  for  Week-day  Fes- 
tivals and  other  Occasions.)  [By  Reginald 
Heber,  Bishop  of  Calcutta,  edited  by  Inglis],' 
London,  1837,  8vo,  3  vols. ;  3rd  edition,  Lon- 
don, 1838,  8vo,  2  vols.  10.  '  Church  Exten- 
sion. Substance  of  a  Speech  delivered  in 
the  House  of  Commons  ...  30  June  1840,' 
London,  1840, 8vo.  11. '  Ecclesiastical  Courts 
Bill.  Subject  of  a  Speech  delivered  in  the 
House  of  Commons  ...  10  April  1843,' 
London,  1843,  8vo.  12.  '  On  the  Ten  Com- 
mandments: Lectures  [with  the  text]  by 
.  .  .  H.  Thornton  .  .  .  with  Prayers  by 
the  Editor  (R.  H.  I.),'  London,  1843,  8vo. 
13.  '  Female  Characters.  [By  Henry  Thorn- 
ton, with  a  preface  by  Inglis],'  London,  1846, 
8vo.  14.  '  The  Jew  Bill.  Substance  of  a 
Speech  delivered  in  the  House  of  Commons 
16  Dec.  1847,'  London,  1848,  8vo.  15.  '  The 
Universities.  Substance  of  a  Speech  .  .  . 
in  the  House  of  Commons  ...  23  April 
1850,'  London,  1850,  8vo.  16.  '  Parochial 
Schools  of  Scotland.  Substance  of  a  Speech 
delivered  in  the  House  of  Commons  4  June 
1851,'  London,  1851, 8vo.  17.  '  Universities ; 
Scotland.  Substance  of  a  Speech  delivered 
in  the  House  of  Commons  .  .  .  against  the 
Second  Reading  of  the  Bill  to  regulate  the 
Admission  of  Professors  to  the  Lay  Chairs 
in  the  Universities  of  Scotland,'  London, 
1853,  8vo. 

[Fraser's  Mag.  1846,  xxxiv.  648-53;  Christian 
Observer,  1865,  Ixv.  521-7,  610-19;  Random Ee- 
collections  of  the  House  of  Commons,  1836,  pp. 
127-30;  Eyall's  Portraits  of  Eminent  Conserva- 
tives, Istser.  (with  portrait) ;  Illustrated  London 
News,  21  Jan.  1854  (with  portrait),  12  May  1855  ; 
Times,  7  May  1855  ;  Walpole's  Hist,  of  England 
from  1815,  vols.  ii-v. ;  Ann.  Eeg.  1855,  App.  to 
Chron.  pp.  272-3;  Gent.  Mag.  1855,  new  ser. 
xliii.  640-1;  Burke's  Peerage,  &c.,  1857,  p.  500  b; 
Foster's  Alumni  Oxon.  1885,  ii.  728 ;  Official  Ee- 
turn  of  Lists  of  Members  of  Parliament,  pt.  ii. 
pp.  298,  305,  309,  319,  332,  344,  355,  369,  385, 
403,  420  ;  Brit.  Mus.  Cat.]  G.  F.  E.  B. 

INGLIS,  SIB  WILLIAM  (1764-1835), 
general,  born  in  1764,  was  the  third  son  of 
William  Inglis,  M.D.  His  father  was  three 
times  president  of  the  College  of  Surgeons, 
Edinburgh,  and  descended  from  the  Inglis 




family  of  Manner  and  Mannerhead,  Rox- 
burghshire. The  son  was  appointed  on  11  Oct. 
1779  ensign  in  the  57th  regiment,  which  he 
joined  at  New  York  in  1781 ;  he  continued  to 
serve  in  America  till  1791.  In  1793  he  ac- 
companied the  expedition  to  Flanders,  and 
afterwards  that  to  Normandy  and  Brittany. 
He  returned  to  Flanders,  was  present  in 
Nimeguen  during  the  siege,  and  took  part  in 
the  retreat  through  Holland  and  Westphalia 
in  the  winter  of  1 794-5.  In  1796,  having  at- 
tained the  rank  of  major,  he  commanded  a 
detachment  of  the  57th  at  the  siege  and  fall 
of  Morne  Fortune,  St.  Lucia,  and  the  capture 
of  the  island,  and  received  the  special  thanks 
of  Sir  John  Moore,  to  whom,  until  the  arrival 
of  the  headquarters  of  the  regiment,  he  was 
second  in  command.  After  assisting  in  the 
reduction  of  the  insurgent  force  at  Grenada, 
be  in  1797  accompanied  his  regiment  to  Tri- 
nidad, whence  he  returned  to  England  in  the 
latter  end  of  1802.  Having  obtained  the 
brevet  rank  of  lieutenant-colonel,  he  was  in 
1803  employed  informing  a  second  battalion 
of  the  regiment.  This  done,  he  rejoined  the 
first  battalion,  succeeded  to  its  command  in 
1805,  accompanied  it  in  the  November  of 
that  year  to  Gibraltar,  and  in  1809  embarked 
with  it  to  join  the  army  under  Sir  Arthur 
"Wellesley  in  the  Peninsula.  The  57th  was 
attached  to  the  brigade  commanded  by  Major- 
general  Richard  Stewart,  which  formed  part 
of  General  Hill's  division ;  but,  in  conse- 
quence of  General  Stewart's  illness,  the  bri- 
gade command  devolved  on  Inglis  at  Sarce- 
dos,  and  he  continued  to  hold  the  command 
during  the  movements  previous  to  the  battle 
of  Busaco,  at  that  battle  (September  1810),  and 
in  the  subsequent  retreat  to  the  lines  before 
Lisbon.  During  the  pursuit  of  Massena  from 
Santarem  Inglis  again  commanded  the  bri- 
gade, and  took  part  in  the  affair  at  Pombal. 
After  being  present  at  Campo  Mayor,  Los 
Santos,  and  the  first  siege  of  Badajoz,  Inglis 
commanded  the  57th  at  the  battle  of  Al- 
buera  (May  1811),  where  the  brigade  was 
under  the  command  of  General  Houghton, 
till  the  death  of  that  officer  again  placed  In- 
glis in  brigade  command. 

At  Albuera  the  57th  occupied  a  position  I 
as  important  as  it  was  deadly.  '  Die  hard  !  ! 
57th,'  said  Inglis, '  die  hard  ! '  They  obeyed, 
and  the  regiment  is  known  as  the  'Die-hards ' 
to  this  day.  Inglis,  besides  having  a  horse 
shot  under  him,  received  a  four-ounce  grape- 
shot  in  the  neck,  which,  after  he  had  carried 
it  about  with  him  for  two  days,  was  extracted 
from  behind  his  shoulder.  Twenty-three  offi- 
cers and  415  rank  and  file,  out  of  579,  were 
among  the  killed  and  wounded  ;  not  a  man 
was  missing.  '  It  was  observed,'  wrote  Mar- 

shal Beresford,  '  that  our  dead,  particularly 
the  57th,  were  lying  as  they  fought,  in  ranks, 
and  every  wound  was  in  front.'  '  Nothing,' 
he  added,  '  could  exceed  the  conduct  and 
gallantry  of  Colonel  Inglis  at  the  head  of  his 
regiment.'  When  the  57th  was  engaged  at 
Inkerman  on  5  Nov.  1854,  '  Men,  remember 
Albuera  ! '  were  the  words  of  encouragement 
used  by  the  officer  in  command,  Captain  Ed- 
ward Stanley,  just  before  he  fell,  and  it  de- 
volved on  Inglis's  elder  son,  Captain  William 
Inglis,  to  lead  the  regiment  out  of  action 
(KiNGLAKE,  Hist,  of  Crimean  War). 

Inglis  was  sent  home  after  Albuera  to  re- 
cover from  his  wound,  but  he  soon  returned 
to  the  Peninsula,  and  when  able  to  take  the 
field  was  appointed  brigadier-general  to  com- 
mand the  first  brigade  of  the  seventh  divi- 
sion, consisting  of  the  51st  and  68th  regi- 
ments of  light  infantry,  the  first  battalion  of 
the  82nd,  and  the  Chasseurs  Britanniques. 
The  division  was  commanded  by  Lieutenant- 

feneral  the  Earl  of  Dalhousie.  In  June  1813, 
nglis,  who  had  been  made  a  major-general, 
marched  with  his  brigade  from  St.  Estevan, 
and  on  8  July  gained  the  top  of  the  range  of 
mountains  immediately  above  Maya,  over- 
looking the  flat  country  of  France,  and  occu- 
pying the  passes  of  Maya  and  Echallar.  On 
25  July,  the  French  having  succeeded  in 
turning  the  British  right,  that  flank  was 
thrown  back,  and  retired  in  the  direction  of 
Pamplona,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  which 
town  a  series  of  engagements  took  place.  It 
was  on  30  July,  during  the  engagement 
known  as  the  second  battle  of  Sauroren,  that 
Inglis  was  ordered  to  possess  himself  of  the 
crest  of  a  high  mountain  occupied  by  the 
enemy,  commanding  the  high  road  which 
passed  between  that  position  and  their  main 
body.  '  General  Inglis,'  writes  Napier, '  one 
of  those  veterans  who  purchase  every  step 
of  promotion  with  their  blood,  advancing  on 
the  left  with  only  five  hundred  men  of  the 
seventh  division,  broke  at  one  shock  the  two 
French  regiments  covering  Chauzel's  right, 
and  drove  down  into  the  valley  of  Lanz.  He 
lost,  indeed,  one-third  of  his  own  men,  but, 
instantly  spreading  the  remainder  in  skirmish- 
ing order  along  the  descent,  opened  a  biting 
fire  upon  the  left  of  Conroux's  division,  which 
was  then  moving  up  the  valley  from  Sau- 
roren, sorely  amazed  and  disordered  by  this 
sudden  fall  of  two  regiments  from  the  top  of 
the  mountain  into  the  midst  of  the  column.' 
Wellington,  in  his  despatch,  gives  the  highest 
credit  to  the  conduct  and  execution  01  this 
attack.  The  strength  of  the  enemy,  accord- 
ing to  their  own  computation,  exceeded  two 
thousand  men,  while,  from  the  occupation  of 
a  part  of  his  brigade  elsewhere,  the  force 



which  Inglis  could  employ  is  placed  by  one 
estimate  as  low  as  445  bayonets.  The  casual- 
ties in  this  small  force  amounted  to  145. 
Inglis  had  a  horse  shot  under  him.  The 
brigade  was  further  engaged  in  the  actions 
of  the  following  days.  On  31  Aug.  1813,  the 
day  on  which  San  Sebastian  was  taken,  In- 
glis's  brigade  took  an  active  part  in  the  com- 
bat of  Vera,  having  been  ordered  to  support 
the  9th  Portuguese  brigade  in  Sir  Lowry 
Cole's  division.  The  fight  was  a  severe  one. 
Inglis  again  had  a  horse  shot  under  him. 
Lord  Dalhousie,  in  referring  Wellington  for 
details  of  the  operations  to  Inglis's  report,  re- 
marked :  '  The  1st  brigade  had  to  sustain  the 
attack  of  two  divisions  of  the  enemy  on  a 
strong  and  wooded  hill ;  the  loss  there  was 
unavoidable.'  On  10  Nov.  the  seventh  divi- 
sion marched  to  the  embouchure  of  the  Puerto 
d'Echallar,  and  Inglis's  1st  brigade,  after 
carry  ing  the  fortified  heights  above  the  village 
of  Sure,  received  orders  from  Marshal  Beres- 
ford  to  cross  the  Nivelle  by  a  wooden  bridge 
on  the  left  and  attack  the  heights  above.  The 
heights  were  carried  after  a  severe  struggle. 
On  23  Feb.  1814  the  brigade  was  again  en- 
gaged with  the  enemy  near  the  village  of 
Airgave.  On  the  27th  it  had  a  considerable 
share  in  the  battle  of  Orthez.  The  general's 
horse  was  struck. 

For  these  services  Inglis,  with  other  gene- 
ral officers,  received  the  thanks  of  both  houses 
of  parliament.  In  1825  he  became  a  lieu- 
tenant-general. He  was  created  a  knight 
commander  of  the  Bath,  appointed  lieutenant- 
governor  of  Kinsale,  and  subsequently  gover- 
nor of  Cork  (January  1829).  Finally,  on 
16  April  1830,  he  was  appointed  colonel  of 
the  57th.  He  died  at  Ramsgate  on  29  Nov. 
1835,  and  was  buried  in  Canterbury  Cathe- 

Inglis  married  in  1822  Margaret  Mary 
Anne,  eldest  daughter  of  Lieutenant-general 
William  Raymond  of  the  Lee,  Essex,  and 
had  two  sons,  the  General  William  Inglis 
mentioned  above  (1823-1888),  and  Major 
Raymond  Inglis  (1826-1880). 

[Napier's  Peninsular  War;  Wellington  Des- 
patches ;  United  Service  Journal,  February  1836 ; 
Philippart's  Koyal  Mil.  Cal.]  W.  E.  LL. 

INGLOTT,  WILLIAM  (1554-1621),  mu- 
sician, was  born  in  1554,  and  became  organist 
of  Norwich  Cathedral.  He  was  noted  for 
his  skill  as  a  player  on  the  organ  and  vir- 
ginals. His  name  appears  as  a  composer  in 
the  manuscript  volume  (Fitzwilliam  Museum, 
Cambridge)  known  as  '  Queen  Elizabeth's 
Virginal  Book,'  but  none  of  his  works  are 
now  known.  He  died  at  Norwich  in  De- 
cember 1621,  and  was  buried  in  the  cathe- 

dral,  where  a  monument  was  erected  to  his 
memory  in  1622.  About  ninety  years  after- 
wards the  monument,  having  fallen  into  dis- 
repair, was  restored  at  the  expense  of  Dr. 
William  Croft  [q.  v.]  An  engraving  of  it  as 
restored  may  be  seen  in  the  'Posthumous 
Works  of  Sir  Thomas  Browne,'  1712,  and  the 
eulogistic  inscription  is  printed  by  Hawkins. 

[Hawkins's  Hist,  of  Music,  v.  22,  23  ;  Grove's 
Diet,  of  Music,  ii.  3.]  J.  C.  H. 

1638),  schoolmaster,  born  in  1562,  was  a 
native  of  Worcestershire.  He  matriculated 
at  Brasenose  College,  Oxford,  in  the  end  of 
May  1581,  graduated  B.A.  from  St.  Mary 
Hall  in  1584,  and  proceeded  M.  A.  from  Brase- 
nose in  1586  (Oaf.  Univ.  J?e?.,Oxf.  Hist.  Soc., 
ii.  iii.  119).  In  1594  he  received  the  living  of 
Stainton-in-Strata,  Durham,  and  about  1610 
was  also  head-master  of  Durham  School.  But 
he  was  ultimately  deprived  of  his  mastership 
for  '  a  reflecting  sermon  '  against  Ralph  Ton- 
stall,  prebendary  of  Durham  Cathedral,  and 
retired  to  Stainton,  where  he  taught  a  few 
boys.  Wood  speaks  of  him  as  a  famous  school- 
master, and  eminent  in  the  Hebrew  iongue. 
He  held  the  living  of  Stainton  till  his  death 
in  November  1638,  and  was  buried  there.  He 
published  several  sermons,  of  which  three  are 
in  the  Bodleian  Library.  1.  '  Upon  Part 
(w.  3-6)  of  the  2nd  chapter  of  the  1st  Epistle 
of  St.  John,'  Oxford,  1598,  8vo.  2.  «  Upon 
the  same  chapter  (vv.  21-3),  wherein  the 
present  state  of  the  Papacie  is  in  parte  but 
impartially  represented,  and  showed  to  be 
.  .  .  plaine  Anti-christian,'  London,  1609,  4to. 
3.  '  Upon  the  Wordes  of  St.  Paul,  Rom.  xiii.  1 
.  .  .  wherein  the  Pope's  Sovereignitie  over 
Princes  is  refuted,'  London,  1619,  4to.  Be- 
sides these  sermons  Wood  mentions  '  A  Short 
Catechism  for  Young  Children  to  learn  by 
Law  authorized,'  London,  1633>  8vo,  and 
there  is  in  the  British  Museum  Library  '  A 
short  Catechism  .  .  .  Translated  into  He- 
brew by  T.  I.,'  1633,  8vo. 

[Wood's  Athenae  (Bliss),  iv.  592  ;  Surtees's 
Durham,  iii.  64.]  E.  T.  B. 

regicide,  was  the  second  son  of  Sir  Richard 
Ir-goldsby  of  Lenthenborough,  Buckingham- 
shire,  by  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Sir  Oliver  1O/,,  . 
Cromwell  of  Hinchinbrook,  Huntingdon- 
shire. He  was  educated  at  Thame  grammar 
school  (CKOKE,  History  of  the  Family  of 
Croke,  1823,  p.  616;  WOOD,  Fasti,  sub  ann. 
1649).  At  the  outbreak  of  the  civil  war  he 
held  a  captain's  commission  in  Hampden's 
regiment,  and  in  1645  was  colonel  of  a  regi- 
ment of  foot  in  the  '  New  Model  '  (PEACOCK, 



Army  Lists,  pp.  46,  105).  He  was  detached 
by  Fairfax  in  May  1645  to  relieve  Taunton, 
and  was  therefore  not  present  at  Naseby,  but 
took  part  in  the  storming  of  Bridgwater  and 
Bristol,  and  in  Fairfax's  campaign  in  the  west 
(SPRIGGE,  Anglia  Rediviva,  ed.  1854,  pp.  19, 
77,  107,  120).  In  the  quarrel  between  the 
parliament  and  the  army  in  1647  Ingoldsby, 
whose  regiment  garrisoned  Oxford,  took  part 
with  the  army.  The  regiment  was  ordered 
to  be  disbanded  at  two  o'clock  on  14  June 
1647,  and  3,500/.  sent  to  pay  it  off.  The 
money  was  recalled  by  a  subsequent  vote, 
but  had  already  reached  Oxford,  and  was 
forcibly  seized  by  the  soldiers,  who  attacked 
and  routed  its  escort  (WooD,  Annals,  ii.  508 ;' 
RTTSHWORTH,  vi.  493,  499).  The  regiment 
was  also  one  of  the  first  to  petition  against 
the  treaty  at  Newport,  and  to  demand  the 
punishment  of  the  king  (ib.  vii.  1311 ;  The 
Moderate,  31  Oct.-7  Nov.  1648).  Ingoldsby 
himself  was  appointed  one  of  the  king's 
judges,  and  signed  the  death-warrant,  but 
does  not  appear  to  have  been  present  at  any 
of  the  previous  sittings  of  the  court  (NALSON, 
Trial  of  Charles  I,  1684).  At  the  Restora- 
tion he  asserted  that  his  signature  had  been 
extorted  by  force, '  Cromwell  taking  his  hand 
in  his  and,  putting  the  pen  between  his  fingers, 
with  his  own  hand  writ  Richard  Ingoldsby, 
he  making  all  the  resistance  he  could '  (CLA- 
RENDON, Rebellion,  xvi.  225).  But  the  name 
is  remarkably  clearly  written,  shows  no  sign 
of  any  constraint,  and  is  attested  by  In- 
goldsby's  family  seal. 

Ingoldsby's  regiment,  which  was  deeply 
imbued  with  the  principles  of  the  levellers, 
broke  out  into  mutiny  in  September  1649, 
made  New  College  their  headquarters,  and 
confined  their  colonel  in  one  of  the  Oxford 
inns;  but  he  was  released  by  the  courage 
of  Captain  Wagstaffe,  with  whose  aid  he 
quickly  suppressed  the  revolt  {The  Moderate, 
11-18  Sept.  1649  ;  Proceedings  of  the  Oxford 
Architectural  and  Historical  Society,  No- 
vember 1884). 

On  4  Oct.  1647  Ingoldsby  was  elected 
M.P.  for  Wendover,  and  represented  Buck- 
inghamshire in  the  parliaments  of  1654  and 
1656  (Old  Parl.  Hist.  xx.  497,  xxi.  4;  Re- 
turn of  Members  of  Parliament,  i.  485).  He 
was  chosen  one  of  the  council  of  state  in 
November  1652,  and  was  summoned  to  Crom- 
well's House  of  Lords  in  December  1657 
(Cal.  State  Papers,  Dom.  1651-2,  p.  505). 
In  the  '  Second  Narrative  of  the  late  Parlia- 
ment' (1658)  he  is  described  as  'a gentleman 
of  courage  and  valour,  but  not  very  famous 
for  any  great  exploits,  unless  for  beating  the 
honest  innkeeper  of  Aylesbury  in  White-hall,' 
'  no  great  friend  to  the  sectaries,'  and,  accord- 

ing to  common  report,  'can  neither  pray 
nor  preach'  (Harleian  Miscellany,  iii.  482, 
ed.  Park). 

In  1659,  when  the  officers  of  the  army 
began  to  agitate  against  Itichard  Cromwell, 
Ingoldsby  vigorously  supported  the  new  Pro- 
tector, who  was  his  own  kinsman.  '  Here  is 
Dick  Ingoldsby,  who  can  neither  pray  nor 
preach,  and  yet  I  will  trust  him  before  ye 
all,'  said  the  Protector ;  '  which  imprudent 
and  irreligious  words,'  writes  Ludlow,  '  were 
soon  published  to  his  great  prejudice'  (Me- 
moirs, ed.  1751,  p.  241).  On  the  fall  of  Ri- 
chard Cromwell,  Ingoldsby  lost  his  command 
and,  seeing  the  Restoration  at  hand,  entered 
into  negotiation  with  the  agents  of  Charles  II 
(BAKER,  Chronicle,  ed.  Phillips,  pp.  657, 660 ; 
Clarendon  State  Papers,  iii.  489,  650).  The 
Earl  of  Northampton,  in  representing  In- 
goldsby's merits  to  the  king,  states  that  his 
conversion  was  free  and  unconditional.  '  He 
would  never  listen  to  any  discourse  of  reward, 
but  still  declared  that  your  pardon  and  for- 
giveness of  his  former  errors  was  all  that  he 
aimed  at,  and  that  his  whole  life  should  be 
spent  in  studying  to  deserve  it'  (CARTE, 
Original  Letters,  ii.  333).  As  he  was  a  regi- 
cide, the  king  refused  to  promise  him  in- 
demnity, and  left  him  to  earn  a  pardon  by 
signal  services  (CLARENDON,  Rebellion,  xvi. 
226).  Accordingly,  in  the  struggle  between 
the  parliament  and  the  army  Ingoldsby  ener- 
getically backed  the  former,  and  on  28  Dec. 
1659  received  its  thanks  for  seizing  Windsor 
Castle  (Old Parl.  Hist.  xxii.  34).  Monck  ap- 
pointed him  to  command  Colonel  Rich's  regi- 
ment (February  1660),  and  sent  him  to  sup- 
press Lambert's  intended  rising  (18  April 
1660).  On  22  April  he  met  Lambert's  forces 
near  Daventry,  arrested  him  as  he  endeavoured 
to  fly,  and  brought  him  in  triumph  to  London 
(KENNETT,  Register,  pp.  68, 120;  CLARENDON, 
Rebellion,  xvi.  148).  Ingoldsby  was  thanked 
by  the  House  of  Commons  26  April  1660 
(  Commons'  Journals,  viii.  2),  and  was  not  only 
spared  the  punishment  which  befell  the  rest 
of  the  regicides,  but  was  created  a  knight  of 
the  Bath  at  the  coronation  of  Charles  II, 
20  April  1661  (KENNETT,  Register,  p.  411). 

In  the  four  parliaments  of  Charles  II,  In- 
goldsby represented  Aylesbury.  He  died  in 
1685,  and  was  buried  in  Hartwell  Church, 
Buckinghamshire,  on  16  Sept.  1685.  He 
married  Elizabeth,  second  daughter  of  Sir 
George  Croke  of  Waterstock,  Oxfordshire, 
and  widow  of  Thomas  Lee  of  Hartwell(CROKE, 
p.  605 ;  NOBLE,  House  of  Cromwell,  ii.  190). 

Sir  Richard  Ingoldsby  is  sometimes  con-* 
fused  with  his  younger  brother,  SIR  HENRY 
INGOLDSBY  (1622-1701),  who  commanded  a 
regiment  in  Ireland  under  Cromwell  and   < 


Ireton,  represented  the  counties  of  Kerry, 
Limerick,  and  Clare  in  the  parliaments  of 
1654,  1056,  and  1659,  and  had  the  singular 
fortune  to  be  created  a  baronet  both  by  the 
Protector  (31  March  1658)  and  by  Charles  II 
(30  Aug.  1660)  (ib.  ii.  184 ;  Life  of  Anthony 
Wood,  ed.  1848,  p.  51). 

[Crake's  Hist,  of  the  Family  of  Croke,  1823  ; 
Noble's  House  of  Cromwell,  ed.  1787,  ii.  181; 
Wood's  Athenae  Oxon.  ed.  Bliss ;  a  pedigree  is 
also  given  in  the  Genealogist,  July  1886.] 

C.  H.  F. 

INGOLDSBY,  RICHARD  (d.  1712), 
lieutenant-general,  commander  of  the  forces 
in  Ireland,  does  not  appear  in  the  family 
pedigree  given  by  Lipscombe  (Buckingham- 
shire, ii.  169),  but  is  probably  correctly  de- 
scribed by  Sir  Alexander  Croke  (Hist,  of 
Croke,  genealogy  No.  33)  as  the  son  of  Sir 
George  Ingoldsby  or  Ingoldesby,  a  soldier, 
who  was  a  younger  brother  of  the  regicide,  Sir 
Richard  Ingoldsby  [q.  v.]  ;  married  an  Irish 
lady  of  the  name  of  Gould ;  was  knighted,  and 
was  killed  in  the  Dutch  wars.  Richard  In- 

foldsby  obtained  his  first  commission  13  July 
667.  Beyond  the  statement  that  he  adhered 
to  the  protestant  cause  in  1688,  and  was 
employed  under  King  William,  the  military 
records  afford  no  information  respecting  him 
until  1692,  when  he  held  the  rank  of  colonel, 
and  was  appointed  adjutant-general  of  the  ex- 
pedition to  the  coast  of  France  (Home  Office 
Military  Entry  Book,  ii.  f.  282 ;  MACATJLAY, 
Hist,  of  England,  iv.  290  et  seq.)  He  was 
appointed  colonel  of  the  Royal  Welsh  fusi- 
liers, vice  Sir  John  Morgan  deceased,  28  Feb. 
1693,  and  commanded  the  regiment  under 
King  William  in  Flanders,  being  present  at 
the  famous  siege  of  Namur.  In  1696  he  be- 
came a  brigadier-general.  He  appears  to  have 
been  in  Ireland  from  1697  to  1701.  Lut- 
trell  mentions  his  committal  to  prison  for 
carrying  a  challenge  from  Lord  Kerry  to 
the  Irish  chancellor,  Methuen,  and  his  re- 
lease by  order  of  the  king  on  5  Jan.  1697-8 
(Relation  of  State  Affairs,  v.  326-8).  He  ' 
had  command  of  the  troops  sent  from  Ire- 
land to  Holland  in  November  1701,  and 
commanded  a  division  under  Marlborough  in  | 
1702-6,  and  in  the  attack  on  Schellenburg.  j 
At  the  battle  of  Blenheim  he  was  second  in 
command  of  the  first  line  under  Charles 
Churchill  (Marlborough  Desp.  i.  401,  407). 
He  became  a  major-general  in  1702,  and 
lieutenant-general  in  1704.  In  1705  he  was 
transferred  to  the  colonelcy  of  the  18th  royal  } 
Irish  foot  from  the  royal  Welsh  fusiliers,  and 
appears  to  have  been  sent  to  Ireland  on  a 
mission  relating  to  reinforcements  for  Marl- 
borough's  army.  Marlborough  refers  to  him 

r  Ingoldsby 

as  sick  at  Ghent  in  1706  (ib.),  in  which  year 
he  commanded  the  British  troops  at  the  siege 
of  Ath.  In  1707  he  was  appointed  one  of  the 
comptrollers  of  army  clothing  (LTJTTKELL, 
vi.  270),  and  was  made  commander  of  the 
forces,  master  of  the  horse,  and  general  of 
artillery  in  Ireland,  posts  which  he  held  up 
to  his  death.  He  -sat  for  Limerick  in  the 
Irish  parliament  from  1703.  In  the  absence 
of  the  lord-lieutenant,  Ormonde,  Ingoldsby 
acted  as  one  of  the  lords  j  ustices.  In  a  letter 
dated  6  Oct.  1709  Marlborough  is  glad  'to 
learn  that  my  endeavours  to  do  you  justice 
have  succeeded  to  your  satisfaction '  (Marl- 
bqrough  Desp.  iv.  638).  Ingoldsby  died  in 
Dublin  on  11  (27  ?)  Jan.  1712,  and  was  buried 
in  Christ  Church.  He  appears  to  have  had 
a  son,  an  officer  in  the  royal  Welsh  fusiliers- 
when  commanded  by  Brigadier  Sabine  (ib. 
vol.  v.)  '  Swift  (Letters  to  Stella)  and  Lut- 
trell  cause  some  obscurity  by  occasionally 
styling  him  '  brigadier '  after  his  promotion, 
to  higher  rank.  In  the  British  Museum 
Catalogue  he  is  indexed  as  '  Colonel '  Richard 
Ingoldsby  in  1706  (Addit.  MS.  23642,  f.  18). 
Ingoldsby  had  a  contemporary  namesake  in 
the  service,  a  Colonel  Richard  Ingoldsby ,  who 
was  made  major  and  captain  of  one  of  the 
independent  companies  of  foot  in  garrison  at 
New  York  10  Sept.  1690  (Home  Office  Mili- 
tary Entry  Book,  ii.  f.  161),  was  sometime 
lieutenant-governor  of  the  province  of  New 
York  (Cal.  State  Papers,  1697-1707),  and 
died  a  colonel  about  1720  (Treas.  Paperst 
ecxxxiii.  50). 

INQOLDSBY,  RICHARD  (d.  1759),  brigadier- 
general,  was  son  of  Thomas  Ingoldsby,  who 
was  high  sheriff  of  Buckinghamshire  in  172Q 
and  M.P.  for  Aylesbury  in  1727-34,  and 
died  in  1760.  His  mother  was  Anne,  daugh- 
ter of  Hugh  Limbrey  of  Tangier  Park,  Hamp- 
shire. Sir  Richard  Ingoldsby  [q.  v.]  the  regi- 
cide was  his  great-grandfather,  and  the  elder 
Richard  Ingoldsby  was  a:  distant  cousin.  He 
was  appointed  ensign  1st  foot-guards  28  Aug.. 
1708,  became  lieutenant  and  captain  24  May 
1711,  and  captain  and  lieutenant-colonel 
11  Jan.  1715.  He  was  second  major  of  his. 
regiment  in  Flanders,  and  was  appointed  a. 
brigadier  of  foot  by  the  Duke  of  Cumberland 
(MACLACHLAN,  pp.  65,  189-92).  The  night 
before  Fontenoy  (11  May  1745)  he  was  sta- 
tioned on  the  British  right,  with  the  12th 
(Duroure's)  and  1 3th  (Pulteney's)  regiments  of 
foot,  the  42nd  highlanders,  and  the  Hanoverian 
regiment  of  Zastrow.  They  were  ordered  to 
take  a  French  redoubt  or  masked  battery  called 
the  Fort  d'Eu,  a  vital  point ;  cavalry  support 
was  promised.  Ingoldsby  advanced  to  the 
attack,  but  met  with  such  a  warm  reception 
from  the  French  light  troops  in  the  adjacent  - 




•wood  that  he  fell  back  and  sent  to  ask  for 
artillery.  Further  delays  and  blunders  fol- 
lowed; the  cavalry  never  came,  and  when 
Cumberland's  last  advance  was  made,  In- 
goldsby  was  wounded  and  Fort  d'Eu  remained 
untaken,  so  that  the  guards,  on  gaining  the 
crest  of  the  French  position,  were  exposed 
to  a  reverse  fire  from  it.  Ingoldsby  was 
afterwards  brought  before  a  court-martial  or 
council  of  war,  as  it  was  called,  at  Lessines, 
of  which  Lord  Dunmore,  commanding  the 
3rd  foot-guards,  was  president,  was  found 
guilty  of  not  having  obeyed  the  Duke  of  Cum- 
berland's orders,  and  was  sentenced  '  to  be 
suspended  from  pay  and  duty  during  his 
highness's  pleasure.'  The  duke  then  named 
three  months  to  allow  Ingoldsby  time  to 
dispose  of  his  company  and  retire,  which  he 
did.  The  king  refused  to  allow  him  to  dis- 
pose of  the  regimental  majority,  which  on 
20  Nov.  1745  was  given  to  Colonel  John 
Laforey.  A  letter  from  Ingoldsby  appealing 
piteously  to  the  Duke  of  Cumberland  is  in 
the  British  Museum  Addit.  MS.  32704,  f.  46. 
Ingoldsby  appears  to  have  retained  the  title 
of  brigadier-general  after  leaving  the  army. 
He  died  in  Lower  Grosvenor  Street,  Lon- 
don, 16  Dec.  1759,  and  was  buried  at  the 
family  seat,  Hartwell,  Buckinghamshire.  His 
widow,  named  in  the  burial  register  Catherine, 
died  28  Jan.  1789,  and  was  buried  in  the 
same  place.  Letters  from  this  lady,  signed 
'  C.  Jane  Ingoldsby,'  appealing  to  the  Duke 
of  Newcastle  on  behalf  of  her  husband,  and 
finally  asking  for  a  widow's  pension  of  50Z., 
are  in  Addit,  MSS.  32709  f.  265,  32717  f. 
313,  32902  f.  242,  at  the  British  Museum. 

[Home  Office  Military  Entry  Books,  vols.  ii- 
viii. ;  Marlborough  Despatches ;  Cannon's  Hist. 
Eec.  18th  Royal  Irish  Foot  and  23rd  Royal  Welsh 
Fusiliers ;  Cal.  State  Papers,  Treasury,  under 
dates.  Collections  of  Ingoldsby  letters  are  noted 
among  the  Marquis  of  Ormonde's  and  Duke  of 
Marlborough's  papers  in  Hist.  MSS.  Comm. 
3rd  Rep.  426,  7th  Rep.  761  6,  8th  Rep.  pt.  i. 
32  a,  35  b,  37  a,  38  b,  40a.  Lipscombe's  Bucking- 
hamshire, ii.  1 69 ;  Hamilton's  Hist.  Grenadier 
Guards,  ii.  119  et  seq.,  and  Roll  of  Officers  in 
vol.  iii. ;  A.  N.  C.  Maclachlan's  Orders  of  Wil- 
liam, Duke  of  Cumberland,  London,  1876,  in 
which  Ingoldsby's  Christian  name  is  wrongly 

given  '  James  ; '  The  Case  of  Brigadier  I y, 

London,  1746.]  H.  M.  C. 

INGRAM,  SIB  ARTHUR  (d.  1642), 
courtier,  was  son  of  Hugh  Ingram,  a  native 
of  Thorp-on-the-Hill,  Yorkshire,  who  made 
a  fortune  as  a  linendraper  in  London,  by 
Anne,  daughter  of  Richard  Goldthorpe, 
haberdasher,  lord  mayor  of  and  M.P.  for 
York  (FosiEE,  Yorkshire  Pedigrees,  vol.  i.) 
fie  became  a  successful  merchant  in  Fen- 

church  Street,  London,  and  acquired  the 
manor  of  Temple  Newsam,  where  he  built 
a  splendid  mansion,  and  other  estates  in 
Yorkshire.  In  buying  estates  his  practice 
was  to  pay  half  the  purchase-money  down, 
then,  pretending  to  detect  some  flaw  in  the 
title,  he  would  compel  the  seller  to  have  re- 
course to  a  chancery  suit.  In  this  way  he 
ruined  many.  Ingram  was  fond  of  lavish 
expenditure ;  often  placed  his  purse  at  the 
service  of  the  king,  and  thus  rendered  him- 
self an  acceptable  person  at  court.  In  1604 
he  was  appointed  comptroller  of  the  customs 
of  the  port  of  London,  and  on  21  Oct.  1607 
the  office  was  conferred  on  him  for  life.  He 
was  chosen  M.P.  for  Stafford  on  1  Nov.  1609, 
for  Romney,  Kent,  in  1614,  for  Appleby, 
Westmoreland,  in  1620-1,  and  again  for  that 
borough,  Old  Sarum,  and  York  in  1623-4, 
when  he  elected  to  serve  for  York,  being  re- 
elected  in  1625,  1625-6,  and  1627-8.  In 
1640  a  Sir  Arthur  Ingram  (possibly  Ingram's 
eldest  son,  who  had  been  knighted  on  16  July 
1621)  was  returned  for  New  Windsor  and 
Callington,  Cornwall  (METCALFE,  Book  of 
Knights,  p.  178). 

Ingram  was  himself  knighted  on  9  July 
1613  (ib.  p.  164).  In  March  1612  he  was 
appointed  one  of  the  secretaries  of  the  coun- 
cil of  the  north,  and  about  the  same  time 
undertook  to  carry  on  the  royal  alum  works 
in  Yorkshire,  paying  the  king  an  annual 
sum  of  9,000/.  (cf.  Cal.  State  Papers,  Dom. 
1623-5,  pp.  44,  336-7,  360).  The  specula- 
tion proved  a  loss.  When  occupied  with  the 
affairs  of  the  northern  council  he  lived  prin- 
cipally in  a  large  and  splendidly  furnished 
house  on  the  north  side  of  York  Minster. 
In  February  1614-15  he  was  sworn  cofferer 
of  the  king's  household,  but  was  removed 
from  the  office  in  April  following  at  the  in- 
stigation of  the  courtiers,  who  objected  to 
his  plebeian  birth.  He  was  high  sheriff  of 
Yorkshire  in  1620.  At  the  instance  of  Sir 
John  Bourchier,  who  pretended  to  have  dis- 
covered in  the  alum  accounts  a  deficiency  of 
50,000/.,  Ingram  was  arrested  and  brought 
up  to  London  in  October  1624  (Court  and 
Times  of  James  I,  ii.  484),  but  he  appears  to 
have  cleared  himself  to  the  satisfaction  of 
the  king.  In  1640  he  built  the  hospital 
which  bears  his  name  in  Bootham,  York. 
Charles  I,  who  occupied  Ingram's  house  during 
his  long  sojourn  at  York  in  1642,  would  have 
made  him  a  peer  for  a  money  consideration 
had  he  dared  (Cal.  State  Papers,  Dom.  1641- 
1643,  p.  41).  Ingram  must  have  died  at  York 
in  1642,  for  his  will  (registered  in  P.  C.  C.  107, 
Cambell)  was  proved  in  that  year.  He  married, 
first,  Susan,  daughter  of  Richard  Brown  of 
London ;  secondly,  Alice,  daughter  of  Mr. 



Ferrers,  citizen  of  London ;  and,  thirdly,  Mary, 
daughter  of  Sir  Edward  Grevile  of  Milcote, 
Warwickshire.  He  had  issue  by  each  mar- 

[Cartwright's  Chapters  in  the  Hist,  of  York- 
shire ;  Court  and  Times  of  James  I ;  Davies's 
Walks  through  York ;  Earl  of  Strafford's  Let- 
ters (Knowler),  i.  6,  28,  29,  30;  Cal.  State 
Papers,  Dom.  1611-18  ;  Yorkshire  Archaeolog. 
and  Topogr.  Journal,  vols.  ii.  v.  vii.  viii.] 

G.  G. 

INGRAM,  DALE  (1710-1793),  surgeon, 
was  born  in  1710,  and,  after  apprenticeship 
and  study  in  the  country,  began  practice 
at  Reading,  Berkshire,  in  1733,  and  there, 
in  1743,  published  '  An  Essay  on  the  Gout.' 
Later  in  that  year  he  emigrated  to  Barbadoes, 
where  he  practised  till  1750,  when  he  re- 
turned to  England  and  set  up  as  a  surgeon 
and  man  midwife  on  Tower  Hill,  London. 
In  1751  he  published  '  Practical  Cases  and 
Observations  in  Surgery,'  his  most  important 
work.  It  contains  records  of  cases  observed 
in  England  and  the  West  Indies.  He  de- 
scribes one  successful  and  one  unsuccessful 
operation  in  cases  of  abdominal  wounds  pene- 
trating the  bowel.  He  washed  the  intestine 
with  hot  claret,  and  then  stitched  the  perito- 
neum to  the  edge  of  the  wound  and  the  ab- 
dominal wall.  The  procedure  is  one  of  the 
earliest  English  examples  of  a  method  of  sur- 
gery which  has  only  been  universally  adopted 
within  the  last  few  years.  In  1754  he  went 
to  live  in  Fenchurch  Street,  London,  and  in 
1755  published  '  An  Historical  Account  of 
the  several  Plagues  that  have  appeared  in 
the  World  since  the  year  1 346.'  It  is  a  mere 
compilation.  On  24  Jan.  1759  he  was  elected 
from  among  five  candidates  to  the  office  of 
surgeon  to  Christ's  Hospital,  and  thence- 
forward resided  there.  He  sometimes  visited 
Epsom,  and  in  1767  published  '  An  Enquiry 
as  to  the  Origin  of  Magnesia  Alba,  the 
principal  saline  ingredient  of  the  Epsom 
springs.  A  controversy  had  arisen  as  to  the 
cause  of  death  of  a  potman  who  had  received 
a  blow  on  the  head  in  an  election  riot  at 
Brentford  in  1769,  and  he  published  a  lengthy 
pamphlet  entitled '  The  Blow,  or  Inquiry  into 
the  Cause  of  Mr.  Clarke's  Death  at  Brent- 
ford,' which  demonstrates  that  blood-poison- 
ing arising  from  an  ill-dressed  scalp  wound 
was  the  true  cause  of  death.  In  1777  he 
published  '  A  Strict  and  Impartial  Inquiry 
into  the  Cause  of  Death  of  the  late  William 
Scawen,'  an  endeavour  to  prove  that  poison 
had  not  been  administered.  In  1790  it  was 
stated  that  he  was  too  old  for  his  work  at 
Christ's  Hospital,  and  as  he  would  not  resign 
he  was  superseded  in  1791.  He  died  at  Epsom 
on  5  April  1793. 

[Works  ;  original  journals  of  Court  of  Go- 
vernors of  Christ's  Hospital,  examined  by  per- 
mission of  the  treasurer ;  original  lists  of  sur- 
geons in  London  at  Koyal  College  of  Surgeons  ; 
Index  Catalogue  of  Library  of  Surgeon-General's 
Office,  Washington,  U.S.A. ;  original  parish  regis- 
ters of  St.  Bartholomew  the  Less,  St.  Sepulchre- 
extra-Newgate  and  Christ  Church,  Newgate 
Street ;  Gent.  Mag.  1 793,  pt.  i.  p.  380.]  N.  M. 

INGRAM,  HERBERT  (1811-1860),  pro- 
prietor of  the '  Illustrated  London  News,' was 
born  at  Boston,  Lincolnshire,  on27  May  1811, 
and  was  educated  at  the  Boston  free  school. 
At  the  age  of  fourteen  he  was  apprenticed  to 
Joseph  Clarke,  printer,  Market  Place,  Boston. 
From  1832  to  1834  he  worked  as  a  journey- 
man printer  in  London,  and  about  1834  settled! 
at  Nottingham  as  a  printer,  bookseller,  and1 
newsagent,  in  partnership  with  his  brother- 
in-law,  Nathaniel  Cooke.  In  company  with 
his  partner  he  soon  afterwards  purchased  from 
T.  Roberts,  a  druggist  at  Manchester,  a  re- 
ceipt for  an  aperient  pill,  and  employed  a 
schoolmaster  to  write  its  history.  Ingram 
claimed  to  have  received  from  a  descendant 
of  Thomas  Parr,  known  as  Old  Parr,  who  was 
said  to  have  lived  to  the  age  of  one  hundred 
and  fifty-two,  the  secret  method  of  preparing 
a  vegetable  pill  to  which  Parr's  length  of  life- 
was  attributed  {Medical  Circular,  23  Feb. 
1853,  pp.  146-7,  2  March,  pp.  167-8).  Mainly 
in  order  to  advertise  the  pill  its  proprietors 
removed  to  London  in  1842. 

Meanwhile  Ingram  had  projected  an  illus- 
trated newspaper.  He  had  long  noticed  how 
the  demand  for  the  'Weekly  Chronicle'  in- 
creased on  the  rare  occasions  when  it  con- 
tained woodcuts,  and  on  14  May  1842  he  and 
his  partner  produced  the  first  number  of  the 
'Illustrated  London  News.'  Their  original 
design  was  to  make  it  an  illustrated  weekly 
record  of  crime,  but  Henry  Vizetelly,  who 
was  employed  on  the  paper,  persuaded  Ingram 
to  give  it  a  more  general  character.  The- 
Bow  Street  police  reports  were,  however,  il- 
lustrated by  Crowquill.  The  first  number  of 
the  paper,  published  at  sixpence,  contains 
sixteen  printed  pages  and  thirty-two  wood- 
cuts, and  twenty-six  thousand  copies  were 
circulated.  The  best  artists  and  writers  of 
the  day  were  employed.  Frederick  William- 
Naylor  Bayley,  known  as  Alphabet  Bayley, 
or  Omnibus  Bayley,  was  the  editor,  and  John 
Timbs  was  the  working  editor.  The  news- 
paper steadily  advanced  in  public  favour,  and" 
soon  had  a  circulation  of  sixty-six  thousand 
copies.  The  Great  Exhibition  of  1851  gave- 
it  a  further  impetus,  and  in  1852  a  quarter  of 
a  million  copies  of  the  shilling  number  illus- 
trating the  funeral  of  the  Duke  of  Wellington 
are  said  to  have  been  sold.  At  Christmas 


1855  the  first  number  containing  coloured 
prints  was  brought  out.  High  prices  were 
charged  for  advertisements,  and  the  average 
profit  on  the  paper  became  12,000/.  a  year. 
The  success  of  the  enterprise  caused  Andrew 
Spottiswoode,  the  queen's  printer,  to  start  a 
rival  paper,  the  '  Pictorial  Times,'  inwhich  he 
lost  20,000/.,  and  then  sold  it  to  Ingram,  who 
afterwards  merged  it  in  a  venture  of  his  own, 
the  '  Lady's  Newspaper.'  Another  rival  was 
the  'Illustrated  Times,'  commenced  by  Henry 
Vizetelly  on  9  June  1855,  which  also  came 
into  Ingram's  hands,  and  in  1861  was  incorpo- 
rated with  the  'Penny  Illustrated  Paper.' 
On  8  Oct.  1857he  purchased  from  George  Stiff 
the  copyright  and  plant  of  the  '  London 
Journal,'  a  weekly  illustrated  periodical  of 
tales  and  romances,  for  24,0007.  (Ingram  v. 
Stiff,  1  Oct.  1859,  in  The  Jurist  Reports,  1860, 
v.  pt.  i.  pp.  947-8).  Elated  by  the  success  of 
the  '  Illustrated  London  News,'  Ingram,  on 
1  Feb.  1848,  started  the 'London  Telegraph,' 
in  which  he  proposed  to  give  daily  for  three- 
pence as  much  news  as  the  other  journals 
supplied  for  fivepence.  The  paper  was  pub- 
lished at  noon,  so  as  to  furnish  later  intelli- 
gence than  the  morning  papers.  It  com- 
menced with  a  novel, '  The  Pottleton  Legacy,' 
ty  Albert  Smith,  but  the  speculation  was  un- 
profitable, and  the  last  number  appeared  on 
9  July  1848. 

Ingram  and  Cooke,  besides  publishing 
newspapers,  brought  out  many  books,  chiefly 
illustrated  works.  In  1848  the  partnership 
was  dissolved,  and  the  book-publishing  branch 
of  the  business  was  taken  over  by  Cooke. 
From  7  March  1856  till  his  death  Ingram  was 
M.P.  for  Boston.  In  an  evil  hour  he  made 
the  acquaintance  of  John  Sadleir  [q.  v.],  M.P. 
for  Sligo,  a  junior  lord  of  the  treasury,  and 
lie  innocently  allowed  Sadleir  to  use  his  name 
in  connection  with  fraudulent  companies 
started  by  Sadleir  and  his  brother  James, 
chiefly  in  Ireland.  After  the  suicide  of  Sadleir 
on  16  Feb.  1856,  documents  were  found  among 
his  papers  which  enabled  Vincent  Scully, 
formerly  member  for  Sligo,  to  bring  against 
Ingram  an  action  for  recovery  of  some  losses 
incurred  by  him  owing  to  Sadleir's  frauds 
\Law  Mag.  and  Law  Review,  February  1862, 
pp.  279-81).  The  verdict  went  against  In- 
gram, but  the  judge  and  jury  agreed  that  his 
honour  was  unsullied.  He  left  England  with 
liis  eldest  son  in  1859,  partly  for  his  health, 
and  partly  to  provide  illustrations  of  the 
Prince  of  Wales's  tour  in  America.  In  1860 
he  visited  the  chief  cities  of  Canada.  On 

7  Sept.  he  took  passage  at  Chicago  on  board 
the  steamer  Lady  Elgin  for  an  excursion 
through  Lake  Michigan  to  Lake  Superior.  On 

8  Sept.  the  ship  was  sunk  in  a  collision  with 

4  Ingram 

another  vessel,  and  he  and  his  son,  with  almost 
all  the  passengers  and  crew,  were  drowned. 
Ingram's  body  was  found,  and  buried  in  Bos- 
ton cemetery,  Lincolnshire,  on  5  Oct.  A 
statue  was  erected  to  Ingram's  memory  at 
Boston  in  1862.  He  married,  on  4  July  1843, 
Anne  Little  of  Eye,  Northamptonshire. 

His  youngest  son,  WALTER  IXGRAM  (1855- 
1888),  became  an  officer  of  the  Middlesex 
yeomanry,  and  studied  military  tactics  with 
great  success.  At  the  outset  of  Lord  Wolse- 
ley's  expedition  to  Khartoum  in  1884,  In- 
gram ascended  the  Nile  in  his  steam  launch, 
joined  the  brigade  of  Sir  Herbert  Stewart  in  its 
march  across  the  desert,  was  attached  to  Lord 
Charles  Beresford's  naval  corps,  and  took  part 
in  the  battles  of  Abu  Klea  and  Metammeh, 
after  which  he  accompanied  Sir  Charles  Wil- 
son and  Lord  Charles  Beresford  up  the  Nile 
to  within  sight  of  Khartoum.  His  services 
were  mentioned  in  a  despatch,  and  he  was  re- 
warded with  a  medal  (SiR  C.  WILSON,  From 
Korti  to  Khartoum,  1886,  p.  120;  Times, 
11  April  1888,  p.  5).  He  was  killed  by  an 
elephant  while  on  a  hunting  expedition  near 
Berbera,  on  the  east  coast  of  Africa,  on  6  April 

[Mackay's  Forty  Years'  Recollections,  1877, 
ii.  64-7-5 ;  Jackson's  Pictorial  Press,  1885,  pp. 
284-311,  with  portrait;  Hatton's  Journalistic 
London,  1882,  pp.  24,  221-39,  with  portrait; 
Bourne's  English  Newspaper  Press,  1887,  ii.  119- 
124,  226-7,  235,  251,  294-8 ;  Grant's  News- 
paper Press,  1872,  iii.  129-32  ;  Andrews's 
British  Journalism,  1859,  ii.  213,  255-6,  320, 
336,338,  340;  Bookseller,  26  Sept.  1860,  p.  558; 
Gent.  Mag.  November  1860,  pp.  554-6 ;  Annual 
Register,  1860,  pp.  154-6;  Times,  24  Sept.  1860, 
p.  7,  27  Sept.  p.  1 0 ;  Illustrated  London  News, 
29  Sept.  I860,  p.  285,  6  Oct.  pp.  306-7,  with 
portrait,  26  Sept.  1863,  pp.  306, 309,  with  view  of 
statue ;  Boston  Gazette,  29 Sept. and 6  Oct.  I860.] 

G.  C.  B. 

INGRAM,  JAMES  (1774-1850),  Anglo- 
Saxon  scholar  and  president  of  Trinity  Col- 
lege, Oxford,  son  of  John  Ingram,  was  born 
21  Dec.  1774,  at  Codford  St.  Mary,  near  Salis- 
bury, where  his  family  had  possessed  property 
for  several  generations.  He  was  sent  to  War- 
minster  School  in  1785,  and  entered  as  a  com- 
moner at  Winchester  in  1790.  On  1  Feb. 
1793  he  was  admitted  a  commoner  at  Trinity 
College,  Oxford,  and  was  elected  scholar  of 
the  college  16  June  1794.  He  graduated  B.A. 
in  1796,  M.A.  in  1800,  and  B.D.  in  1808 ;  was 
for  a  time  an  assistant  master  at  Winchester ; 
became  fellow  of  Trinity  College  6  June  1803, 
and  acted  astutorthere.  Froml803  to  1808 he 
was  Rawlinsonian  professor  of  Anglo-Saxon. 
On  the  establishment  of  the  examination  for 
undergraduates  called '  Responsions,'  in  1809, 



Ingram  acted  as  one  of  the  '  masters  of  the 
schools.'  From  1815  to  1818  he  filled  the  office 
of  keeper  of  the  archives,  and  from  1816  to 
1824  was  rector  of  Rotherfield  Grays,  a  Trinity 
College  living,  near  Henley-on-Thames.  On 
24  June  1824  he  was  elected  president  of  his 
college,  and  proceeded  D.D.  Ingram  was  too 
deeply  absorbed  in  antiquarian  research  to 
take  much  part  in  the  management  of  the 
college  or  in  the  affairs  of  the  university.  At 
Garsington,  near  Oxford,  of  which  Ingram  was 
rector  in  virtue  of  his  presidency,  he  super- 
intended and  largely  helped  to  pay  for  the 
erection  of  a  new  school,  of  which  he  sent 
an  account  to  the  '  Gentleman's  Magazine,' 
1841,  vol.  i.  He  died  4  Sept,  1850,  and  was 
buried  at  Garsington,  where  there  is  a  brass 
plate  to  his  memory  inserted  in  an  old  stone 
slab.  He  was  married,  had  no  family,  and 
survived  his  wife.  By  his  will  he  left  the 
greater  part  of  his  books,  papers,  drawings, 
&c.,  to  Trinity  College,  some  pictures  to  the 
university  galleries,  and  some  coins  to  the 
Bodleian  Library.  There  are  two  portraits 
of  him  in  the  president's  lodgings  at  Trinity. 
Ingram  was  a  fellow  of  the  Society  of 
Antiquaries,  and  held  a  high  rank  among 
archaeologists.  As  an  Anglo-Saxon  scholar 
he  was  perhaps  the  very  best  of  his  genera- 
tion, and  the  most  distinguished  of  John 
Mitchell  Kemble's  predecessors.  In  1807  he 
published  his  inaugural  lecture  (as  professor 
of  Anglo-Saxon)  on  the  utility  of  Anglo- 
Saxon  literature,  to  which  is  added  the  geo- 
graphy of  Europe  by  King  Alfred  (Oxford, 
4to).  His  edition  of  the  '  Saxon  Chronicle,' 
London,  1823,  4to,  was  a  great  advance  on 
Gibson's  edition  (Oxford,  1692,  4to),  for 
Ingram  had  thoroughly  explored  the  Cot- 
tonian  MSS.  in  the  British  Museum.  His 
edition  of  Quintilian  (Oxford,  1809,  8vo)  is 
correct  and  useful.  The  work  by  which 
Ingram  is  best  known  is  his  admirable  '  Me- 
morials of  Oxford,'  with  a  hundred  plates 
"by  Le  Keux,  3  vols.  8vo,  Oxford,  1832-7 
(reissued  1847,  2  vols.)  Among  his  other 
publications  are :  'The  Church  in  the  Middle 
Centuries,  an  attempt  to  ascertain  the  Age 
and  Writer  of  the  celebrated  "  Codex  Boer- 
nerianus"'  (anon.),  8vo,  Oxford,  1842;  '  Me- 
morials of  the  Parish  of  Codford  St.  Mary,' 
8vo,  Oxford,  1844 ;  and  the  descriptions  of 
Oxford  and  Winchester  cathedrals  in  Brit- 
ton's  '  Beauties  of  England  and  Wales.' 

[Annual  Eegister,  1850 ;  Gent.  Mag.  1850, 
p.  553;  Illustrated  London  News,  14  Sept.  1850  ; 
Oxford  Calendar ;  personal  knowledge  and  recol- 
lections ;  communication  from  Professor  Earle  of 
Oxford.  Ingram  is  mentioned  in  Pycroft's  Ox- 
ford Memories,  and  in  G.  V.  Cox's  Eecollec- 
tions  of  Oxford,  p.  158.]  W.  A.  G. 

INGRAM,  JOHN  (1721-1771?),  en- 
graver, born  in  London  in  1721,  first  prac- 
tised engraving  there.  He  subsequently 
went  to  Paris,  and  settled  there  for  the  re- 
mainder of  his  life.  He  both  etched  and 
engraved  in  line-manner.  He  engraved  a 
number  of  plates  after  Francois  Boucher, 
some  after  C.  N.  Cochin,  and  a  set  of  emble- 
matical figures  of  the  sciences  in  conjunction 
with  Cochin  and  Tardieu.  He  was  employed 
in  engraving  small  plates  for  book  illustra- 
tion, and  more  especially  on  plates  for  the 
'  Transactions '  of  the  Academic  des  Sciences. 
He  was  an  engraver  of  great  merit. 

[Nagler's  Kiinstler-Lexikon ;  Beraldi  et  Por- 
talis's  Graveurs  du  XVIIP  Siecle ;  Dodd's  ma- 
nuscript Hist,  of  English  Engravers  (Brit.  Mus. 
Addit.  MS.  33402).]  L.  C. 

INGRAM,  ROBERT,  D.D.  (1727-1804), 
divine,  born  at  Beverley,  Yorkshire,  on 
9  March  1726-7,  was  descended  from  the 
family  of  Henry  Ingram  (1616-1666),  vis- 
count Irwine  in  the  Scottish  peerage.  His 
father  had  retired  from  business  in  London, 
and  settled  at  Beverley  soon  after  his  mar- 
riage with  Theodosia,  younger  daughter  of 
Joseph  Gascoigne,  sometime  revenue  collector 
at  Minorca.  He  was  educated  at  Beverley 
school  under  John  Clarke  (1706-1761)  [q.  v.], 
and  in  1745  was  admitted  to  Corpus  Christ! 
College,  Cambridge,  where  he  graduated  B.A. 
in  1749  and  M.A.  in  1753.  In  1758  he 
became  perpetual  curate  of  Bredhurst,  Kent, 
and  in  the  following  year  Dr.  Green,  bishop 
of  Lincoln,  presented  him  to  the  small  vicar- 
age of  Orston,  Nottinghamshire.  In  1760 
he  obtained  the  vicarage  of  Wormingford, 
Essex,  where  he  resided  till  within  a  year  of 
his  death.  He  also  became,  through  the 
influence  of  his  wife's  family  with  Dr.  Terrick, 
bishop  of  London,  vicar  of  Boxted,  Essex. 
He  died  in  his  son's  house  at  Seagrave,  near 
Loughborough,  Leicestershire,  on  3  Aug. 
1804.  He  married  in  1759  Catherine,  eldest 
daughter  of  Richard  Acklom,  esq.,  of  Weir- 
eton,  Nottinghamshire,  and  by  her  left  two 
sons,  Robert  Acklom  Ingram,  B.D.  [q.  v.], 
and  Rowland  Ingram,  who  succeeded  Paley 
as  head-master  of  Giggleswick  school. 

His  works  are :  1.  '  An  Exposition  of 
Isaiah's  Vision,  chap.  vi. ;  wherein  is  pointed 
out  a  strong  similitude  betwixt  what  is  said 
in  it  and  the  infliction  of  punishment  on  the 
Papists,  by  the  witnesses,  Rev.  xi.  6,'  Lon- 
don, 1784,  8vo.  2.  '  A  View  of  the  great 
Events  of  the  Seventh  Plague,  or  Period, 
when  the  Mystery  of  God  shall  be  finish'd,' 
Colchester,  1785,  8vo.  3.  '  Accounts  of  the 
Ten  Tribes  of  Israel  being  in  America,  origi- 
nally published  by  Manasseh  ben  Israel,  with 




Observations  thereon,'  London,  1792,  8vo.  [ 
4.  '  A  complete  and  uniform  Explanation  of 
the  Prophecy  of  the  Seven  Vials  of  Wrath, 
or  the  Seven  last  Plagues,  contained  in  the 
Revelations  of  St.  John,  chapters  xv.  xvi. 
To  which  is  added  a  short  Explanation  of 
chapter  xiv. ;  with  other  Revelation  Pro- 
phecy interspersed  and  illustrated,'  1804. 

[Gent.  Mag.  Iv.  732,  Ixii.  548,  Ixxiv.  343,  882; 
Chalmers's  Biog.  Diet.;  Cantabrigienses  Graduati, 
1787,  p.  217  ;  Watt's  Bibl.  Brit. ;  Reuss's  Reg. 
of  Authors,  p.  215 ;  Bodleian  Cat. ;  Masters's 
Corpus  Christi  Coll.  List  of  Members,  p.  28.] 

T.  C. 

1809),  political  economist,  eldest  son  of 
Robert  Ingram  [q.  v.],  was  born  in  1763,  and 
educated  first  in  Dr.  Grimwood's  school  at 
Dedham,  and  afterwards  at  Queens'  College, 
Cambridge,  where  he  graduated  B.  A.  as  senior 
wrangler  in  1784.  He  became  fellow  and  tutor 
of  his  college,  commenced  M.A.  in  1787,  was 
moderatorin  1790,  and  proceeded  B.D.inl796. 
On  taking  orders  he  was  appointed  curate  of  i 
Boxted,  Essex,  and  in  1802  he  was  presented  | 
by  the  master  and  fellows  of  Queens'  College 
to  the  rectory  of  Seagrave,  Leicestershire, 
where  he  died  on  5  Feb.  1809. 

His  principal  works  are:  1. '  The  Necessity 
of  introducing  Divinity  into  the  regular 
Course  of  Academical  Studies  considered,' 
Colchester,  1792,  8vo.  2. '  An  Enquiry  into 
the  present  Condition  of  the  Lower  Classes, 
and  the  means  of  improving  it ;  including 
some  Remarks  on  Mr.  Pitt's  Bill  for  the 
better  Support  and  Maintenance  of  the  Poor : 
in  the  course  of  which  the  policy  of  the  Corn 
Laws  is  examined,  and  various  other  im- 
portant branches  of  Political  Economy  are 
illustrated,'  London,  1797,  8vo.  3.  'A  Syl- 
labus or  Abstract  of  a  System  of  Political 
Philosophy ;  to  which  is  prefixed  a  Disserta- 
tion recommending  that  the  Study  of  Political 
Economy  be  encouraged  in  our  Universities, 
and  that  a  Course  of  Lectures  be  delivered 
on  that  subject,'  London,  1800, 8vo.  4.  '  An 
Essay  on  the  importance  of  Schools  of  In- 
dustry and  Religious  Instruction ;  in  which 
the  necessity  of  Promoting  the  good  Educa- 
tion of  poor  Girls  is  particularly  considered,' 
London,  1801,  8vo.  5.  'The  Causes  of  the 
Increase  of  Methodism  and  Dissension,  and 
of  the  Popularity  of  what  is  called  Evan- 
gelical Preaching,  and  the  means  of  obviat- 
ing them,  considered  in  a  Sermon  [on  Rom. 
xiv.  17, 19].  To  which  is  added  a  Postscript 
...  on  Mr.  Whitbread's  Bill  ...  for  en- 
couraging of  Industry  among  the  Labouring 
Classes,'  London,  1807,  8vo.  6.  'Disquisi- 
tions on  Population,  in  which  the  Principles 
of  the  Essay  on  Population,  by  T.  R.  Malthus, 

are  examined  and  refuted,'  London,  1808, 

[Lit.  Memoirs  of  Living  Authors,  1798,  i. 
318;  Reuss's  Reg.  of  Authors,  Suppl.  i.  546; 
Gent.  Mag.  Ixxix.  189,  275;  Cooper's  Memorials 
of  Cambridge,  i.  315 ;  Graduati  Cantabr. ;  Watt's 
Bibl.  Brit.]  T.  C. 

INGULF  (d.  1109),  abbot  of  Crowland  or 
Croyland  in  Lincolnshire,  an  Englishman, 
was  secretary  of  William  the  Conqueror, 
and  after  having  made  a  pilgrimage  to  Jeru- 
salem entered  the  monastery  of  St.  Wan- 
drille  in  Normandy,  where  Gerbert,  a  man  of 
much  learning,  was  then  abbot.  He  became 
prior,  and  when  Ulfcytel,  abbot  of  Crowland, 
was  deposed,  was  in  1086  appointed  by  the 
Conqueror  to  his  office.  He  interceded  suc- 
cessfully for  his  predecessor,  who  was  released 
from  confinement  at  Glastonbury,  and  allowed 
to  return  to  his  old  home,  the  monastery  of 
Peterborough.  Though  much  afflicted  with 
gout,  Ingulf  was  full  of  energy,  and  rebuilt 
part  of  his  abbey  church  and  other  buildings 
which  had  been  destroyed  by  fire.  In  1092 
he  translated  the  body  of  Earl  Waltheof 

Ej.  v.],  beheaded  in  1076,  from  the  chapter- 
ouse  to  a  place  near  the  high  altar  of  the 
church.  He  died  on  16  Nov.  1109.  He  was 
one  of  the  few  Englishmen  appointed  to  high 
office  in  the  Conqueror's  reign  (FBEEMAN, 
Norman  Conquest,  iv.  600). 

Some  fabulous  notices  of  Ingulfs  life  are 
given  in  the  forged  '  History '  which  bears 
his  name ;  his  known  relations  with  Gerbert, 
however,  probably  justify  partial  acceptance 
of  the  account  of  his  learning  contained  in  the 
forgery.  The  assertion  that  he  wrote  a  life 
of  St.  Guthlac  is  founded  only  on  a  passage 
in  the  '  History,'  and  is  not  worthy  of  belief. 
The  '  History '  has  been  printed  by  Savile  in 
his  '  Scriptores  post  Bedam,'  pp.  850-914, 
London,  1596,  fol. ;  reprinted,  Frankfort, 
1601 ;  byFulman,  with  a  continuation  falsely 
attributed  to  Peter  of  Blois  and  other  con- 
tinuations, in  his  '  Quinque  Scriptores,'  pp. 
1  sqq.,  Oxford,  1684,  fol.,  a  volume  usually 
reckoned  as  the  first  of  Gale's  '  Scriptores ; ' 
separately  by  Mr.  Birch  in  the  '  Chronicle  of 
Croyland  Abbey  by  Ingulph  '  (Lat.),  1883 ; 
and  in  part  in  the  '  Recueil  des  Historiens,r 
xi.  153-7 ;  it  has  been  translated  by  Riley 
in  Bonn's  '  Historical  Library,'  1854.  Five 
manuscripts  of  it  are  known  to  have  existed, 
of  which  only  one  is  supposed  to  be  extant 
(Brit.  Mus.  Arundel  MS.  No.  178,  54  pages 
fol.,  written  in  a  hand  of  the  sixteenth  cen- 
tury ;  printed  by  Mr.  Birch).  Selden,  in  his 
edition  of '  Eadmer '  (1623),  speaks  of  a  ma- 
nuscript then  kept  at  Crowland,  and  held  to- 
be  Ingulfs  autograph.  He  could  not  see  it ; 



Spelman,  however,  saw  and  used  it  for  his 
*  Concilia,'  i.  623  (1639).  Selden  used  another 
manuscript  for  the  so-called  laws  of  William 
the  Conqueror,  given  in  his  notes  on  '  Ead- 
mer.'  This  manuscript  is  noticed  by  Camden 
in  the  dedicatory  epistle  to  his  reprint  oi 
Asser  in  his  '  Anglica,'  &c.  (1602)  ;  it  is  sup- 
posed to  have  been  burnt  in  the  fire  which 
destroyed  part  of  the  Cotton  Library  in  1731. 
A  third  manuscript  was  used  by  Fulman ;  it 
belonged  to  Sir  John  Marsham,  and  was  said 
to  have  been  carried  off  by  Obadiah  Walker 
A  fourth,  imperfect,  was  used  by  Savile  who 
gives  no  account  of  it. 

From  the  foundation  of  the  abbey  to  the 
thirty-fourth  year  of  Edgar  the  writer  pro- 
fesses to  base  his  work  on  a  chronicle  of  the 
house  compiled  under  Abbot  Turketul  by  a 
brother  named  Sweetman.  The  early  part 
consists  mainly  of  charters  of  donation  con- 
nected by  a  slender  thread  of  narrative.  From 
the  accession  of  Edward  the  Confessor  the 
narrative  becomes  more  prominent.  The  book 
contains  a  great  many  curious  and  evidently 
untrue  stories.  In  Fulman's  time  the  charters 
were  used  as  evidence  of  title,  and  Dr.  Caius, 
in  his  book  on  Cambridge  (1568),  and  after 
him  Spelman, Dugdale,  Selden,  and  others,  ac- 
cepted the '  History '  as  authoritative.  Whar- 
ton,  however,  in  his '  Historia  de  Episcopis  et 
Decanis  Londinensibus'  (1695),  pp.  19, 24-6, 
pointed  out  that  some  of  the  charters  were 
forgeries,  and  he  was  followed  by  Wanley, 
and  more  at  length  by  Hickes  in  his '  Thesau- 
rus '  and  his  '  Dissertatio  Epistolaris.'  From 
that  time  the  charters  were  rejected ;  but 
at  the  end  of  the  eighteenth  century  Richard 
Gough  [q.  v.]  maintained  that  the  '  History ' 
was  by  Ingulf,  who,  however,  himself  forged 
the  charters.  Gibbon  noted  the  anachronism 
in  the  statement  regarding  the  study  of  Aris- 
totle at  Oxford.  In  1826  Sir  Francis  Palgrave, 
in  an  article  in  the  '  Quarterly  Review,'  ex- 
posed some  of  the  points  which  mark  the  book 
as  a  forgery,  and  in  1862  this  was  done  more 
thoroughly  by  Riley  in  the  '  Archaeological 
Journal.'  Among  these  points  may  be  noticed 
the  assertions  that  the  abbey  in  Edred's  days 
bore  the  French  appellation  of  '  curteyse  ; ' 
that  Turketul,  who  is  said  to  have  been  born 
in  907,  is  also  said  to  have  advised  the  con- 
secration of  bishops  in  905 ;  that  Ingulf,  the 
supposed  author,  was  educated  at  Oxford, 
and  read  Aristotle  there ;  that  on  visiting 
Constantinople  he  saluted  the  emperor  Alexis 
(Alexius),  who  began  to  reign  in  1081,  and 
was  received  by  the  patriarch  Sophronius, 
who  died  in  1059,  that  he  was  appointed 
abbot  in  1075,  and  that  there  was  a  '  vicar ' 
of  a  place  called  Wedlongburc  in  1091.  The 


spelling  of  place  names  belongs  rather  to  the 
fourteenth  than  to  the  eleventh  century,  and 
many  words  and  phrases  occur  which  were 
certainly  not  in  use  in  Ingulfs  time.  The 
motive  of  the  forgery  appears  to  have  been 
the  desire  to  defend  the  property  of  the  abbey 
against  the  claims  of  the  Spalding  people. 
From  the  fifteenth-century  continuation, 
which  seems  to  be  a  bona  fide  work,  Riley 
shows  that  it  is  probable  that  the  forgery  of 
the  charters  began  about  1393.  He  further, 
with  great  ingenuity,  assigns  the  compilation 
of  the  book  to  1413-15,  and  regards  it  as  the 
work  of  the  prior  Richard,  then  engaged,  the 
abbot  being  blind,  in  a  lawsuit  with  the  people 
of  Spalding  and  Multon  on  behalf  of  the  abbey ; 
the  counsel  for  the  abbey,  Serjeant  Ludyng- 
ton,  afterwards  justice  of  the  common  pleas, 
must,  in  Riley's  opinion,  have  been  cognisant 
of  the  affair.  One  of  the  absurdities  of  the 
book  is  the  story  of  the  five  sempectae  or  senior 
members  of  the  house,  who,  in  order  to  ac- 
count for  the  preservation  of  the  traditions 
of  the  convent,  are  made  to  live  to  immense 
ages,  one  to  168,  another  to  142  years,  and 
one  of  them,  a  fabulous  Aio,  to  about  125 
years.  In  spite  of  the  work  of  Palgrave, 
Riley,  and  others,  and  of  the  general  con- 
sensus of  scholars,  H.  S.  English,  in  his 
'  Crowland  and  Burgh  '  (1871,  3  vols.),  be- 
lieves that  the  '  History '  is  a  mutilated  and 
altered  edition  of  a  genuine  work  written  by 
Ingulf  (i.  22)  ;  and  Mr.  Birch,  in  his  '  Chro- 
nicle of  Croyland  Abbey '  (1883),  argues  that 
the  charters  are  a  reconstruction  of  original 
documents,  and  that  the  book,  as  a  whole, 
is  not  a  wanton  forgery.  Neither  of  them 
accurately  defines  his  position  or  supports  it 
with  adequate  arguments. 

[The  only  authority  for  the  Life  of  Ingulf  is 
the  account  given  by  Orderic,  pp.  542,  543  ;  see 
also  Freeman's  Norman  Conquest,  iv.  600-2, 
690.  For  the  character  of  the  Crowland  History 
see  Quarterly  Beview  (1826),  xxxiv.  289  sqq. ; 
Archseol.  Journal  (1862),  xix.  32-49,  113-33; 
Hardy's  Materials,  i.  ii.  816,  ii.  58-64  (Eolls 
Series);  Mon.  Hist.  Brit.  pp.  11,18,19;  Wright's 
Biog.  Brit.  Lit.  ii.  28-33 ;  and  other  works 
quoted  in  text.]  W.  H. 

INGWORTH,  RICHARD  OP  (fl.  1224), 
Franciscan,  was,  according  to  Thomas  Ec- 
cleston  [q.  v.],the  first  Minorite  who  preached 
to  the  peoples  north  of  the  Alps.  He  was 
among  the  friars  who  came  to  England  with 
Agnellus  in  1224,  and  was  then  a  priest  and 
advanced  in  years.  W7ith  three  other  friars  he 
established  the  first  house  of  Franciscans  in 
London ;  he  then  proceeded  to  Oxford,  hired 
ahouseinSt.Ebbe's,  and  thus  founded  the  ori- 
ginal convent  in  the  university  town ;  he  also 
founded  the  friary  at  Northampton.  After- 




wards  he  became  custodian  of  Cambridge, 
•which  was  specially  noted  for  its  poverty 
under  his  rule.  In  1230,  when  Agnellus  at- 
tended the  general  chapter  at  Assisi,  Richard 
acted  as  vicar  of  the  English  province.  Soon 
after  this  he  was  appointed  by  the  general, 
John  Parens,  provincial  minister  of  Ireland. 
He  was  released  from  the  office  by  Albert  of 
Pisa  in  1239,  and  set  out  as  a  missionary  to 
the  Holy  Land,  where  he  died.  In  the  manu- 
scripts of  Eccleston  his  name  is  usually 
written  '  Ingewrthe  '  or  '  Indewurde.'  Le- 
land  and  his  followers  call  him  'Kinges- 
thorp.'  The  only  authority  for  this  form  is 
a  late  marginal  note  in  the  Phillipps  MS. 
of  Eccleston,  from  which  Leland  made  his 
extracts  (see  English  Hist.  Rev.  for  October 

[Mon.  Franciscana,  vol.  i.  ed.  Brewer  (Rolls 
Ser.)]  A.  G.  L. 

INMAN,  GEORGE  ELLIS  (1814-1840), 
song-writer,  born  in  1814,  and  well  educated, 
was  for  some  time  clerk  in  the  office  of  a  firm 
of  wine  merchants  in  Crutched  Friars,  Lon- 
don. He  obtained  some  reputation  as  a  song- 
writer,fellavictimto  opium-taking,  and  com- 
mitted suicide  on  26  Sept.  1840  in  St.  James's 

Two  compositions  of  his,  'The  Days  of 
Yore'  and  'St.  George's  Flag  of  England,' 
gained  prizes  of  ten  and  fifteen  guineas  re- 
spectively from  the  Melodists'  Club  in  1838 
and  1840.  Other  songs  of  his  were  '  Sweet 
Mary  mine,'  which  enjoyed  a  concert  season's 
popularity;  'My  Native  Hills,'  set  to  music 
by  Sir  Henry  Bishop ;  and  '  Wake,  wake,  my 
Love,'  set  to  music  by  Raffaelle  Angelo 
WalKs.  He  wrote  the  libretto  for  Wallis's 
opera, '  The  Arcadians.'  He  also  contributed 
to  various  magazines.  In  the  '  Bentley  Bal- 
lads,' edited  by  Dr.  Doran  (new  edition,  1 861 ), 
are  included  two  vigorous  poems  of  his,  '  Old 
Morgan  at  Panama'  (p.  17)  and  'Haroun 
Alraschid'  (p.  80).  In  'La  Belle  Assem- 
blee '  for  September  1844  appeared  posthu- 
mously a  piece  by  him,  '  Le  premier  Grena- 
dier des  Armees  de  la  Republique.'  He  is 
said  to  have  published  a  small  volume  of 
poems  (Notes  and  Queries,  4th  ser.  v.  326). 

[Globe  newspaper,  28  Sept.  1840,  p.  4,  and 
30  Sept.  p.  4;  Gent.  Mag.  November  1840,  p. 
550;  Notes  and  Queries,  4th  ser.  v.  225-6.] 

F.  W-T. 

INMAN,  JAMES  (1776-1859),  professor 
of  navigation  and  nautical  science,  born  in 
1776,  was  younger  son  of  Richard  Inman  of 
Garsdale  Foot,  Sedbergh,  Yorkshire.  The 
family  of  substantial  statesmen  had  owned 
property  in  the  neighbourhood  from  the 

time  of  the  dissolution  of  the  monasteries. 
James  received  his  early  education  at  Sedbergh 
grammar  school,  and  subsequently  became  a 
pupil  of  John  Dawson  [q.  v.]  (see  also  J.  W. 
CLARK,  Life  and  Letters  of  Adam  Sedgwick, 
i.  70),  and  although  entered  at  St.  John's  Col- 
lege, Cambridge,  in  1794,  did  not  go  into  resi- 
dence till  1796.  Inman  graduated  B.  A .  in  1800 
as  senior  wrangler  and  first  Smith's  prizeman, 
and  was  elected  to  a  fellowship.  Though  with 
no  immediate  intention  of  taking  orders,  In- 
man now  turn  3d  his  thoughts  towards  mission 
work  in  the  East,  and  set  out  for  Syria.  The 
course  of  the  war  rendered  it  impossible  for 
him  to  proceed  further  than  Malta,  where  he 
devoted  some  time  to  the  study  of  Arabic. 
On  his  return  to  England  he  was  recom- 
mended to  the  board  of  longitude  for  the  post 
of  astronomer  on  board  the  Investigator  dis- 
covery-ship, and  joined  her  on  her  return  to 
Port  Jackson  in  June  1803  [see  FLINDERS, 
MATTHEW].  When  the  Investigator's  officers 
and  men  were  turned  over  to  the  Porpoise, 
Inman  was  left  at  Port  Jackson  in  charge  of 
the  instruments;  but  after  the  wreck  and  the 
return  of  Flinders,  Inman  accompanied  him 
in  the  Rolla,  and  assisted  him  in  determining 
the  position  of  the  reef  on  which  the  Porpoise 
had  struck.  With  the  greater  part  of  the  crew 
he  then  returned  to  England,  via  China, being 
assigned  a  passage  in  the  company's  ship  War- 
ley,  in  which  he  was  present  in  the  celebrated 
engagement  with  Linois  off  Pulo  Aor  on 
15  Feb.  1804  [see  DANCE,  SIR  NATHANIEL  ; 
FRANKLIN,  SIR  JOHN].  In  1805  he  proceeded 
M.A.,  and  about  the  same  time  was  ordained, 
though  he  does  not  appear  to  have  held  any 
cure ;  he  proceeded  to  the  degree  of  B.D.  in 
1815,  and  of  D.D.  in  1820. 

On  the  conversion  of  the  Royal  Naval 
Academy  at  Portsmouth  in  1808  into  the 
Royal  Naval  College,  Inman  was  appointed 
professor  of  mathematics,  and  virtually  prin- 
cipal, and  here  he  remained  for  thirty  years. 
In  this  office  Inman  turned  to  good  account 
the  knowledge  of  navigation  and  naval  gun- 
nery which  he  had  acquired  at  sea.  In  1821 
appeared  his  well-known  book,  '  Navigation 
and  Nautical  Astronomy  for  the  use  of  Bri- 
tish Seamen,' with  accompanying  tables.  In 
the  third  edition  (1835)  he  introduced  a  new 
trigonometrical  function,  the  half-versine,  or 
haversine,  thelogarithms  of  which  were  added 
to  the  tables,  and  enormously  simplified  the 
practicalsolution  of  spherical  triangles.  After 
long  remaining  the  recognised  text-book  in 
the  navy,  the  '  Navigation '  has  been  gradually 
superseded,  but  the  tables,  with  some  addi- 
tions, still  continue  in  use. 

It  is  said  that  Inman  suggested  to  Captain 



some  of  the  improvements  in  naval  gunnery 
which  were  introduced  on  board  the  Shannon. 
He  published  in  1828  '  An  Introduction  to 
Naval  Gunnery/  designed  strictly  as  an  '  in- 
troduction' to  the  course  of  scientific  teach- 
ing. It  was  during  this  period  also  that  he 
produced  for  the  use  of  his  classes  short  trea- 
tises on '  Arithmetic,  Algebra,  and  Geometry,' 
1810,  and  '  Plane  and  Spherical  Trigono- 
metry,' 1826.  These,  however,  have  long 
been  out  of  use,  and  are  now  extremely  rare. 
No  copy  of  either  can  be  found  in  any  of  the 
principal  libraries  in  London. 

At  his  suggestion  the  admiralty  established 
a  school  of  naval  architecture  in  1810,  and 
Inman  was  appointed  principal.  To  supply 
the  want  of  a  text-book,  he  published  in 
1820  '  A  Treatise  on  Shipbuilding,  with  Ex- 
planations and  Demonstrations  respecting 
the  Architectura  Navalis  Mercatoria,  by  Fre- 
derick Henry  de  Chapman,.  .  .translated into 
English,  with  explanatory  Notes,  and  a  few 
Eemarks  on  the  Construction  of  Ships  of 
War,'  Cambridge,  4to.  The  translation  was 
made  from  a  French  version,  though  com- 
pared with  the  Swedish.  It  has  of  course 
long  been  obsolete ;  but  to  Inman's  labours 
was  largely  due  the  improvement  in  English 
ship-building  during  the  first  half  of  the 
present  century.  In  1839  the  college  was 
again  reorganised,  and  Inman  retired.  For 
the  next  twenty  years  he  continued  to  reside 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  Portsmouth,  and  died 
at  Southsea  on  2  Feb.  1859. 

Inman  married  Mary,  daughter  of  Richard 
Williams,  vicar  of  Oakham,  Rutlandshire, 
a  direct  descendant  of  the  mother  of  Sir  Isaac 
Newton  [q.  v.]  by  her  second  husband,  and 
left  issue.  In  addition  to  the  works  already 
named,  he  was  also  the  author  of '  The  Scrip- 
tural Doctrine  of  Divine  Grace :  a  Sermon 
preached  before  the  University,'  Cambridge, 
8vo,  1820,  and  'Formulae  and  Rules  for 
making  Calculations  on  Plans  of  Ships,' 
London,  8vo,  1849. 

[Information  from  the  Eev.  H.  T.  Inman,  In- 
man's grandson.]  J.  K.  L. 

INMAN,  THOMAS,  M.D.  (1820-1876), 
mythologist,  born  on  27  Jan.  1820  in  Rut- 
land Street,  Leicester,  was  second  son  of 
Charles  Inman  (a  native  of  Lancaster,  de- 
scended from  a  Yorkshire  family),  who  was 
sometime  partner  in  Pickford's  carrying  com- 
pany, and  afterwards  director  of  the  Bank 
of  Liverpool.  William  Inman  [q.  v.]  was  his 
younger  brother.  Thomas  went  to  school  at 
Wakefield,  and  in  1836  was  apprenticed  to 
his  uncle,  Richard  Inman,  M.D.,  at  Preston, 
Lancashire.  He  entered  at  King's  College, 
London,  where  he  had  a  distinguished  career, 

graduating  M.B.  in  1842  and  M.D.  in  1844 
at  the  university  of  London.  Declining  a 
commission  as  an  army  surgeon,  he  settled 
in  Liverpool  as  house-surgeon  to  the  Royal 
Infirmary.  He  obtained  a  good  practice  as 
a  physician,  and  was  for  many  years  phy- 
sician to  the  Royal  Infirmary.  His  publica- 
tions on  personal  hygiene  are  full  of  shrewd 
practical  counsel. 

On  21  Oct.  1844  he  became  a  member  of  the 
Literary  and  Philosophical  Society  of  Liver- 
pool, to  whose  '  Proceedings '  he  frequently 
contributed  papers,  chiefly  on  archaeological 
subjects.  He  had  little  original  scholarship, 
but  read  widely,  and,  although  the  philological 
basis  of  his  researches  is  quite  unscientific,  his 
writings  display  great  ingenuity.  From  God- 
frey Higgins  [q.  v.]  he.  derived  the  suggestion 
that  the  key  to  all  mythology  is  to  be  sought 
in  phallic  worship.  On  5  Feb.  1866  he  first 
propounded  this  theory  in  a  paper  on '  The  An- 
tiquity of  certain  Christian  and  other  Names.' 
The  subject  was  pursued  in  other  papers,  and 
in  three  works  on '  Ancient  Faiths,'  which  he 
published  between  1868  and  1876. 

In  1871  he  gave  up  practice  and  retired  to 
Clifton,  near  Bristol,  where  he  died  on  3  May 
1876.  He  was  a  man  of  handsome  presence,  and 
his  genial  temperament  made  him  generally 
popular.  He  married  in  1844  Jennet  Leigh- 
ton,  daughter  of  Daniel  Newham  of  Douglas, 
Isle  of  Man,  and  had  six  sons  and  two  daugh- 
ters, of  whom  tAvo  sons  and  two  daughters 
survived  him. 

His  most  important  publications  are: 
1.  '  Spontaneous  Combustion,'  Liverpool, 
1855,  8vo.  2.  '  On  certain  Painful  Muscular 
Affections,'  1856,  8vo ;  2nd  edition,  with 
title,  '  The  Phenomena  of  Spinal  Irritation,' 
&c.,  1858,  8vo  ;  3rd  edition,  with  title,  '  On 
Myalgia,'  &c.,  1860,  8vo.  3.  '  The  Foundation 
for  a  new  Theory  and  Practice  of  Medicine,' 
1860,  8vo;  2nd  edition,  1861,  8vo.  4.  'On 
the  Preservation  of  Health,'  &c.,  Liverpool, 
1868,  8vo ;  2nd  edition,  1870,  8vo ;  3rd  edi- 
tion, 1872,  8vo.  5.  'Ancient  Faiths  em- 
bodied in  Ancient  Names  ;  or,  an  Attempt 
to  trace  the  Religious  Belief  ...  of  certain 
Nations,'  &c.,  vol.  i.  1868,  8vo ;  vol.  ii.  1869, 
8vo ;  2nd  edition,  1872-3,  8vo.  6.  '  Ancient 
Pagan  and  Modern  Christian  Symbolism 
exposed  and  explained,'  &c.,  1869,  8vo. 
7.  '  The  Restoration  of  Health,'  &c.,  1870, 
8vo ;  2nd  edition,  1872,  8vo.  8.  <  Ancient 
Faiths  and  Modern:  a  Dissertation  upon 
Worships  .  .  .  before  the  Christian  Era,' 
&c.,  New  York  (printed  at  Edinburgh), 
1876,  8vo. 

[Information  kindly  furnished  by  Miss  Z. 
Inman ;  Proceedings  of  the  Lit.  and  Philos.  Soc. 
of  Liverpool ;  personal  knowledge.]  A.  G 




INMAN,  WILLIAM  (1825-1881),  foun- 
der of  the  Inman  line  of  steamships,  born  at 
Leicester  on  6  April  1825,  was  fourth  son 
of  Charles  Inman,  a  partner  in  the  firm  of 
Pickford  &  Co.,  who  died  on  10  Nov.  1858, 
by  Jane,  daughter  of  Thomas  Clay  of  Liver- 
pool (she  died  11  Nov.  1865).  Thomas  In- 
man [q.  v.],  the  mythologist,  was  his  elder 
brother.  Educated  at  the  Collegiate  Institute 
at  Liverpool  and  at  the  Liverpool  Royal  In- 
stitution, William  entered  a  mercantile  office, 
and  was  clerk  successively  to  Nathan  Cairns 
(brotherof  Lord  Cairns),  toCater&  Company, 
and  to  Richardson  Brothers,  all  merchants 
at  Liverpool.  Of  the  latter  firm  he  became 
a  partner  in  January  1849,  and  managed 
their  fleet  of  American  sailing  packets,  then 
trading  between  Liverpool  and  Philadelphia. 
Here  he  first  gained  an  intimate  knowledge 
of  the  emigration  business.  Having  watched 
with  interest  the  first  voyage  to  America, 
early  in  1850,  of  Tod  &  Macgregor's  screw 
iron  ship  the  City  of  Glasgow  of  1,600  tons 
and  350  horse-power,  he  was  convinced  of 
the  advantages  she  possessed  over  both  sailing 
ships  and  paddle  steamers  for  purposes  of 
navigation.  In  conj  unction  with  his  partners, 
he  purchased  the  City  of  Glasgow,  and  on 
17  Dec.  in  the  same  year  despatched  her 
with  four  hundred  steerage  passengers  on  a 
successful  voyage  across  the  Atlantic.  In 
1857  he  formed  the  Liverpool,  New  York, 
and  Philadelphia  Steamship  Company,  better 
known  as  the  Inman  line.  Between  1851 
and  1856  the  company  purchased  the  City  of 
Manchester,  the  City  of  Baltimore,  the  Kan- 
garoo, and  the  City  of  Washington,  all  iron 
screw-ships.  In  1857  the  company  enlarged 
the  area  of  their  operations  by  making  New 
York  one  of  their  ports  of  arrival,  and  esta- 
blishing a  fortnightly  line  thither.  In  1860 
they  introduced  a  weekly  service  of  steamers ; 
in  1863  they  extended  it  to  three  times  a 
fortnight,  and  in  1866  to  twice  a  week  during 
the  summer.  The  failure  of  the  Collins  line 
was  advantageous  to  Inman,  for  he  adopted 
their  dates  of  sailing,  and  henceforth  carried 
the  mails  between  England  and  America. 
Inman  specially  directed  his  attention  to 
the  removal  of  the  discomforts  of  emigrant 
passengers.  In  1875  the  City  of  Berlin,  the 
longest  and  largest  steam-vessel  afloat,  the 
Great  Eastern  excepted,  was  launched.  In- 
man was  a  member  of  the  local  marine  board, 
of  the  Mersey  Docks  and  Harbour  Trust,  and 
of  the  first  Liverpool  school  board;  was  a 
captain  of  the  Cheshire  rifle  volunteers,  a 
magistrate  for  Cheshire,  and  chairman  of  the 
Liverpool  Steam  Shipowners'  Association. 
He  frequently  gave  evidence  before  com- 
mittees of  the  House  of  Commons,  more  par- 

ticularly in  1874  on  the  committee  on  Mer- 
chant. Ships  Measurement  of  Tonnage  Bill 
(Parliamentary  Papers,  1874,  vol.  x.,  Report 
1874,  pp.  182-8,  238-47). 

He  died  at  Upton  Manor,  near  Birkenhead, 
on  3  July  1881,  and  was  buried  in  Moreton 
parish  church  on  6  Julv.  He  married,  on 
20  Dec.  1849,  Anne  Brewis,  daughter  of  Wil- 
liam Stobart  of  Picktree,  Durham,  by  whom 
he  had  twelve  children,  nine  sons  and  three 

[Lindsay's  Merchant  Shipping,  1876,  iv.  251- 
260,  611-12;  Times,  26  Jan.  1877,  p.  10,  5  July 
1881,  p.  8  ;  Burke's  Landed  Gentry.] 

G.  C.  B. 

ANDREW,  d.  1650,  Scottish  judge.] 

INNES,  COSMO  (1798-1 874),  antiquary, 
born  on  9  Sept.  1798at  the  old  manor-house  of 
Durris  on  Deeside,  was  the  youngest  child  but 
one  of  the  sixteen  children  of  John  Innes  by 
his  wife  Euphemia  (wee Russell).  John  Innes, 
who  belonged  to  the  family  of  Innes  of  Innes, 
had  sold  his  property  in  Moray  to  buy  Durris. 
He  resided  at  Durris  for  many  years,  but  was 
afterwards  ejected  by  a  legal  decision,  a  lead- 
ing case  in  the  Scottish  law  of  entail.  Cosmo 
was  sent  to  the  high  school,  Edinburgh, 
under  Pillans,  and  studied  at  the  universities 
of  Aberdeen  and  Glasgow.  He  afterwards 
matriculated  at  Balliol  College,  Oxford,  on 
13  May  1817,  graduating  B.A.  1820,  and 
M.A.  1824.  In  1822  he  became  an  advocate 
at  the  Scottish  bar.  His  practice  was  never 
large,  but  he  was  soon  employed  in  peerage 
and  other  cases  demanding  antiquarian  and 
genealogical  research.  His  first  case  of  this 
kind  was  the  Forbes  peerage  case,  about 
1830-2.  In  the  Stirling  case  he  was  crown 
advocate.  For  several  years,  from  about  1833, 
he  was  advocate-depute.  In  1840  he  was 
appointed  sheriff  of  Moray,  and  while  in  office 
had  to  deal  with  the  Moray  mobs,  who  at 
the  time  of  the  Irish  potato  famine  resisted 
the  export  of  produce  from  their  own  dis- 
trict. In  1845  he  was  a  member  of  the 
municipal  corporation  (Scotland)  commis- 
sion. In  1852  he  resigned  his  sheriffdom, 
and  succeeded  his  friend  Thomas  Thomson 
as  principal  clerk  of  session. 

About  1830  Innes  had  assisted  Thomson 
in  arranging  the  ancient  documents  in  the 
Register  House  (cp.  INNES,  Memoir  of  T. 
Thomson,  1854,  8vo).  He  was  afterwards 
officially  engaged  in  editing  and  preparing 
for  the  press  the  '  Rescinded  Acts,'  and  in 
partly  editing  the  folio  edition  of  the  '  Acts 
of  the  Scots  Parliament'  (1124-1707).  He 
wrote  an  introduction  to  vol.  i.  (1844)  of  the 




'  Acts,'  and  in  July  1865  began  to  compile 
with  his  assistants  the  'General  Index'  to 
the  whole  work.  This  was  published  in  1875 
after  his  death.  Innes  was  an  acute  and 
learned  student  of  ancient  Scottish  records, 
and  singularly  skilful  as  a  decipherer.  He 
was  an  active  member  and  editor  of  the  Ban- 
natyne,  Spalding,  and  Maitland  clubs.  He 
edited  the  chartularies  of  numerous  Scottish 
religious  houses,  as  well  as  various  acade- 
mical and  municipal  works  of  importance. 
In  his  '  Scotland  in  the  Middle  Ages,'  1860, 
and  '  Sketches  of  Early  Scotch  History,' 
1861  (the  latter  selected  from  his  '  Intro- 
ductions to  the  Chartularies'),  he  displayed 
a  sympathetic  interest  in  the  pre-Reformation 
period,  and  was  accused  of  being  a  Roman 
catholic,  though  he  was  a  member  of  the 
episcopal  church.  From  1846  till  his  death 
Innes  held  the  post  of  professor  of  consti- 
tutional law  and  history  at  the  university 
of  Edinburgh.  His  lectures  were  attractive. 
He  also  gave  valuable  lectures  on  Scottish 
legal  antiquities  before  the  Juridical  Society. 
While  on  a  highland  tour  he  died  suddenly 
at  Killin  on  31  July  1874.  His  body  was 
removed  to  Edinburgh,  and  buried  in  War- 
riston  cemetery  on  5  Aug.  In  appearance 
Innes  was  tall  and  handsome.  He  suffered 
from  shyness,  which  sometimes  took  the  form 
of  nervous  volubility  in  conversation.  He 
was  a  keen  sportsman,  and  amused  himself 
with  gardening.  He  had  a  great  contempt 
for  the  mere  bookworm,  and  said  that  more 
was  to  be  learnt  outside  books  than  in  them. 
As  an  antiquary  he  had  no  rival  in  his  own 
line.  In  politics  he  was  a  whig.  He  advo- 
cated the  claims  of  women  students  of  medi- 
cine to  graduate  at  the  university  of  Edin- 

Innes  married  in  1826  Miss  Rose  of  Kil- 
varock,  by  whom  he  had  nine  children.  The 
eldest  son  entered  the  Indian  army,  but  died 
at  twenty-four.  The  eldest  daughter  married 
in  1855  John  Hill  Burton  [q.  v.]  the  his- 
torian. During  his  married  life  Innes  lived 
chiefly  in  or  near  Edinburgh,  first  at  Ramsay 
Lodge  ;  then  at  No.  6  Forres  Street  (where 
he  was  intimate  with  Francis  Jeffrey  [q.  v.] 
and  his  family)  ;  subsequently  at  the  Hawes, 
South  Queensferry,  and  finally  at  Inverleith 
House,  Edinburgh. 

The  following  are  Innes's  principal  publi- 
cations (S.  and  B.  indicate  the  publications 
of  the  Spalding  and  Bannatyne  clubs  respec- 
tively): 1.  'Two  Ancient  Records  of  the 
Bishopric  of  Caithness,'  1827,  &c.,  4to  ;  also 
1848,  4to,  B.  2.  '  Registrum  Monasterii  de 
Passelet'  (Paisley),  1832, 4to,  Maitland  Club. 
3.  '  Liber  Sancte  Marie  de  Melros,'  1837, 4to, 
B.  4. '  Registrum  Episcopatus  Moraviensis,' 

1837,  4to,  B.  5.  '  Liber  Cartarum  Sancte 
Crucis.  Munimenta  Eccles.  Sanct.  Crucis  de 
Edwinesburg,'  1840,  4to,  B.  6.  '  Registrum 
de  Dunfermelyn,'  1842,  4to,  B.  7.  '  Regis- 
trum Episcopatus  Glasguensis,'  1843,  4to,  B. 
8. '  Liber  S.  Marie  de  Calchou '  (Kelso  Abbey), 
1846,  4to,  B.  9.  '  Liber  Insule  Missarum : 
Abbacii  Canonic.  Regul. .  .  .  de  Inchaffery  re- 
gistrum,'  1847, 4to,  B.  10.  '  Carte  monialium 
de  Northberwic'  (North  Berwick  Priory), 
1847, 4to,  B.  11.  '  Liber  S.  Thome  de  Aber- 
brothoc '  (Arbroath  Abbey),  ed.  by  C.  Innes 
and  P.  Chalmers,  1848,  &c.,  4to,  B.  12.  'Re- 
gistrum S.  Marie  de  Neubotle '  (Newbattle 
Abbey),  1849,  4to,  B.  13.  '  Origines  Paro- 
chiales  Scotiae,'1850,4to,  B  (a  work  of  much 
research).  14.  '  Registrum  Honoris  de  Mor- 
ton,' ed.  completed  by  C.  I.,  1853,  4to. 
15.  'Fasti  Aberdonenses,' 1854,  8vo  (selec- 
tions from  the  records  of  the  university 
and  King's  College  of  Aberdeen).  16.  '  The 
Black  Book  of  Tayrnouth,'  1855,  4to,  B. 
17.  '  Registrum  Episcopatus  Brechinensis,' 
1856,  4to,  S.  18.  J.  Barbour's  ' The  Bras,' 
1856, 4to,  S.  19.  '  The  Book  of  the  Thanes  of 
Cawdor,'  1859,  4to,  S.  20.  'Scotland  in  the 
Middle  Ages,'  Edinburgh,  1860,  8vo  (adapted 
from  his  university  lectures).  21.  'Sketches 
of  Early  Scotch  History  and  Social  Progress,' 
Edinburgh,  1861,  8vo.  22.  'An  Account  of 
the  Familie  of  Innes'  (by  Duncan  Forbes 
(1644  P-1704)  [q.  v.],  with  additions  by  C.  I.), 
1864, 4to,  S.  23.  '  Ledger  of  A.  Halyburton, 
1492-1503,'  1867,  8vo.  24.  'Facsimiles  of 
National  Manuscripts  of  Scotland.  Edited, 
with  Introduction,  by  C.  I.,'  1867,  £c.,  fol. 
25.  'Ancient  Laws  and  Customs  of  the  Burghs 
of  Scotland,'  1868,  &c.,  4to.  26.  '  Lectures 
on  Scotch  Legal  Antiquities,'  Edinburgh, 
1872,  8vo.  27.  '  Memoir  of  Dean  Ramsay '  in 
the  22nd  (1874)  ed.  of  Ramsay's  <  Reminis- 
cences.' 28.  Contributions  to  the 'Quarterly 
Review '  and  the  '  North  British  Review.' 
(For  Innes's  work  connected  with  the  Scotch 
statutes,  see  above.) 

[Memoir  of  Innes,  Edinburgh,  1874,  partly 
founded  on  obituary  notices  in  the  Scotsman, 
Courant,  Glasgow  Herald,  Athenaeum,  and  Pall 
Mall  Gazette;  Dr.  J.  A.  H.  Murray  in  the 
Academy  for  15  Aug.  1874,  p.  181 ;  Brit.  Mus. 
Cat,]  W.  W. 

INNES  or  INNES-KER,  JAMES,  fifth 
DUKE  OP  ROXBUKGHE  (1736-1823).  [See 

INNES,  JOHN  (d.  1414),  bishop  of  Moray, 
a  native  of  Moray,  is  reckoned  by  Forbes 
(Familie  of  Innes,  1698)  as  thirteenth  laird  of 
Innes,  but  it  is  not  certain,  though  it  is  pro- 
bable, that  he  belonged  to  that  family.  In 
1389  he  was  a  canon  of  Elgin  Cathedral,  in 




1395  he  held  the  prebend  of  Duffus,  and  in 

1396  he  was  also  archdeacon  of  Caithness. 
He  desired  to  go  to  Paris  to  study  canon  law, 
and,  '  inasmuch  as  the  fruits   of  his  arch- 
deaconry were  not  sufficient  to  enable  him 
to  fulfil  his  wish,'  Alexander  Bar,  bishop  of 
Moray,  gave  a  grant  of  certain  of  the  tithes 
of  that   diocese  by  way  of   an   exhibition 
( '  ad  exhibendum  Joanni  de  Innes  in  studio 
Parisiensi ' ).   He  returned  by  1397,  when  he 
was  judge  in  a  question  of  tithe  between 
William  de  Spynie,  bishop  of  Moray,  and  the 
vicar  of  Elgin.    On  23  Jan.  1406  he  was  con- 
secrated bishop  of  Moray  at  Avignon  by  Pope 
Benedict  XIII.  In  the  li'st  (dated  1437)  of  the 
bishops  of  Moray  he  is  described  as  '  bachelor 
in  both  laws  and  in  arts.'    He  died  at  Elgin 
on  25  April  1414,  and  was  buried  in  his  cathe- 
dral, where  his  monument,  now  demolished, 
told  how  during  his  seven  years'  episcopate 
he  had  strenuously  pushed  on  the  rebuilding 
of  that  noble  church,  which  had  been  burned 
in  1390  by  Alexander  Stewart,  'the  Wolf  of 
Badenoch '  [q.  v.]  At  the  chapter  held  to  elect 
his  successor  the  canons  agreed  that  if  any  of 
them  should  be  elected  he  should  devote  the 
third  of  his  revenue  to  the  completion  of  the 
cathedral.     The  older  part  of  the  bishop's 
palace  at  Elgin  and  the  beautiful  gateway  at 
the  palace  of  Spynie  are  Innes's  work.     His 
arms  show  the  three  stars  of  Innes  on  a  bend 
between  three  keys ;  the  shield  is  surmounted, 
not  by  a  mitre,  but  by  a  pastoral  staff.     The 
Greyfriars  Church  at  Elgin,  sometimes  attri- 
buted to  him,  was  founded  by  another  John 
Innes  fifty  years  later. 

[Chartulary  of  Moray ;  Familie  of  Innes  (Spald- 
ing  Club) ;  Keith's  Catalogue  ;  Young's  Annals 
of  Elgin  ;  M'Gibbon  and  Ross's  Castellated 
Architecture  of  Scotland.]  J.  C. 

INNES,  JOHN  (1739-1777),  anatomist, 
was  born  in  1739  at  Callart  in  the  highlands 
of  Scotland.  He  went  to  Edinburgh  as  a 
boy,  and  was  employed  by  the  second  Dr. 
Alexander  Monro  [q.  v.],  then  professor  of 
anatomy  in  the  university.  He  became  a 
dexterous  dissector,  and  when  eighteen  was 
made  dissector  to  the  anatomical  theatre.  It 
was  his  duty  to  dissect  out  the  parts  for  each 
of  the  professor's  lectures,  and  he  thus  ac- 
quired a  minute  knowledge  of  human  anatomy. 
The  students  liked  him,  and  with  the  con- 
sent of  his  employer  he  used  to  give  evening 
demonstrations  of  anatomy,  and  became  so 
famous  for  the  clearness  of  his  descriptions 
that  his  audience  numbered  nearly  two  hun- 
dred students.  In  1776  he  published  at  Edin- 
burgh 'A  Short  Description  of  the  Human 
Muscles,  chiefly  as  they  appear  on  Dissection,' 
and  this  book,  with  some  additions  by  Dr. 

Monro,  continued  to  be  used  in  the  dissect- 
ing rooms  at  Edinburgh  for  fifty  years  after 
his  death.  Though  its  descriptions  in  places 
show  signs  of  being  written  by  a  man  with- 
out literary  education,  they  are  generally 
terse  and  lucid,  and  copies  of  the  book  often 
bear  evidence  that  it  was  placed,  as  intended 
by  the  author,  upon  the  body  which  the  stu- 
dent was  dissecting.  Later  in  the  same  year 
he  published  '  Eight  Anatomical  Tables  of 
the  Human  Body.'  The  plates  represent  the 
skeleton  and  muscles,  and  are  copied  from 
Albinus,  with  brief  original  descriptions  of 
each  plate.  Both  books  were  published  in 
second  editions  by  John  Murray  in  London 
in  1778  and  1779  respectively.  After  a  long 
illness  Innes  died  of  phthisis,  12  Jan.  1777, 
in  Edinburgh. 

[Works;  Memoir  by  Dr.  Alexander  Monro 
prefixed  to  both  -works.]  N.  M. 

INNES,  LEWIS  (1651-1738),  principal 
of  the  Scots  College  in  Paris,  born  at  Walker- 
dales,  in  the  Enzie  of  Banff,  in  1651,  was 
the  eldest  son  of  James  Innes,  wadsetter,  of 
Drumgask  in  the  parish  of  Aboyne,  Aber- 
deenshire,  by  his  wife,  Jane  Robertson,  daugh- 
ter of  a  merchant  in  Aberdeen.  The  family 
of  Drumgask  was  descended  from  the  Inneses 
of  Drainie  in  the  county  of  Moray.  Lewis's 
father  held  Drumgask  in  mortgage  from  the 
Earl  of  Aboyne,  but  it  afterwards  became 
the  irredeemable  property  of  the  family. 
Lewis  studied  for  the  Roman  catholic  priest- 
hood at  Paris,  and  on  the  death  of  Robert 
Barclay  in  February  1682  he  was  appointed 
principal  of  the  Scots  College  there.  Along 
with  his  brother,  Thomas  Innes  [q.  v.l,  he 
devoted  himself  to  the  preservation  and  ar- 
rangement of  the  records  in  the  college  library. 
He  took  a  conspicuous  part  in  the  proceed- 
ings connected  with  the  vindication  of  the 
authenticity  of  the  famous  charter  which 
established  the  legitimacy  of  King  Robert  III. 
He  carried  this  charter  to  St.  Germains, 
where  it  was  shown  to  James  II  and  the 
nobility  and  gentry  of  his  court.  Afterwards 
he  submitted  it  to  an  examination  by  the 
most  famous  antiquaries  of  France,  including 
Renandot,  Baluze,  Mabillon,  and  Ruinart,  in 
the  presence  of  several  of  the  Scottish  nobility 
and  gentry,  at  a  solemn  assembly  held  in  the 
abbey  of  St.  Germain-des-Pres,  on  26  May 
1694.  The  document  was  printed  by  him, 
under  the  title  of '  Charta  authentica  Robert! 
Seneschalli  Scotiae ;  ex  Archivio  Collegii 
Scotorum  Parisiensis  edita,'  Paris,  1695,  4to. 
Innes  is  said  to  have  been  one  of  five  who 
acted  as  a  cabinet  council  to  James  II  at  St. 
Germains  on  the  king's  return  from  Ireland 
in  1690.  On  11  Nov.  1701  he  was  admitted 



almoner  to  the  queen-mother,  Mary  of  Este, 
an  office  he  had  previously  held  while  she  was 
queen-consort.  On  23  Dec.  1713  he  was  ad- 
mitted almoner  to  her  son,  the  Chevalier  de 
St.  George,  resigned  the  office  of  principal  of 
the  Scots  College  in  the  same  year,  and  in 
1714  was  appointed  lord  almoner.  He  ap- 
pears to  have  acted  as  a  sort  of  confidential 
secretary,  and  repeated  allusions  to  him  are 
scattered  through  the  printed  volume  of  the 
'  Stuart  Papers.'  In  the  beginning  of  1718  he 
was  set  aside  from  his  office,  but  within  a  few 
years  he  was  again  in  confidential  communi- 
cation with  his  master.  He  was  trusted  in 
the  important  business  of  securing  Bishop 
Atterbury's  papers,  which  after  the  bishop's 
death  were  deposited  in  the  Scots  College. 
He  died  at  Paris  on  23  Jan.  1738. 

Innes  probably  compiled  '  The  Life  of 
James  II,  King  of  England,  &c.,  collected 
out  of  Memoirs  writ  of  his  own  hand,'  2  vols., 
London,  1816,  4to,  edited  by  James  Stanier 
Clarke  [q.  v.],  who  attributed  the  authorship 
to  the  younger  brother,  Thomas  Inues.  It  is 
certain  that  the  original  memoirs  written 
by  James  II  were  deposited  in  the  Scots 
College  under  the  special  care  of  Lewis 
Innes  [see  under  JAMES  II,  infra]. 

[Memoirs  by  George  Grub,  LL.D.,  prefixed  to 
Thomas  Innes's  Hist,  of  Scotland,  1853,  and  his 
Critical  Essay  on  the  Ancient  Inhabitants  of 
Scotland,  1879  ;  Miscellany  of  the  Spalding  Club, 
ii.  418;  Life  of  James  II  (Clarke),  pref.  p.  xix; 
Chalmers's  Life,  of  Kuddiman,  p.  201 ;  Stothert's 
Catholic  Mission  in  Scotland,  pp.  248,  249; 
Michel's  Les  Ecossais  en  France,  ii.  303,  319, 
328  n.t  531.]  T.  C. 

INNES,  THOMAS  (1662-1744),historian 
and  antiquary,  second  son  of  James  Innes, 
and  younger  brother  of  Lewis  Innes  [q.  v.], 
was  born  in  1662  at  Drumgask  in  the  parish 
of  Aboyne,  Aberdeenshire.  In  1677  he  was 
sent  to  Paris,  and  studied  at  the  college  of 
Navarre.  He  entered  the  Scots  College  on 
12  Jan.  1681,  but  still  attended  the  college 
of  Navarre.  On  26  May  1684  he  received 
the  clerical  tonsure ;  on  10  March  1691  was 
promoted  to  the  priesthood,  and  afterwards 
spent  a  few  months  at  Notre  Dame  desVertus, 
a  seminary  of  the  Oratorians  near  Paris.  Re- 
turning to  the  Scots  College  in  1692,  he  as- 
sisted the  principal,  his  elder  brother  Lewis, 
in  arranging  the  records  of  the  church  of 
Glasgow,  which  had  been  deposited  partly 
in  that  college  and  partly  in  the  Carthusian 
monastery  at  Paris  by  Archbishop  James 
Beaton.  In  1694  he  graduated  M.A.  at 
Paris,  and  in  1695  was  matriculated  in  the 
German  nation.  After  officiating  as  at  priest 
for  two  years  in  the  parish  of  JNIagnay  in 

the  diocese  of  Paris,  he  went  again  to  the 
Scots  College  in  1697.  In  the  spring  of 
1698  he  returned  to  his  native  country,  and 
officiated  for  three  years  at  Inveravon,  Banff- 
shire,  as  a  priest  of  the  Scottish  mission.  In 
October  1701  he  returned  to  Paris,  and  be- 
came prefect  of  studies  in  the  Scots  College, 
and  also  mission  agent.  There  he  spent  twenty 
years,  occupied  in  the  quiet  discharge  of  his 
duties  and  in  literary  pursuits.  His  intimacy 
with  Rollin,  Duguet,  and  Santeul  led  to  his 
being  suspected  of  Jansenism.  In  1720  his  bro- 
therLewis,  in  what  appears  to  be  aformal  letter 
to  the  vicar-general  of  the  Bishop  of  Apt,  con- 
tradicted a  report  that  Thomas  had  concurred 
in  an  appeal  to  a  general  council  against 
the  condemnation  of  Quesnel's  '  Moral  Re- 
flections '  by  Pope  Clement  XI.  '  There  is/ 
remarks  his  biographer,  Dr.  Grub,  'no  ap- 
pearance of  Jansenism  in  his  historical  works, 
though  they  mark  clearly  his  decided  opposi- 
tion to  ultramontanism.'  After  a  long  absence 
he  again  visited  Scotland  in  order  to  collect 
materials  for  his  '  Essay '  and  his  '  History.' 
In  the  winter  of  1724  he  was  at  Edinburgh, 
pursuing  his  researches  in  the  Advocates' 
Library.  In  December  1727  he  was  appointed 
vice-principal  of  the  Scots  College  at  Paris, 
where  he  died  on  28  Jan.  1744. 

The  results  of  Innes's  laborious  researches 
in  Scottish  history  and  antiquities  were  libe- 
rally communicated  to  all  scholars  who  sought 
his  assistance.  Atterbury  and  Ruddiman  ap- 
pear to  have  been  equally  attracted  by  him, 
and  Bishop  Robert  Keith  was  greatly  in- 
debted to  him  for  materials  incorporated  in 
the  '  Catalogue  of  Scottish  Bishops.' 

His  works  are:  1.  'A  Critical  Essay  on 
the  Ancient  Inhabitants  of  the  Northern 
Parts  of  Britain  or  Scotland.  Containing 
an  Account  of  the  Romans,  of  the  Britains 
betwixt  the  Walls,  of  the  Caledonians  or 
Picts,  and  particularly  of  the  Scots.  With 
an  Appendix  of  ancient  manuscript  pieces,' 
2  vols.,  London,  1729 ;  reprinted,  with  a 
Memoir  by  George  Grub,  LL.D.,  in  vol.  viii. 
of  '  The  Historians  of  Scotland,'  Edinburgh, 
1879,  8vo.  This  work  elicited  an  anonymous 
volume  of  'Remarks'  [by  George  Waddel], 
Edinburgh,  1733,  and  '  The  Roman  Account 
of  Britain  and  Ireland,  by  Alexander  Taitt,' 
1741.  Both  these  replies  are  reprinted  in 
'  Scotia  Rediviva,'  1826,  vol.  i.,  and  in  '  Tracts 
illustrative  of  the  Antiquities  of  Scotland,' 
1836,  vol.  i.  Innes's  fame  mainly  rests 
upon  this  '  Critical  Essay.'  '  Authors  [such 
ra«  Pinkerton  and  Chalmers]  who  agree  in 
nothing  else  have  united  to  build  on  the 
foundations  which  Innes  laid,  and  to  extol 
his  learning  and  accuracy,  his  candour  and 
sagacity'  (Spalding  Club  Miscellany,  vol.  ii. 


pref.  p.  cxv).  2.  '  Epistola  de  veteri  apud 
Scotos  habendi  Synodos  modo,'  dated  Paris, 
23Nov.l735.  Invol.i.of  Wilkins's  'Concilia 
Magnse  Britanniae;'  reprinted  with  Innes's 
'  Civil  and  Ecclesiastical  History.'  3.  '  The 
Civil  and  Ecclesiastical  History  of  Scotland/ 
edited  by  George  Grub,  LL.D.,  and  printed 
at  Aberdeen  for  the  Spalding  Club,  1853, 4to, 
from  a  manuscript  in  the  possession  of  Dr. 
James  Kyle,  bishop  of  Germanica,  and  vicar- 
apostolic  of  the  northern  district  of  Scotland. 
4.  Papers  by  Innes,  and  documents  con- 
nected with  his  family.  In  '  Miscellany  of 
the  Spalding  Club,'  ii.  351-80.  They  include 
(a)  '  Letter  to  the  Chevalier  de  St.  George,' 
dated  17  Oct.  1729;  (b)  'Remarks  on  a  Charter 
of  Prince  Henry,  son  of  David  I ; '  (c)  'Of 
the  Salisbury  Liturgy  used  in  Scotland.' 

6.  Five  closely-written  volumes,  mostly  in 
his  handwriting,  of  his  manuscript  collections 
in  Scottish  history,  now  among  the  Laing 
manuscripts  in  the  library  of  Edinburgh  Uni- 
versity.   6.  A  thick  quarto  volume  of  collec- 
tions and  dissertations.  This  was  at  Preshome 
under  the  charge  of  Bishop  Kyle  in  1853. 

7.  'Original  Letters,' 1729-33.     In  the  Uni- 
versity Library,  Edinburgh  ('  Laing  Collec- 
tions,' No.  346).    Several  of  his  letters  to  the 
Hon.  Harry  Mania  of  Kelly,  author  of  the 
'  Registrum  de  Panmure,'  are  printed  in  the 
appendix  to  Dr.  John  Stuart's  edition  of  that 
work,  2  vols.  4to,  Edinburgh,  1874. 

The  '  Life  of  King  James  II '  has  been 
attributed  to  him,  but  was  probably  com- 
piled by  his  brother,  Lewis  Innes. 

[Life  by  George  Grub,  LL.D.,  prefixed  to 
Innes's  Hist,  of  Scotland  and  his  Critical  Essay, 
1879  ;  Maule's  Eegistrum  de  Pantnure,  pref.  pp. 
Ixiv-lxvi,  cxi-cxxviii ;  Chambers's  Biog.  Diet, 
of  Eminent  Scotsmen  (Thomson),  ii.  337 ;  Fox's 
Hist,  of  James  II,  pref.  p.  xxvi  n. ;  Eegistrum 
Episcopatus  Gla«guensis  (Bannatyne  Club),  vol.  i. 
pref.  p.  xiii ;  Life  of  James  II,  edited  by  J.  S. 
Clarke,  vol.  i.  pref.  p.  xix ;  Michel's  Les  Ecossais 
en  France,  ii.  322,  325-8,  329,  519,  531 ;  Miscel- 
lany of  the  Spalding  Club,  ii.  418  ;  Stothert's 
Catholic  Mission  in  Scotland,  pp.  248,  249,  566; 
information  from  H.  A.  Webster,  esq.]  T.  C. 

INSKIPP,  JAMES  (1790-1868),  painter, 
born  in  1790,  was  originally  employed  in  the 
commissariat  service,  from  which  he  retired 
with  a  pension,  and  adopted  painting  as  a 
profession  for  the  remainder  of  his  life.  He 
began  with  landscapes,  one  of  which  he  ex- 
hibited at  the  Royal  Academy.  Subsequently 
he  devoted  himself  to  small  subject-pictures, 
and  with  less  success  to  portraits.  He  was 
a  frequent  contributor  to  the  British  Insti- 
tution and  to  the  Society  of  British  Artists, 
as  well  as  to  the  Royal  Academy.  A  pic- 
ture of  '  A  Girl  making  Lace '  is  at  Bowood, 

4.  Insula 

Wiltshire,  and  another  of  'A  Venetian  Wo- 
man'at  Deepdene,  Surrey.  His  pictures  were 
admired  at  the  time,  and  some  were  engraved. 
He  drew  a  series  of  illustrations  for  Sir  Harris- 
Nicolas's edition  of  Izaak  Walton's' Complete 
Angler,'  published  in  1833-6.  Inskipp  re- 
sided the  latter  part  of  his  life  at  Godalming,. 
Surrey,  where  he  died  on  15  March  1868, 
aged  78.  He  was  buried  in  Godalming  ceme- 
tery. In  1838  he  published  [a  series  of  en- 
gravings from  his  drawings,  entitled  'Studies 
of  Heads  from  Nature.' 

[Redgrave's  Diet,  of  Artists;  Graves's Diet,  of 
Artists,  1760-1880;  Catalogues  of  the  Royal 
Academy  and  British  Institution.]  L.  C. 

HALIELAND  (d.  1283),  bishop  of  Dur- 
ham, was  born  at  Holy  Island,  apparently  of 
humble  parentage.  He  became  amonk  at  Dur- 
ham. The  Lanercost  chronicler  (p.  113)  call* 
him  Robertus  de  Coquina,  which  looks  as  if 
he  was  employed  in  some  menial  office.  He 
rose  to  be  prior  of  Finchale,  and  in  May  1274 
attended  the  council  of  Lyons'  as  proctor  for 
the  prior  of  Durham.  On  24  Sept.  in  the 
same  year  he  was  chosen  bishop  of  Durham;, 
his  election  was  confirmed  31  Oct.,  the 
temporalities  were  restored  11  Nov.,  and  on 
9  Dec.  he  was  consecrated  at  York.  In  1276 
he  issued  some  '  Const  itutiones  Synodales,' 
relating  to  tithes,  which  are  printed  in  Wil- 
kins's  '  Concilia '  (ii.  28-30).  Next  year  he- 
was  engaged  in  a  quarrel  with  the  king 
of  Scotland  as  to  some  border  forays,  and 
when  Edward  issued  a  commission  to  treat 
with  the  Scots,  Bishop  Robert  attended  at 
Tweedmouth  to  substantiate  his  claim,  but 
nothing  came  of  it  (F&dera,  ii.  84-6).  In 
1280  he  and  his  chapter  refused  to  admit  the 
visitation  of  William  Wickwaine,  archbishop 
of  York,  grounding  their  refusal  on  a  state- 
ment that  the  archbishop  was  bound  to  visit 
his  own  chapter  first,  and  when  the  arch- 
bishop came  to  Durham  on  24  June  they 
shut  the  gates  of  the  city  against  him.  The 
archbishop  thereupon  excommunicated  them,, 
and  laid  the  diocese  under  interdict.  Bishop 
Robert  paid  a  visit  to  Rome  during  the  year 
to  lay  the  matter  before  the  pope,  but  the 
dispute  was  still  unsettled  at  his  death ;  some 
letters  relating  to  the  quarrel  are  preserved' 
(see  RAINE,  Letters  from  Northern  Registers  f 
pp.65-6,  and  PECKH  AM,  Reg.  i.  383,  ii.494,  both 
in  Rolls  Ser. ;  see  also  HEMINGBTTRGH,  ii.  7, 
219,  and  GRAYSTANES,  c.  xvii.)  Robert  db 
Insula  died  at  Middleham,  Yorkshire,  7  June 
1283,  and  was  buried  in  the  chapter-house  at 
Durham.  He  is  praised  as  a  defender  and  en- 
larger  of  the  liberties  of  his  church  (Planctus 
in  laudem  Roberti  Episcopi,  ap.  Surtees  Sa- 

Inverarity  s 

ciety,  xxxi.  51-3).  Three  charters  granted  by 
him  to  Finchale  are  printed,  with  engravings 
of  his  seal,  in  '  The  Priory  of  Finchale '  (pp. 
110, 148, 183,  Surtees  Soc.)  He  left  various 
bequests  to  the  convent  of  Durham  (Hist. 
Dunelm.  Script.  Tres,  p.  xci),  and  is  said  to 
have  been  a  benefactor  of  the  university  of 

[Authorities  quoted ;  Annales  Monastic!  (Rolls 
Ser.);  Graystanes  Chronicle  in  Hist.  Dunelm. 
Script.  Tres  (Surtees  Soc.) ;  Wharton's  Anglia 
Sacra,  ii.  743-5 ;  Tanner's  Bibl.  Brit.-Hib.  p.  429 ; 
Surtees's  Hist.  Durham,  i.  xxx-i.]  C.  L.  K. 

wards MRS.  MARTYN  (1813-1846),  Scottish 
vocalist  and  actress,  was  born  in  Edinburgh 
on  23  March  1813.  She  was  first  taught  by 
Mr.  Thorne,  and  afterwards  by  Alexander 
Murray  of  Edinburgh,  at  one  of  whose  con- 
certs she  appeared  as  an  amateur  singer  in 
1829.  She  made  her  debut  at  Covent  Garden 
in 'Cinderella 'on  14  Dec.  1830.  In  1832  she 
sang  in '  Robert  le  Diable '  at  Covent  Garden, 
and  in  the  same  year  appeared  at  the  Philhar- 
monic Society's  concerts.  In  1836  she  married 
Charles  Marty n,  a  bass  singer,  and  in  1839  she 
went  with  an  operatic  company  to  New  York, 
where,with  her  husband,  she  sang  in '  Fidelio ' 
and  other  works.  She  died  at  Newcastle-on- 
Tyne  on  27  Dec.  1846.  She  is  said  to  have 
been  a  fine-looking  woman,  but  not  to  have 
excelled  greatly  either  as  a  singer  or  an 
actress.  She  had  a  sister  who  was  also  a 
professional  vocalist.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Martyn 
wrote  jointly  some  ballads  of  no  merit. 

[Brown's  Diet,  of  Music ;  Scotsman,  6  Jan. 
1847;  Dibdin's  Annals  of  the  Edinburgh  Stage; 
private  information.]  J.  C.  H. 


1272),  bishop  of  Dunkeld,  was  in  earlier  life 
a  prebendary  of  that  see  (KEITH,  Scottish 
Bishops,  p.  80),  and,  according  to  some  autho- 
rities, chamberlain  of  the  king  (Chron.  de 
Lanercost,^.  56;  MYLNE,  Vit.  Dunkeld.  Eccl. 
EpiscopJ)  By  favour  of  the  crown  he  suc- 
ceeded David,  bishop-elect  of  Dunkeld,  in 
the  bishopric  in  1250.  In  the  contests  for 
supreme  power  which  filled  the  minority  of 
Alexander  III  [q.  v.]  Inverkeithing  was  a  pro- 
minent leader  of  the  English  party  (RYHER, 
Fcedem,  orig.  ed.  i.  565-7).  In  1255  his  party 
secured  possession  of  the  king  and,  after  in- 
terviews with  Henry  III  at  Wark  Castle  and 
Kelso  (August),  deprived  the  rival  party  of 
the  Comyns  of  office.  Thereupon  Inverkeith- 
ing displaced  Gameline  [q.v.],  bishop  of  St. 
Andrews,  as  chancellor  of  Scotland,  and  was 
among  the  fifteen  regents  appointed  for  seven 
years  (ib.)  But  in  the  counter-revolution  of 
1257  the  party  of  the  Comyns  took  the  great 

>  Inwood 

seal  from  his  vice-chancellor,  Robert  Stute- 
will,  dean  of  Dunkeld,  and  he  seems  to  have- 
been  superseded  in  his  office  by  Wishartr 
bishop  of  Glasgow.  The  compromise  of  1258 
between  the  two  parties  does  not  appear  to- 
have  restored  the  seal  to  him.  According  to- 
Keith  he  declined  to  continue  in  the  office. 

About  Easter  1268  Inverkeithing  was  with 
the  other  bishops  summoned  to  a  council  by 
the  legate  Ottobon.  The  bishops  deputed 
Inverkeithing  and  Robert,  bishop  of  Dun- 
blane, to  watch  over  their  interests.  When 
the  council  met  the  legate  ordained  some 
new  statutes,  chiefly  concerning  the  secular 
and  regular  priests  of  Scotland,  which  the- 
bishops  declined  to  accept  (FoRDUN',  i.  303). 
Inverkeithing  died  on  St.  Magnus  day  1272, 
at  a  great  age  ;  his  body  was  buried  at  Dun- 
keld, and  his  heart  in  the  choir  of  the  church 
of  Inchcolm,  which  he  himself  had  built 
(MYLNE,  u.s.)  Reports,  which  rest  on  no 
ascertained  authority,  are  said  to  have  been 
circulated  that  Inverkeithing  and  Margaret, 
queen  of  Alexander  III,  who  died  shortly 
after,  were  both  poisoned  (Chron.  de  Laner- 
cost, p.  97).  The  Lanercost  chronicler  also- 
states  that  Inverkeithing,  in  order  to  prevent 
the  customary  confiscation  by  the  crown  of 
the  possessions  of  deceased  prelates,  disposed 
of  his  property  in  his  lifetime. 

[Fordun,  Chronica  Gentis  Scotorum,  i.  297-8,. 
303,  ed.  Skene,  1871  ;  Chron.  de  Lanercost,  pp. 
56,  97,  ed.  J.  Stevenson  for  Bannatyne  Club,. 
1835  ;  Mylne,  Vitse  Dunkeldensis  Ecclesiae  Epi- 
scoporum,  p.  11  (Bannatyne  Club),  1823;  Wyn- 
toun,  lib.  vii.  c.  x.;  Keith's  Scottish  Bishops,  pp.. 
80-1, 1824;  Burton's  Hist,  of  Scotland,  ii.  25-6 ; 
Tytler's  Hist,  of  Scotland,  i.  59,  ed.  Alison.] 

J.  T-T. 

INVERNESS,  titular  EARL  OP.  [See- 
HAY,  JOHN,  1691-1740.] 

1843),  architect,  born  on  22  May  1794,  was- 
the  eldest  son  of  William  Inwood  [q.  v.], 
the  architect.  He  was  educated  under  his 
father,  and  in  1819  travelled  in  Greece,  espe- 
cially studying  and  drawing  the  architecture- 
of  Athens.  He  formed  a  small  collection 
of  Greek  antiquities  from  Athens,  Mycenae,. 
Laconia,  Crete,  &c.  This  collection,  con- 
sisting of  about  thirty-nine  objects  (frag- 
ments from  the  Erechtheion  and  Parthenon,, 
terra-cottas,  inscriptions,  &c.),  was  sold  to 
the  British  Museum  in  1843  for  401.  Ant 
inventory  of  it  (dated  8  March  1843),  in 
Inwood's  handwriting,  is  in  the  library  of 
the  department  of  Greek  and  Roman  an- 
tiquities in  the  museum.  He  assisted  his 
father  in  designing  and  in  superintending 
the  erection  of  St.  Pancras  New  Churcbi 


lolo  Goch 

(1819-22),  and  was  also  connected  with  him 
in  the  erection  of  three  London  chapels 
(1822-4)  [see  under  IXWOOD,  WILLIAM]. 
Inwood  was  a  fellow  of  the  Society  of  An- 
tiquaries, and  for  many  years,  from  1809,  an 
exhibitor  at  the  Royal  Academy.  He  is  sup- 
posed to  have  died  on  20  March  1843,  about 
which  time  a  vessel  in  which  he  had  sailed 
for  Spain  was  lost  with  all  on  board.  In- 
•wood  published :  1.  '  The  Erechtheion  at 
Athens ;  fragments  of  Athenian  architec- 
ture, and  a  few  remains  in  Attica,  Megara, 
FJleusis,  illustrated,'  London,  1827,  fol.  A 
German  work,  '  Das  Erechtheion,'  Potsdam,  I 
1843,  by  A.  F.  Quast,  is  based  on  this. 
2.  '  Of  the  Resources  of  Design  in  the  Archi- 
tecture of  Greece,  Egypt,  and  other  Countries  | 
obtained  by  ...  studies  .  .  .  from  Nature,'  , 
London,  1834, 4to  (only  two  parts  published). 

[Architectural   Publ.  Soc.  Diet.;   Eedgrave's 
Diet,  of  Artists.]  W.  W. 

INWOOD,  WILLIAM  (1771  P-1843), 
architect  and  surveyor,  was  born  about  1771  j 
at  Caen  Wood,  Highgate,  where  his  father,  ] 
Daniel  Inwood,  was  bailiff  to  Lord  Mans- 
field. He  was  brought  up  as  an  architect 
and  surveyor,  and  became  steward  to  Lord 
Colchester  and  practised  as  a  surveyor.  He 
designed  numerous  mansions,  villas,  bar- 
racks, warehouses,  &c.  In  1821  he  planned 
the  new  galleries  for  St.  John's  Church, 
Westminster,  and  in  1832-3  designed,  with 
the  assistance  of  his  second  son,  Charles  Fre- 
derick Inwood  (see  below),  the  new  West- 
minster Hospital.  His  best-known  work  is 
St.  Pancras  New  Church,  London,  in  the 
designing  of  which  after  Greek  models,  espe- 
cially the  Athenian  Erechtheion,  he  was  as- 
sisted by  his  eldest  son,  Henry  William  In- 
wood  [q.  v.]  This  church  was  built  between 
1  July  1819  and  7  May  1822,  and  cost  63,25U, 
•exclusive  of  the  organ  and  fittings  (BRITTON 
and  PUGIN,  Public  Edifices,  1825,  i.  145 :  WAL- 
:FORD,  Old  and  New  London,\.  353).  Its  style 
is  severely  criticised  by  Fergusson  (Hist,  of 
-Architecture,  2nd  edit.iv.  334,|335),  who  says 
its  erection  '  contributed  more  than  any  other 
circumstances  to  hasten  the  reaction  towards 
the  Gothic  style,  which  was  then  becoming 
fashionable.'  Inwood  also  erected  in  Lon- 
don, with  the  assistance  of  his  eldest  son, 
St.  Martin's  Chapel,  Camden  Town,  1822- 
1824;  Regent  Square  Chapel,  1824-6;  Somers 
Town  Chapel,  Upper  Seymour  Street,  1824-7. 
From  1813  Inwood  for  several  years  exhi- 
bited architectural  designs  at  the  Royal  Aca- 
demy.  He  died  at  his  house  in  Upper  Seymour 
Street,  London,  on  16  March  1843  (in  the 
'Gentleman's  Magazine'  for  1843,  new  ser. 
xix.  547,  he  is  described  as  '  late  of  Euston 

Square ').  He  was  buried  in  the  family  vault 
in  St.  Pancras  New  Church.  He  had  many 
pupils,  one  of  whom  was  AV.  Railton  the  ar- 
chitect. Inwood  published  (in  1811  or  1819  ?) 
'  Tables  for  the  Purchasing  of  Estates  .  .  . 
and  for  the  Renewal  of  Leases  held  under 
.  .  .  Corporate  Bodies.'  A  second  edition  of 
this  well-known  work,  which  was  founded 
on  the  tables  of  Baily  and  Smart,  appeared 
in  1820,  and  the  21st  edition,  by  F.  Thoman, 
in  1880. 

His  eldest  son,  Henry  William,  is  sepa- 
rately noticed.  His  second,  CHARLES  FRE- 
DERICK IXWOOD  (1798-1840),  also  an  archi- 
tect, acted  as  assistant  to  his  father  and 
brother,  designed  All  Saints'  Church,  Great 
Marlow  (opened  1835),  and  the  St.  Pancras 
National  Schools,  London. 

[Architectural  Publ.  Soc.  Diet.;  Eedgrave's 
Diet,  of  Artists.]  W.  W. 

IOLO  GOCH,  or  the  RED  (Jl.  1328-1405), 
Welsh  bard,  whose  real  name  is  said  to  be 
EDWARD  LLWTD,  was  lord  of  Llechryd  and 
resided  at  Coed  Pantwn  in  Denbighshire,  his 
mother,  according  to  Gruffydd  Hiraethog 
[q.  v.],  being  the  Countess  of  Lincoln.  The 
recently  extinct  family  of  Pantons  of  Plas- 
gwyn,  Anglesey,  traced  its  descent  from  lolo. 
He  is  said  to  have  received  a  university  edu- 
cation, and  to  have  taken  the  degrees  of  M.  A. 
and  Doctor  of  Laws.  According  to  a  state- 
ment in  a  late  manuscript  (printed  in  lolo 
MSS.  pp.  96,  491),  he  attended  the  last  of 
the  '  three  Eisteddfods  of  the  Renascence '  of 
Welsh  literature  (Tair  Eisteddfod  Dadeni), 
which  was  held,  probably  in  1330,  at  Maelor 
(Bromfield),  under  the  patronage  and  pro- 
tection of  Roger  Mortimer,  first  earl  of  March. 
Dafydd  ap  Gwilym  [q.  v.]  was  the  president, 
and  lolo  was  made  a  '  chaired  bard '  for  his 
knowledge  of  the  laws  of  poetry,  his  tutor 
being  Ednyfed  ab  Gruffydd.  lolo  must  have 
been  quite  a  young  man  at  the  time.  A  diffi- 
culty has  been  made  as  to  his  date,  because 
he  wrote  an  elegy  on  the  death  of  Tudur  ab 
Gronw,  of  the  family  of  Edny ved  Fychan  of 
Penmynydd,  Anglesey,  who  is  said  to  have 
died  in  1315 ;  but  itappearsfrom  a  genealogical 
table  of  that  family  (Archceologia  Cambrensis, 
3rd  ser.  xv.  378)  that  there  was  another  Tudur 
ab  Gronw,  who  died  in  1367  (  Y  Cymmrodor, 
v.  261-3),  and  the  elegy  probably  referred  to 
the  latter.  lolo  was  a  staunch  friend  of  Owen 
Glendower  [q.  v.],  who  owned  a  neighbour- 
ing estate.  When  Owen  was  in  the  height  of 
his  glory  he  invited  lolo  to  stay  at  his  house 
at  Sycharth,  which  must  have  been  before 
2  May  1402,  when  it  was  burned  by  Hotspur ; 
and  after  his  visit  the  poet  wrote  a  glowing 
description  of  the  splendour  of  Owen's  palace, 

lolo  Goch 


comparing  it  with  Westminster  Abbey.  On 
this  account  lolo  has  often  been  erroneously 
described  as  Owen's  family  bard  (FouLKES, 
Geiriadur  Bywgraffyddol,  p.  553)  instead 
of  his  friend  and  neighbour.  This  poem  is 
preserved  in  a  manuscript  volume  in  the 
British  Museum,  known  as  the  '  Book  of 
Huw  Lleyn '  (Add.  MS.  14967),  which  is 
in  the  handwriting  of  Guttyn  Owain,  written 
prior  to  1487.  When  Owen  actually  broke 
out  into  rebellion,  lolo,  though  in  advanced 
years,  poured  forth  stirring  patriotic  songs  in 
his  praise,  and  chief  among  them  is  one  'com- 
posed with  the  view  of  stirring  up  his  country- 
men to  support  the  cause  of  Owen'  (Welsh 
text  in  JONES,  Gorchestion  Beirdd  Cymru, 
p.  79,  English  translation  in  Y  Cymmrodor, 
vi.  98).  Much  of  Owen's  early  success  may 
be  justly  attributed  to  the  enthusiasm  created 
by  lolo's  stirring  verses.  The  appearance  of 
a  comet  in  March  1402  (WALSINGHAM,  Hist. 
Anglicana,  ii.  248)  was  made  the  subject  of  a 
poem  by  lolo,  in  which  he  prophesied  Owen's 
coming  triumph  (JONES,  Gorchestion,  p.  84). 
In  another  poem,  possibly  the  last  he  ever 
wrote,  he  lamented  the  mysterious  disappear- 
ance of  Owen  in  1412,  though  he  still  fore- 
told his  ultimate  success  (ib.  p.  81 ;  see  Eng- 
lish translation  in  Y  Cymmrodor,  iv.  pt.  ii. 
pp.  230-2).  He  probably  died  soon  after- 
wards [see  GLENDOWER,  OWEN]. 

Besides  the  numerous  poems  inspired  by 
the  political  events  of  his  time,  much  devo- 
tional verse  was  composed  by  lolo.  Seven 
of  his  poems  were  published  in  '  Gorchestion 
Beirdd  Cymru,'  edited  by  Rhys  Jones.  An 
elegy  on  Dafydd  ap  Gwilym  was  printed  in 
that  poet's  works  edited  by  Owen  Jones  in 
1789.  In  1877  the  Rev.  Robert  Jones  [q.v.] 
commenced  to  publish  a  complete  edition  of 
lolo's  poems  for  the  Cymmrodorion  Society, 
but  he  died  when  thirteen  only  had  been 
printed,  two  of  which  had  previously  been 
published  in  Jones's  '  Gorchestion.'  Only 
eighteen  of  lolo's  poems  have  therefore  been 
printed.  One  hundred  and  twenty-eight  poems 
by  him  are  mentioned  as  scattered  throughout 
different  volumes  of  the  Myvyrian  collection 
in  the  British  Museum  (Add.  MSS.  14962- 
15089),  but  some  of  these  are  probably  du- 
plicates. There  are  many  at  Peniarth,  par- 
ticularly in  Hengwrt  MSS.  253  a,  330,  356, 
and  361,  and  three  are  also  included  in  the 
'  Red  Book  of  Hergest.'  lolo  is  said  to  have 
written  a  history  of  the  three  principalities 
of  Wales  (JONES,  Poetical  Eelicks  of  Welsh 
Bards,  ed.  1794,  p.  87),  but  this  has  long 
since  been  lost. 

[Williams's  Eminent  Welshmen  ;  Hans 
Llenyddiaeth  y  Cymry,  by  G-.  ab  Ehys,  pp.  127- 
135.]  D.  LL.  T. 

IORWERTH  AB  BLEDDTN  (d.  1112), 
Welsh  prince,  was  a  younger  son  of  Bleddyn 
ab  Cynvyn,  and  brother,  therefore,  of  Cadw- 
gan  (d.  1112)  [q.v.],  Madog,  Rhirid,  and 
Maredudd.  In  1100  he  was  living  in  Cere- 
digion  as  the  vassal  of  Robert  of  Belleme, 
earl  of  Shrewsbury  [q.  v.],  and  to  some  extent 
joint  ruler  with  his  elder  brother  Cadwgan  (d. 
1112)  [q.v.],  the  prince  of  Ceredigion  and  part 
of  Powys.  In  1102,  when  Belleme  revolted 
against  Henry  I,  he  called  on  the  Britons  sub- 
ject to  him  to  come  to  his  help,  promising 
them  property,  gifts,  and  freedom  (Brut  y 
Tywysogion,  p.  69,  Rolls  ed.  The  dates  of 
the '  Brut '  are  here  two  years  wrong).  lor- 
werth accompanied  Cadwgan  to  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Bridgnorth  to  annoy  the  troops 
which  Henry  I  had  brought  against  Robert's 
stronghold  (OBDEKictrs  VITALIS,  Hist.  JEccl. 
iv.  173,  ed.  Le  PrSvost).  Henry  now  sent 
William  Pantoul  or  Pantulf,  a  bitter  enemy 
of  his  former  lord,  Belleme,  to  buy  off  the 
Welsh  kings  (ib.  iv.  174).  He  separated 
lorwerth  from  Cadwgan  by  promising  him 
Powys,  Ceredigion,  half  of  Dy  ved  (including 
Pembroke  Castle),  Ystrad  Towy,  Gower,  and 
Kidwelly,  '  whilst  the  king  should  live,  free 
without  homage  and  payment  \Bruty  Tywy- 
soyion,  p.  71).  lorwerth  went  to  the  king's 
camp  and  agreed  to  change  sides.  While 
Cadwgan  and  Maredudd  were  still  with  Earl 
Robert,  lorwerth  managed  to  turn  the  whole 
Welsh  army  against  the  lord  of  Shrewsbury. 
This  unexpected  blow  was  the  more  severe  as 
Belleme  had  sent  his  cattle  and  riches  for  safety 
among  the  Britons.  He  saw  that  all  was 
lost,  in  despair  abandoned  Bridgnorth,  and 
soon  lost  his  power  altogether.  The  Welsh 
writers  perhaps  assign  too  great  a  share  to 
lorwerth  in  bringing  about  Belleme's  fall,  but 
it  was  not  inconsiderable. 

lorwerth  was  now  at  war  with  his  brothers, 
but  he  soon  made  peace  with  Cadwgan,  ac- 
knowledging him  as  lord  of  his  former  pos- 
sessions in  Ceredigion  and  Powys  and  con- 
tenting himself  with  the  rest  of  King  Henry's 
grant.  But  he  took  Maredudd  prisoner  and 
handed  him  over  to  King  Henry.  He  then 
repaired  to  Henry  to  receive  his  reward.  But 
the  king  broke  his  word,  and  gave  Dy  ved  to 
a  Norman  knight  named  Saer,  and  Ystrad 
Towy,  Gower,  and  Kidwelly  to  a  rival  Welsh 
chieftain,  Howel,  son  of  Goronwy.  Next 
year  (1103)  lorwerth  was  summoned  to 
Shrewsbury,  and,  after  a  day's  trial  before 
the  king's  council,  in  which  all  his  pleadings 
and  claims  were  judged  against  him,  was 
thrown  into  prison,  '  not  according  to  law 
but  according  to  power.'  '  Then  failed  the 
hope  and  happiness  of  all  the  Britons'  (ib. 
p.  77). 



lorwerth  remained  in  prison  until  1111 
(Annales  Cambria, p.  34 ;  Eruty  Tywysogion, 
p.  97,  dates  his  release  in  1107).  He  was  then 
released  by  the  king  on  giving  hostages  and 
paying  a  ransom,  and  his  territory  (apparently 
some  part  of  Powys)  was  restored  to  him. 
But  his  outlawed  nephews,  Owain,  son  of 
Cadwgan,  and  Madog,  son  of  Rhirid,  took  up 
their  abode  on  his  lands  and  hid  their  prey 
there.  lorwerth  in  vain  besought  them  to 
leave  him  in  peace.  As  he  had  been  strongly 
enjoined  to  have  no  intercourse  with  them 
but  to  hunt  them  out  and  deliver  them  to  the 
king,  he  was  forced  to  collect  his  followers 
and  pursue  them.  They  retreated  to  Meirio- 
nydd,  but  soon  went  to  Ceredigion,  whose 
ruler,  Cadwgan,  was  now  again  on  good  terms 
with  lorwerth.  There  they  committed  fresh 
outrages.  lorwerth  accompanied  Cadwgan 
on  his  visit  to  the  king's  court  to  deprecate 
Henry's  wrath.  Henry  deprived  Cadwgan  of 
Ceredigion  for  his  weakness,  but  left  lorwerth 
in  possession  of  Powys.  Madog  soon  went 
back  to  lorwerth's  territory.  lorwerth  was 
still  afraid  to  receive  him,  so  Madog  hid  him- 
self and  joined  Llywerch,  son  of  Trahaiarn, 
in  a  plot  against  his  uncle.  They  at  last 
(1112)  made  a  night  attack  on  lorwerth's 
house  in  Caereineon,  and  sent  up  a  shout 
which  awoke  lorwerth,  who  bravely  defended 
the  house.  Madog  set  fire  to  it,  and  lor- 
werth's companions  escaped,  leaving  him  in 
the  fire.  lorwerth,  severely  burnt,  tried  to 
get  out,  but  his  enemies  received  him  on  the 
points  of  their  spears  and  slew  him. 

[Brut  y  Tywysogion,  the  Welsh  text  in  J.  G-. 
Evans's  Red  Book  of  Hergest,  vol.  ii.,  the  Eng- 
lish translation  in  the  Rolls  ed. ;  Annales  Cam- 
brise  (Rolls  ed.) ;  Ordericus  Vitalis,  Hist.  Eccl. 
ed.  Le  Prevost ;  Freeman's  William  Rufus,  ii. 
424-53.]  T.  F.  T. 

1845),  captain  in  the  navy  and  traveller,  born 
9  Oct.  1789,  was  sixth  son  of  Frederick  Irby, 
second  lord  Boston,  and  brother  of  Rear- 
admiral  Frederick  Paul  Irby  [q.  v.]  He 
entered  the  navy  in  1801,  and  after  serving 
in  the  North  Sea  and  Mediterranean,  at  the 
Cape  of  Good  Hope,  the  reduction  of  Monte 
Video,  and  in  the  Bay  of  Biscay,  was  pro- 
moted to  be  lieutenant  on  13  Oct.  1808.  He 
afterwards  served  at  the  reduction  of  Mauri- 
tius, and  on  the  coast  of  North  America ; 
and  on  7  June  1814  was  promoted  to  the 
command  of  the  Thames,  in  which  he  took 
part  in  the  unfortunate  expedition  against 
New  Orleans.  Ill-health  compelled  him  to 
resign  the  command  in  May  1815;  and  in  the 
summer  of  1816  he  left  England  in  company 
with  an  old  friend  and  messmate,  Captain 

James  Mangles  [q.  v.],  with  the  intention  of 
making  a  tour  011  the  continent.  The  jour- 
ney was  extended  far  beyond  their  original 
design.  They  visited  Egypt,  and,  going  up  the 
Nile,  in  the  company  of  Giovanni  Baptista 
Belzoni  [q.  v.]  and  Henry  William  Beechey 
[q.  v.],  explored  the  temple  at  Abu-Simbel 
(Ipsamboul)  ;  afterwards,  they  went  across 
the  desert  and  along  the  coast,  with  a 
divergence  to  Balbec  and  the  Cedars,  and 
reached  Aleppo,  where  they  met  William 
John  Bankes  [q.  v.]  and  Thomas  Legh,  who 
with  themselves  were  the  earliest  of  modern 
explorers  of  Syria.  Thence  they  travelled  to 
Palmyra,  Damascus,  down  the  valley  of  the 
Jordan,  and  so  to  Jerusalem.  They  after- 
wards passed  round  the  Dead  Sea,  and  through 
the  Holy  Land.  At  Acre  they  embarked  in 
a  Venetian  brig  for  Constantinople ;  but  being 
both  dangerously  ill  of  dysentery,  they  were 
landed  at  Cyprus  for  medical  assistance.  In 
the  middle  of  December  1818  they  shipped  on 
board  a  vessel  bound  for  Marseilles,  which 
they  reached  after  a  boisterous  passage  of 
seventy-six  days.  Their  letters  during  their 
journeyings  were  afterwards  collected,  and 
privately  printed  in  1 823  under  the  title  of 
'  Travels  in  Egypt  and  Nubia,  Syria  and  Asia 
Minor,  during  the  years  1817-18.'  In  1844 
they  were  published  as  a  volume  of  Murray's 
'  Colonial  and  Home  Library.' 

In  August  1826  Irby  was  appointed  to 
command  the  Pelican  sloop,  fitting  out  for 
the  Mediterranean,  where  she  was  actively 
employed  in  the  suppression  of  piracy  in  the 
Levant  and  on  the  coast  of  Greece.  On  2  July 
1827  he  was  posted  to  the  Ariadne,  but  was 
not  relieved  from  the  command  of  the  Peli- 
can till  the  end  of  September ;  and  after  the 
battle  of  Navarino  he  was  appointed  by  Sir 
Edward  Codrington  to  bring  home  the  Genoa 
[see  BATHTTRST,  WALTER],  which  he  paid  off 
at  Plymouth  in  January  1828.  He  had  no 
further  service,  and  died  on  3  Dec.  1845.  He 
married,  in  February  1825,  Frances,  a  sister 
of  his  friend  Captain  Mangles,  and  left  issue. 

[Marshall's  Roy.  Nav.  Biog.  x.  (vol.iii.  pt.  ii.) 
1  ;  O'Byrne's  Naval  Biographical  Diet. ;  Gent. 
Mag.  1845,  xxv.  new  ser.  536 ;  Travels  in  Egypt, 
&c.  (as  ia  text)  ;  Foster's  Peerage.]  J.  K.  L. 

1844),  rear-admiral,  born  on  18  April  1779, 
was  second  son  of  Frederick,  second  lord 
Boston,  and  brother  of  Captain  Charles  Leo- 
nard Irby  [q.  v.]  He  entered  the  navy  in 
1791,  served  on  the  home  and  North  Ameri- 
can stations,  and,  as  midshipman  of  the  Mon- 
tagu, was  present  in  the  battle  of  1  June 
1794.  On  6  Jan.  1797  he  was  promoted  to 
be  lieutenant  of  the  Circe  frigate,  in  which 


he  was  present  at  the  battle  of  Camperdown. 
He  was  afterwards  in  the  Apollo,  which  was 
wrecked  near  the  Texel  on  7  Jan.  1799.  On 
22  April  1800  he  was  promoted  to  command 
the  Volcano  bomb ;  in  the  following  year  was 
moved  into  the  Jalouse,  was  employed  in  the 
North  Sea,  and  was  advanced  to  post  rank 
on  14  April  1802.  In  1805  he  had  command 
of  the  sea-fencibles  in  the  Essex  district,  and 
towards  the  end  of  1807  was  appointed  to 
the  Amelia,  a  38-gun  frigate,  on  the  home 
station,  one  of  the  squadron  under  Rear- 
admiral  Stopford,  which,  on  24  Feb.  1809, 
drove  ashore  and  destroyed  three  large  fri- 
gates near  Sables  d'Olonne  [see  STOPFORD, 
SIR  ROBERT].  The  Amelia,  being  the  look- 
out ship  of  the  squadron,  first  sighted  them, 
engaged  them  in  a  running  fight,  and  received 
little  material  support  from  her  consorts. 
Irby's  gallantry  and  the  good  conduct  of  his 
men  elicited  the  special  approval  of  the  admi- 
ralty. For  the  next  two  years  he  continued  ac- 
tivelyemployed  on  the  coast  of  France,and  on 
24  March  1811  he  assisted  in  driving  on  shore 
and  destroying  the  French  frigate  Amazone. 
Still  in  the  Amelia,  Irby  was  afterwards  sent 
as  senior  officer  of  the  squadron  on  the  west 
coast  of  Africa,  which  was  employed  in  the 
suppression  of  the  slave  trade  and  the  support 
of  our  settlements.  In  the  end  of  January 
181 3,  as  he  was  on  the  point  of  leaving  Sierra 
Leone  for  England,  two  French  40-gun  fri- 
gates, Arethuse  and  Rubis,  arrived  on  the 
coast.  Each  of  them  was  of  rather  more  than 
the  nominal  force  of  the  Amelia,  whose  crew 
was,  moreover,  worn  and  reduced  by  the  two 
years  of  African  climate,  while  the  enemy's 
ships  were  newly  come  from  France.  Irby, 
however,  at  once  put  to  sea,  meaning  to  keep 
watch  on  them,  while  he  collected  such  force 
as  was  on  the  station ;  but  coming  in  sight 
of  them  at  anchor  on  6  Feb.,  the  Arethuse 
weighed  and  stood  out  to  meet  him.  Irby, 
who  did  not  know  that  the  Rubis  had  been 
on  shore  and  was  disabled,  made  sail  off  the 
land  in  order  to  draw  the  Arethuse  away 
from  her  consort,  and  it  was  not  till  the 
evening  of  the  next  day,  7  Feb.,  that  he 
turned  to  meet  the  French  ship.  One  of  the 
most  equal  and  gallant  actions  of  the  war 
then  followed.  After  four  hours  of  stubborn 
fight,  both  frigates  had  received  such  injuries 
that  they  were  unable  to  continue.  They 
separated  to  repair  damages,  and  neither 
was  willing  to  renew  the  combat.  Each  re- 
ported that  the  other  had  fled,  though,  in 
the  damaged  state  in  which  they  both  were, 
flight  was  impossible.  Irby  was  naturally  in 
momentary  apprehension  of  the  Rubis  join- 
ing her  consort,  and  at  the  same  time  felt 
sure  that  the  Arethuse  would  be  compelled 

)  Ireland 

to  return  to  France,  and  that  the  Rubis 
would  go  with  her.  He  thus  felt  justified, 
for  the  sake  of  his  many  wounded,  in  leaving 
the  coast.  The  Amelia  was  paid  off  in  May 
1813,  and  Irby  had  no  further  service.  He 
was  made  a  C.B.  in  1831,  became  a  rear- 
admiral  in  1837,  and  died  on  24  April  1844. 
He  was  twice  married,  and  left  a  numerous 

[Marshall's  Roy.  Nav.  Biog.  iii.  (vol.  ii.) 
488 ;  Men  of  the  Eeign  ;  James's  Naval  His- 
tory, ed.  of  1860,  vi.  42 ;  Chevalier's  Histoire 
de  la  Marine  Fran<jaise  sous  le  Consulat  et 
1'Empire,  p.  299  ;  Foster's  Peerage.]  J.  K.  L. 

IRELAND,  DIJKE  op.  [See  VERE,  RO- 

IRELAND,  FRANCIS  (fl.  1745-1773), 
musical  composer.  [See  HUTCHESON, 
FRANCIS,  the  younger.] 

IRELAND,  JOHN  (d.  1808),  author, 
was  born  at  the  Trench  Farm,  near  Wem  in 
Shropshire ;  the  house  had  been  the  birth- 
place and  country  house  of  Wycherley,  whose 
widow  is  said  to  have  adopted  him,  but,  dying 
without  a  will,  to  have  left  him  unprovided 
for.  His  mother  was  daughter  of  the  Rev. 
Thomas  Holland,  and  granddaughter  of  Philip 
Henry  [q.  v.]  Ireland  was  first  apprenticed  to 
Isaac  Wood,  a  watchmaker,  of  Shrewsbury. 
He  afterwards  practised  as  a  watchmaker  in 
Maiden  Lane,  London,  and  was  a  well-known 
member  of  the  society  that  frequented  the 
Three  Feathers  coffee-house,  Leicester  Fields 
(see  J.  T.  SMITH,  Book  for  a  Rainy  Day).  He 
published  in  1785  a  poem, '  The  Emigrant,' 
for  which  he  apologised  on  the  score  of  youth. 
He  was  a  friend  of  John  Henderson  [q.  v.] 
the  actor,  and  in  1786  published  Hender- 
son's '  Letters  and  Poems,  with  Anecdotes 
of  his  Life,'  a  book  of  some  merit.  Ireland 
was  a  great  admirer  and  collector  of  the 
works  of  William  Hogarth  [q.  v.]  In  1793 
he  was  employed  by  Messrs.  Boydell  to  edit 
a  work  on  the  lines  of  Trusler's  '  Hogarth 
Moralised,'  and  called  '  Hogarth  Illustrated.' 
The  first  two  volumes  were  published  in 
1791,  and  reprinted  in  1793  and  1806.  Sub- 
sequently Ireland  obtained  from  Mrs.  Lewis, 
the  executrix  of  Mrs.  Hogarth,  a  number  of 
manuscripts  and  sketches  which  had  belonged 
to  Hogarth,  including  the  original  manuscript 
of  the  'Analysis  of  Beauty,'  and  many  auto- 
biographical memoranda  and  sketches  pre- 
pared by  Hogarth  himself  in  view  of  the 
publication  of  'A  History  of  the  Arts.'  From 
this  Ireland  compiled  a  biography  of  the 
artist,  which  has  been  the  foundation  of  all 
subsequent  memoirs.  It  was  published  in  1798 
as  a  supplementary  volume  to  his  '  Hogarth 




Illustrated,  with  Engravings  from  some 
hitherto  unpublished  Drawings.'  A  second 
edition  of  the  '  Supplement '  appeared  in 
1804 ;  the  whole  work  was  reprinted  in  1812. 
Ireland  died  in  Birmingham  in  November 

His  collection  was  sold  by  auction  on  5  and 
6  March  1810.  A  portrait  of  Ireland  was 
engraved  by  Isaac  Mills  from  a  drawing  by 
J.  R.  Smith,  which  was  afterwards  in  the 
collection  of  J.  B.  Nichols.  Another  por- 
trait, drawn  by  his  friend  J.  H.  Mortimer,  was 
engraved  by  Skelton  for  his  '  Hogarth  Illus- 
trated ; '  a  copy  of  this  by  T.  Tagg  appeared 
in  the  later  reprints.  A  portrait  of  him, 
drawn  by  R.  "VVestall,  R.A.,  is  in  the  print 
room  at  the  British  Museum,  where  there  is 
also  a  small  drawing  of  him  prefixed  to  a 
copy  of  the  sale  catalogue  of  his  collection. 
He  was  no  relation  to  Samuel  Ireland  (d. 
1800)  [q.  v.]  He  is  sometimes  stated  to 
have  been  a  print-seller,  but,  if  this  was  the 
case,  he  does  not  appear  to  have  concerned 
himself  with  other  engravings  than  those  by 
or  after  Hogarth, 

[Gent.  Mag.  1808,  Ixviii.  1189;  Chalmers's 
Biog.  Diet. ;  Shropshire  Archseol.  Trans.  2nd 
ser.  ii.  349 ;  Ireland's  own  works.]  L.  C. 

IRELAND,  JOHN,  D.D.  (1761-1842), 
dean  of  Westminster,  born  at  Ashburton, 
Devonshire,  on  8  Sept.  1761,  was  son  of 
Thomas  Ireland,  a  butcher  of  that  town,  and 
of  Elizabeth  his  wife.  He  was  educated  at 
the  free  grammar  school  of  Ashburton,  under 
the  Rev.  Thomas  Smerdon.  William  Gifford 
[q.  v.]  was  a  fellow-pupil,  and  their  friend- 
ship continued  unbroken  until  death.  For  a 
short  time  Ireland  was  in  the  shop  of  a  shoe- 
maker in  his  native  town;  but  on  8  Dec. 
1779,  when  aged  18,  he  matriculated  as  bible- 
clerk  at  Oriel  College,  Oxford.  He  gra- 
duated B.A.  on  30  June  1783,  M.A.  as  grand 
compounder  on  13  June  1810,  and  B.D.  and 
D.D.  on  24  Oct.  1810.  After  serving  a  small 
curacy  near  Ashburton  for  a  short  time,  he 
travelled  on  the  continent  as  tutor  to  the  son 
of  Sir  James  Wright.  From  15  July  1793 
till  1816  he  was  vicar  of  Croydon.  While 
in  that  position  he  acted  as  reader  and  chap- 
lain to  the  Earl  of  Liverpool,  who  procured 
his  appointment  to  a  prebendal  stall  in  West- 
minster Abbey  (14  Aug.  1802).  His  con- 
nection with  the  abbey  lasted  for  life.  He 
was  made  subdean  in  1806,  when  the  theo- 
logical lectureship,  which  was  founded  at 
Westminster  by  the  statutes  of  Queen  Eliza- 
beth, was  revived  for  him,  and  on  the  death 
of  Dean  Vincent  in  December  1815  he  was 
promoted  to  the  deanery,  being  installed  on 
9  Feb.  1816.  From  1816  to  1835  Ireland 

held  the  rectory  of  Islip  in  Oxfordshire,  and 
he  was  also  dean  of  the  order  of  the  Bath.  The 
regius  professorship  of  divinity  at  Oxford  was 
offered  to  him  in  1813,  but  he  declined  it. 
With  such  preferments  Ireland  acquired  con- 
siderable wealth,  which  he  used  with  great 
generosity.  In  1825  he  gave  4,000/.  for  the 
foundation  at  Oxford  of  four  scholarships,  of 
the  value  of  301.  a  year  each,  '  for  the  pro- 
motion of  classical  learning  and  taste.'  (For 
a  full  list  of  the  scholars,  see  Oxford  Mag. 
21  Jan.  1891.)  To  Westminster* School  he 
gave  bOOl.  for  the  establishment  of  prizes 
for  poems  in  Latin  hexameters.  (For  a  list 
of  the  winners  from  1821  to  1851,  see  WELCH, 
Alumni  Westmonasterienses,  ed.  Phillimore.) 
Mindful  of  the  advantages  he  had  derived 
from  his  free  education  in  classics,  he  ex- 
pended 2,000/.  in  purchasing  a  house  in  East 
Street,  Ashburton,  as  a ,  residence  for  the 
master  of  its  grammar  school,  left  an  endow- 
ment for  its  repair,  and  drew  up  statutes  for 
remodelling  the  school.  For  the  support  of 
six  old  persons  of  the  same  town  he  settled 
a  fund  of  301.  per  annum. 

For  four  years  before  his  death  Ireland  was 
in  feeble  health,  but  he  lived  to  a  great  age, 
dying  at  the  deanery,  Westminster,  on  2  Sept. 
1842,  and  being  buried  on  8  Sept.  by  the  side 
of  Gifford,  in  the  south  transept  of  the  abbey, 
where  a  monument,  with  a  Latin  inscription, 
was  placed  to  his  memory.  He  married 
Susannah,  only  daughter  of  John  Short  of 
Bickham,  Devonshire,  who  died  without  issue 
at  Islip  rectory  on  9  Nov.  1826,  aged  71. 
Though  much  of  his  property  passed  to  his 
relatives,  he  left  5,000/.  for  the  erection  of  a 
new  church  at  Westminster,  which  was  in- 
validated under  the  Mortmain  Acts ;  10,000/. 
to  the  university  of  Oxford  for  a  professor  of 
the  exegesis  of  the  Holy  Scripture ;  and  2,0001. 
to  Oriel  College  for  exhibitions.  As  dean 
of  Westminster  he  held  the  crown  at  the 
coronations  of  George  IV,  William  IV,  and 
Queen  Victoria,  and  his  likeness,  as  he  ap- 
peared on  the  first  of  these  occasions,  was 
drawn  by  G.  P.  Harding,  and  engraved  by 
James  Stow  in  Harding's  series  of  portraits 
of  the  deans  in  Brayley's  '  Westminster 
Abbey,'  illustrated  by  Neale,  and  also  in  Sir 
George  Naylor's  '  Coronation  of  George  IV/ 
A  marble  bust  of  him  by  Chantrey  is  in  the 
Bodleian  Library.  An  early  portrait  by 
Hoppner  has  not  been  engraved. 

Ireland  was  the  author  of:  1.  'Five  Dis- 
courses for  and  against  the  Reception  of 
Christianity  by  the  Antient  Jews  andGreeks,' 
1796.  2.  '  Vindicise  Regise,  or  a  Defence  of 
the  Kingly  Office,  in  two  Letters  to  Earl 
Stanhope'  [anon.],  1797,  2  editions.  3.  '  Let- 
ters of  Fabius  to  Right  Hon.  William  Pitt, 

Ireland  3 

on  his  proposed  Abolition  of  the  Test  in  favour 
of  the  Roman  Catholics  of  Ireland'  [anon.], 
1801.  The  letters  originally  appeared  in  Cob- 
bett's  paper,  '  The  Porcupine.'  4.  '  Nuptiae 
Same,  or  an  Enquiry  into  the  Scriptural  Doc- 
trine of  Marriage  and  Divorce'  [anon.],  1801. 
Reprinted  by  desire  1821,  and  again  in  1830. 

5.  '  The  Claims  of  the  Establishment,'  1807. 

6.  '  Paganism  and  Christianity  compared,  in 
a  Course  of  Lectures  to  the  King's  Scholars 
at  Westminster  in  1806-7-8,'  1809 ;  new  edit., 
1825.    The  lectures  were  continued  until  the 
summer  of  1812,  the  second  subject  being 
'  The  History  and  Principles  of  Revelation,' 
but  they  were  not  printed.     7.  '  Letter  to 
Henry  Brougham,'  1818,  and  in  the  '  Pam- 
phleteer,' vol.  xiv.  relating  to  certain  cha- 
rities at  Croydon,  which  were  referred  to  by 
Brougham  in  his  '  Letter  to  Sir  Samuel  Ro- 
milly  on  the  Abuse  of  Charities.'    A  printed 
letter  to  Sir  William  Scott  on  the  same  sub- 
ject is  also  attributed  to  Ireland  in  the  Cata- 
logue of  the  British  Museum  Library.  8. '  The 
Plague  of  Marseilles  in  1720.     From  docu- 
ments preserved  in  the  archives  of  that  city, 
1834.'    It  was  read  by  Sir  Henry  Halford  at 
the  College  of  Physicians,  26  May  1834.     A 
lecture  on  the  '  Plague  of  Athens  compared 
with  the  Plague  of  the  Levant  and  that  of 
Milan  in  1630 '  was  also  written  by  Ireland, 
and  read  by  Halford  on  27  Feb.  1832,  but 
does  not  appear  to  have  been  printed.   When 
dying  he  ordered  that  all  his  manuscripts 
should  be  destroyed. 

Ireland  gave  valuable  assistance  to  Wil- 
liam Gifford  in  his  edition  of  the  works  of 
Massinger,  and  Gifford  cordially  acknow- 
ledged his  help  in  his  translation  of  Juvenal. 
In  the  '  Maeviad '  (lines  303,  &c.)  are  some 
touching  allusions  by  Gifford  to  their  long 
friendship,  and  among  the  odes  is  an  'Imita- 
tion of  Horace,'  addressed  to  Ireland.  At  the 
close  of  the '  Memoir  of  Ben  Jonson '  (  Works, 
i.  p.  ccxlvii)  is  a  feeling  reference  by  Gifford 
to  his  friend,  and  in  announcing  to  Canning 
his  retirement  from  the  editorship  of  the 
'  Quarterly  Review '  (September  1824),  he 
mentions  that  Ireland  had  stood  closely  by 
him  during  the  whole  period  of  its  exist- 
ence. He  is  said  to  have  contributed  many 
articles  to  the  early  numbers  of  the  '  Quar- 
terly,' but  none  of  these  have  been  identified. 
Ireland  proved  Gifford's  will,  and  obtainec 
his  consent  to  his  burial  at  Westminstei 

Edward  Hawkins  [q.  v.],  provost  of  Oriel 
and  first  professor  of  the  exegesis  of  the  Holy 
Scripture  under  Ireland's  will,  delivered  the 
inaugural  lecture  (2  Nov.  1847),  which  was 
afterwards  printed, '  with  brief  notices  of  the 


[Welch's  Alumni  Westmonast.  ed.  Phillimore, 
3p.  36,  538,  540-2 ;  Forshall's  Westminster 
School,  pp.  110-11 ;  Chester's  Eeg.  of  Westmin- 
ster Abbey,  p.  510  ;  Stapleton's  Corresp.  of  Can- 
ning, i.  225-6  ;  Worthy's  Ashburton,  pp.  38,  47, 
and  App.  pp.  x,  xi,  xxv ;  Gifford's  Massinger, 
.  pp.  xxxiv-v  ;  Nichols's  Illustr.  of  Lit.  vi.  9, 11 ; 
Foster's  Oxford  Reg. ;  Gent.  Mag.  1826  pt.  ii. 
p.  476,  1842  pt.  ii.  pp.  549-50.]  W.  P.  C. 

IRELAND,  SAMUEL  (d.  1800),  author 
and  engraver,  began  life   as  a  weaver  in 
Spitalfields,  London,  but  soon  took  to  deal- 
ing in  prints  and  drawings  and  devoted  his 
Leisure  to  teaching  himself  drawing,  etching, 
and  engraving.     He  made  sufficient  progress 
to  obtain  a  medal  from  the  Society  of  Arts 
in  1760.     In  1784  he  appears  as  an  exhibitor 
for  the  first   and  apparently  only  time  at 
the  Royal  Academy,  sending  a  view  of  Ox- 
ford  (cf.    Catalogues,  1780-90).     Between 
1780  and  1785  he  etched  many  plates  after 
John    Hamilton    Mortimer    and  Hogarth. 
Etched  portraits  by  him  of  General  Ogle- 
thorpe  (in  1785)  and  Thomas  Inglefield,  an 
armless  artist  (1787),  are  in  the  print  room 
of  the  British  Museum,  together  with  etch- 
ings after  Ruisdael  (1786)  and  Teniers  (1787) 
and  other  masters,  and  some  architectural 
drawings  in  water-colour.     There  is  some- 
thing amateurish  about  all  his  artistic  work. 
Meanwhile  his  taste  for  collecting  books,  pic- 
tures, and  curiosities  gradually  became  an  all- 
absorbing  passion,  and  his  methods  exposed 
him  at  times  to  censure.  In  1787  Horace  Wai- 
pole,  writing  of  an  edition  (limited  to  forty 
copies)  of  a  pamphlet  which  he  was  pre- 
paring at  Strawberry  Hill,  complained  that 
'  a  Mr.  Ireland,  a  collector,  I  believe  with 
interested  views,  bribed  my  engraver  to  sell 
him  a  print  of  the  frontispiece,  has  etched  it 
himself,  and  I  have  heard  has  represented 
the  piece,  and  I  suppose  will  sell  some  copies, 
as  part  of  the  forty '  (Letters,  ed.  Cunning- 
ham, ix.  110).     In  1794  Ireland  proved  the 
value  of  a  part  of  his  collection  by  issuing- 
'  Graphic  Illustrations  of  Hogarth,  from  Pic- 
tures, Drawings,  and  Scarce  Prints  in  the 
Author's  possession.'     Some  of  the  plates- 
were  etched  by  himself.     A  second  volume 
appeared  in  1799.     The  work  is  of  high  in- 
terest, although  it  is  possible  that  Ireland 
has,  either  wilfully  or  ignorantly,  assigned 
to  Hogarth  some  drawings  by  other  artists 
(cf.  sketch  of  Dennis  in  vol.  ii.) 

In  1790  Ireland  published  '  A  Picturesque 
Tour  through  France,  Holland,  Brabant, 
and  part  of  France  made  in  the  Autumn  of 
1789,'  London  (2  vols.  roy.  8vo  and  in  large- 
paper  4to).  It  was  dedicated  to  Francis 
Grose  and  contained  etchings  on  copper  in 
aqua-tinta  from  drawings  made  by  the 



author  '  on  the  spot.'  He  paid  at  least  one 
visit  to  France  (cf.  W.  H.  IRELAND,  Con- 
fessions, p.  5),  and  the  charge  brought  against 
him  by  his  enemies  that  he  was  never  out 
of  England  is  unfounded.  A  second  edition 
appeared  in  1795.  The  series,  which  was 
long  valued  by  collectors,  was  continued  in 
the  same  form  in  '  Picturesque  Views  on  the 
Eiver  Thames,'  1792  (2  vols.,2nd  ed.  1800-1), 
dedicated  to  Earl  Harcourt ;  in  '  Picturesque 
Views  on  the  River  Medway,'  1793  (1  vol.), 
dedicated  to  the  Countess  Do  wager  of  Ayles- 
ford ;  in  '  Picturesque  Views  on  the  War- 
wickshire Avon,'  1795  (1  vol.),  dedicated  to 
the  Earl  of  Warwick ;  and  in  '  Picturesque 
Views  on  the  River  Wye,'  1797  (1  vol.) 
In  1800,  just  after  Ireland's  death,  appeared 
'  Picturesque  Views,  with  an  Historical  Ac- 
count of  the  Inns  of  Court  in  London 
and  Westminster,'  dedicated  to  Alexander, 
lord  Loughborough,  and  the  series  was  con- 
cluded by  the  publication  in  1824  of  '  Pic- 
turesque Views  on  the  River  Severn  '(2  vols.), 
with  coloured  lithographs,  after  drawings 
by  Ireland,  and  descriptions  by  T.  Harral. 
Ireland  had  announced  the  immediate  issue 
of  this  work  in  his  volume  on  the  Wye  in 

In  1790  Ireland  resided  in  Arundel  Street, 
Strand,  and  a  year  later  removed  to  8  Nor- 
folk Street.  His  household  consisted  of  Mrs. 
Freeman,  a  housekeeper  and  amanuensis, 
whose  handwriting  shows  her  to  have  been 
a  woman  of  education,  a  son  William  Henry, 
and  a  daughter  Jane.  The  latter  painted 
some  clever  miniatures.  He  had  also  a  mar- 
ried daughter,  Anna  Maria  Barnard. 

Doubts  are  justifiable  about  the  legitimacy 
-of  the  surviving  son,  WILLIAM  HENRY  IRE- 
LAND (1777-1835),  the  forger  of  Shake- 
speare manuscripts,  with  whose  history  the 
later  career  of  the  father  is  inextricably  con- 
nected. Malone  asserted  that  his  mother 
was  Mrs.  Irwin,  a  married  woman  who  was 
separated  from  her  husband,  and  with  whom 
the  elder  Ireland  lived  (manuscript  note 
in  British  Museum  copy  of  W.  H.  IRE- 
LAND'S Authentic  Account,  1796,  p.  1).  Ac- 
cording to  the  same  authority  the  boy  was 
baptised  as  William  Henry  Irwin  in  the 
church  of  St.  Clement  Danes  in  the  Strand 
in  1777,  in  which  year  he  was  undoubtedly 
born,  but  there  is  no  confirmation  of  the 
statement  in  the  parish  register.  He  him- 
self, in  a  letter  to  his  father  dated  January 
1797  (Addit.  MS.  30346,  f.  307),  mournfully 
admitted  that  there  was  a  mystery  respect- 
ing his  birth,  which  his  father  had  promised 
to  clear  up  on  his  coming  of  age,  and  in  an 
earlier  letter,  13  Dec.  1796,  he  signed  him- 
aelf  '  W.  H.  Freeman,'  evidence  that  he  be- 

lieved his  father's  housekeeper  to  be  his 
mother  (ib.  f.  3026).  Although  undoubtedly 
christened  in  the  names  of  William  Henry, 
his  father  habitually  called  him  '  Sam,'  in 
affectionate  memory,  it  was  asserted,  of  a 
dead  brother,  and  he  occasionally  signed  him- 
self 'Samuel  Ireland,  junior,'  and  '  S.  W.  H. 
Ireland.'  At  first  educated  at  private  schools 
in  Kensington,  Baling,  and  Soho,  he  was 
sent  when  he  was  thirteen  to  schools  in 
France,  and  he  retained  through  life  the 
complete  knowledge  of  French  which  he  ac- 
quired during  his  four  years'  stay  there.  On 
his  return  home  he  was  articled  to  William 
Bingley,  a  conveyancer  in  chancery  of  New 
Inn.  He  enmlated  his  father's  love  of  an- 
tiquities, and  while  still  a  boy  picked  up 
many  rare  books.  He  studied  Percy's  '  Re- 
liques,'  Grose's  '  Ancient  Armoury,'  and 
mediaeval  poems  and  romances,  and  amused 
himself  by  writing  verse  in  imitation  of 
early  authors.  His  father  read  aloud  to  him 
Herbert  Croft's  '  Love  and  Madness,'  and  the 
story  of  Chatterton,  with  which  part  of  the 
book  deals,  impressed  him  deeply.  At  the 
same  time  he  was  devoted  to  the  stage.  The 
elder  Ireland  was  a  fervent  admirer  of  Shake- 
speare, and  about  1794,  when  preparing  his 
'  Picturesque  Views  of  the  Avon,'  he  took  his 
son  with  him  to  Stratford-on-Avon.  They 
carefully  examined  all  the  spots  associated 
with  the  dramatist.  The  father  accepted  as 
true  many  unauthentic  village  traditions, 
including  those  concocted  for  his  benefit  by 
John  Jordan  [q.  v.],  the  Stratford  poet,  who 
was  his  chief  guide  throughout  his  visit ; 
and  he  fully  credited  an  absurd  tale  of  the 
recent  destruction  of  Shakespeare's  own 
manuscripts  by  an  ignorant  owner  of  Clop- 
ton  House. 

Returning  to  London  in  the  autumn  of 
1794,  young  Ireland,  who  developed  lying 
proclivities  at  an  early  age,  obtained  some 
ink  which  had  all  the  appearance  of  ancient 
origin,  and  wrote  on  the  fly-leaf  of  an  Eliza- 
bethan tract  a  dedicatory  letter  professing 
to  have  been  addressed  by  the  author  to 
Queen  Elizabeth.  His  father  was  com- 
pletely deceived.  The  young  man  had  much 
time  to  himself  at  Bingley's  chambers,  and 
had  free  access  there  to  a  collection  of  parch- 
ment deeds  of  the  reigns  of  Elizabeth  and 
James  I.  At  the  house  of  Albany  Wal- 
lis,  a  solicitor  of  Norfolk  Street,  and  an  inti- 
mate friend  of  his  father,  he  had  similar 
opportunities  of  examining  old  legal  docu- 
ments. In  December  1794  he  cut  from  an 
ancient  deed  in  Bingley's  office  a  piece  of 
old  parchment,  and  wrote  on  it  in  an  old  law 
hand  a  mortgage  deed  purporting  to  have  been 
made  between  Shakespeare  and  John  Hem- 




inge  on  the  one  part,  and  Michael  Fraser  and 
his  wife  on  the  other.  The  language  and  sig- 
nature of  Shakespeare  were  copied  from  the 
genuine  mortgage  deed  of  1612,  which  had 
been  printed  in  facsimile  by  George  Steevens. 
Old  seals  torn  from  other  early  deeds  were  ap- 
pended. On  16  Dec.  young  Ireland  presented 
the  document  to  his  father,  who  at  once  ac- 
cepted it  as  genuine,  and  was  corroborated  in 
his  opinion  next  day  by  Sir  Frederick  Eden, 
who  carefully  examined  it.  In  the  follow- 
ing months  William  supplied  his  father  with 
many  similar  documents,  and  with  verses 
and  letters  bearing  Shakespeare's  forged  sig- 
nature written  on  fly-leaves  torn  from  Eliza- 
bethan books.  He  also  produced  a  large 
number  of  early  printed  volumes  in  which  he 
had  written  Shakespeare's  name  on  the  title- 
pages,  and  notes  and  verses  in  the  same 
feigned  handwriting  on  the  margin.  A 
transcript  of  '  Lear,'  with  a  few  alterations 
from  the  printed  copies,  and  a  few  extracts 
from  '  Hamlet,'  were  soon  added  to  the  col- 
lection. The  orthography,  imitated  from 
Chatterton's  '  Rowley  Poems,'  was  chiefly 
characterised  by  a  reckless  duplication  of 
consonants,  and  the  addition  of  e  to  the  end 
of  words.  When  his  father  inquired  as  to  the 
source  of  such  valuable  treasure-trove,  young 
Ireland  told  a  false  story  of  having  met  at  a 
friend's  house  a  rich  gentleman  who  had 
freely  placed  the  documents  at  his  disposal, 
on  the  condition  that  his  name  was  not  to  be 
revealed  beyond  the  initials  '  M.  H.'  Mon- 
tague Talbot,  a  friend  of  young  Ireland,  who 
was  at  the  time  a  law-clerk,  but  subsequently 
was  well  known  as  an  actor  in  Dublin  under 
the  name  of  Montague,  accidentally  dis- 
covered the  youth  in  the  act  of  preparing 
one  of  the  manuscripts,  but  he  agreed  to 
keep  the  secret,  suggested  modes  of  develop- 
ing the  scheme,  and  in  letters  to  his  friend's 
father  subsequently  corroborated  the  fable  of 
'  M.  H.,'  the  unknown  gentleman.  When 
the  father  was  preparing  to  meet  adverse 
criticism,  he  made  eager  efforts  to  learn  more 
of '  M.  H.,'  and  addressed  letters  to  him,  which 
he  gave  William  Henry  to  deliver.  The  an- 
swers received,  though  penned  by  his  son  in  a 
slightly  disguised  handwriting,  did  not  ex- 
cite suspicion.  The  supposititious  correspon- 
dent declined  to  announce  his  name,  but  took 
every  opportunity  of  eulogising  William 
Henry  as  '  brother  in  genius  to  Shakespeare,' 
and  enclosed  on  25  July  1795  some  extracts 
from  a  drama  on  William  the  Conqueror, 
avowedly  William  Henry's  composition. 

In  February  1795  the  elder  Ireland  had 
arranged  all  the  documents  for  exhibition  at 
his  house  in  Norfolk  Street,  and  invited  the 
chief  literary  men  of  the  day  to  inspect  them. 


The  credulity  displayed  somewhat  excuses 
Ireland's  sell-deception.  Dr.  Parr  and  Dr. 
Joseph  Warton  came  together,  and  the  latter, 
on  reading  an  alleged  profession  of  faith  by 
Shakespeare,  declared  it  to  be  finer  than  any- 
thing in  the  English  church  service.  Bos- 
well  kissed  the  supposed  relics  on  his  knees 
(20  Feb.)  James  Boaden  acknowledged 
their  genuineness,  while  Caley  and  many  offi- 
cers of  the  College  of  Arms  affected  to  demon- 
strate their  authenticity  on  palseographical 
grounds.  Dr.  Valpy  of  Reading  and  George 
Chalmers  were  frequent  visitors,  and  brought 
many  friends.  On  25  Feb.  Parr,  Sir  Isaac 
Heard,  Herbert  Croft,  Pye,  the  poet  laureate, 
and  sixteen  others,  signed  a  paper  solemnly 
testifying  to  their  belief  in  the  manuscripts. 
Person  refused  to  append  his  signature.  The 
exhibition,  which  roused  much  public  excite- 
ment, continued  for  more  than  a  year.  On 
17  Nov.  Ireland  and  his  son  carried  the  papers 
to  St.  James's  Palace,  where  the  Duke  of 
Clarence  and  Mrs.  Jordan  examined  them, 
and  on  30  Dec.  Ireland  submitted  them  to 
the  Prince  of  Wales  at  Carlton  House. 

Meanwhile  the  collection  had  been  growing. 
Encouraged  by  his  success,  young  Ireland  had 
presented  his  father  in  March  with  a  new 
blank-verse  play, '  Vortigern  and  Rowena,'  in 
what  he  represented  to  be  Shakespeare's  auto- 
graph, and  he  subsequently  produced  a  tra- 
gedy entitled '  Henry  II,'  which,  though  tran- 
scribed in  his  own  handwriting,  he  represented 
to  have  been  copied  from  an  original  in  Shake- 
speare's handwriting.  On  the  announcement 
of  the  discovery  of  Vortigern,'  Sheridan,  the 
lessee  of  Drury  Lane  Theatre,  and  Harris 
of  Covent  Garden  both  applied  to  Ireland 
for  permission  to  read  it,  with  a  view  to  its 
representation.  In  the  summer  young  Ireland 
concocted  a  series  of  deeds  to  prove  that  an 
ancestor  of  the  same  names  as  himself  had 
saved  Shakespeare  from  drowning,  and  had 
been  rewarded  by  the  dramatist  with  all  the 
manuscripts  which  had  just  been  brought  to 
light.  It  was  not,  however,  with  the  assent 
of  his  son  that  Ireland  issued  a  prospectus 
announcing  the  publication  of  the  docu- 
ments in  facsimile  (4  March  1795).  The 
price  to  subscribers  for  large-paper  copies 
was  fixed  at  four  guineas,  and  in  December 
1795  the  volume  appeared.  Its  title  was 
'  Miscellaneous  Papers  and  Legal  Instru- 
ments under  the  hand  and  seal  of  William 
Shakespeare,  including  the  tragedy  of  King 
Lear,  and  a  small  fragment  of  Hamlet,  from 
the  original  MSS.  in  the  possession  of  Samuel 
Ireland '  (London,  1796).  Neither  'Vorti- 
gern '  nor  '  Henry  II '  was  included. 

From  the  first  some  writers  in  the  news- 
papers had  denounced  the  papers  as  forgeries 




(cf.  Morning  Herald,  17  Feb.  1795).  Eitson 
and  George  Steevens,  among  the  earliest  visi- 
tors to  Norfolk  Street,  perceived  tlie  fraud. 
Malone,  although  he  declined  to  call  at  Ire- 
land's house,was  soon  convinced  of  the  deceit, 
and  promised  to  expose  it.  James  Boaden, 
a  former  believer,  grew  sceptical ;  placed  the 
'  Oracle,'  of  which  he  was  editor,  at  the  dis- 
posal of  the  unbelievers,  and  published  early 
in  1796  '  A  Letter  to  George  Steevens,'  at- 
tacking Ireland.  '  A  Comparative  View  of 
the  Opinions  of  James  Boaden,'  from  the  pen 
of  Ireland's  friend  Wyatt,  '  Shakespeare's 
Manuscripts,  by  Philalftthes '  [i.e.  Colonel 
Francis  Webb],  and  '  Vortigern  under  Con- 
sideration,' by  W.  C.  Oulton,  were  rapidly 
published  in  Ireland's  behalf  in  answer  to 
Boaden.  Porson  ridiculed  the  business  in  a 
translation  of '  Three  Children  Sliding  on  the 
Ice'  into  Greek  iambics, which  he  represented 
as  a  newly  discovered  fragment  of  Sophocles. 
A  pamphlet  by  F.  G.  Waldron,  entitled '  Free 
Reflections,'  was  equally  contemptuous,  and 
supplied  in  an  appendix  a  pretended  Shake- 
spearean drama,  entitled '  The  Virgin  Queen.' 
The  orthography  of  the  papers  was  unmerci- 
fully parodied  by  the  journalists.  The '  Morn- 
ing Herald '  published  in  the  autumn  of  1795 
Henry  Bate  Dudley's  mock  version  of  the 
much-talked-of '  Vortigern,'  which  was  still 
unpublished,  and  Ireland  had  to  warn  the 
public  against  mistaking  it  for  the  genuine 
play.  Dudley's  parody  was  issued  separately 
in  1796  as  '  Passages  on  the  Great  Literary 

After  much  negotiation  Sheridan  in  Sep- 
tember 1795  had  agreed  to  produce  '  Vor- 
tigern '  at  Drury  Lane.  Two  hundred  and 
fifty  pounds  were  to  be  paid  at  once  to  Ireland, 
and  half-profits  were  promised  him  on  each 
performance  after  350?.  had  been  received  by 
the  management  (cf.  agreement  inAddit^MS. 
30348,  ff.  22  sq.)  When  the  piece  was  sent  to 
the  theatre  in  December  Kemble's  suspicions 
were  aroused.  Delays  followed,  and  Ireland 
wrote  many  letters  to  both  Sheridan  and 
Kemble,  complaining  of  their  procrastination. 
At  length  the  piece  was  cast ;  the  chief  actors 
of  the  company  were  allotted  parts.  Pye 
wrote  a  prologue,  but  it  was  too  dubious  in 
tone  to  satisfy  Ireland,  who  rejected  it  in 
favour  of  one  of  Sir  James  Bland  Burges 
[q.  v.] ;  Robert  Merry  prepared  an  epilogue  to 
be  spoken  by  Mrs.  Jordan ;  William  Linley 
wrote  music  for  the  songs.  When  the  play 
was  put  into  rehearsal  Mrs.  Siddons  and  Mrs. 
Palmer  resigned  their  characters,  on  the  spe- 
cious excuse  of  ill-health.  On  the  eve  of  the 
performance  (March  1796)  Malone  issued  his 
caustic '  Inquiry  into  the  Authenticity '  of  the 
papers,  to  which  Ireland  temporarily  replied 

in  a  handbill,  appealing  to  the  public  to  give 
the  play  a  fair  hearing.  On  Saturday,  2  April 
1796,  the  piece  was  produced.  Kemble,  who 
had  been  prevented  by  Ireland's  complaints 
from  fixing  the  previous  night — April  Fool's 
day — for  the  event,  nevertheless  added  to 
the  programme  the  farce  entitled  '  My  Grand- 
mother,' and  Covent  Garden  announced  for 
representation  a  play  significantly  entitled 
'  The  Lie  of  the  Day.'  Drury  Lane  Theatre 
was  crowded.  At  first  all  went  well,  but  the 
audience  was  in  a  risible  humour,  and  the 
baldness  of  the  language  soon  began  to  pro- 
voke mirth.  When,  in  act  v.  sc.  2,  Kemble 
had  to  pronounce  the  line 

And  when  this  solemn  mockery  is  o'er, 

deafening  peals  of  laughter  rang  through  the 
house  and  lasted  until  the  piece  was  con- 
cluded (cf.  Notes  and  Queries,  2nd  ser.  iii.  492). 
Barrymore's  announcement  of  a  second  per- 
formance met  with  a  roar  of  disapprobation. 
The  younger  Ireland  afterwards  commemo- 
rated the  kindly  encouragement  which  Mrs. 
Jordan  offered  him  in  the  green-room,  but  for 
Kemble  and  most  of  the  other  actors  he  ex- 
pressed the  bitterest  scorn.  Kemble  asserted 
that  he  did  all  he  could  to  save  the  piece 
{Clubs  of  London,  1828,  ii.  107).  The  receipts 
from  the  first  and  only  performance  amounted 
to  555/.  6s.  Qd.,  of  which  1021.  13s.  3d.  was 
paid  to  the  elder  Ireland. 

The  flood  of  ridicule  rose  to  its  full  height 
immediately  after  this  exposure,  and  both 
the  Ireland's  were  overwhelmed.  But  the 
father's  faith  was  not  easily  shaken.  His  son 
at  once  confessed  to  his  sisters  that  he  was 
the  author  of  all  the  papers,  but  when  the 
story  was  repeated  by  them  to  the  elder  Ire- 
land he  declined  to  credit  it.  A  committee 
of  believers  met  at  the  house  in  Norfolk  Street 
in  April  to  investigate  the  history  of  the 
papers.  William  Henry  was  twice  examined, 
and  repeated  his  story  of  'M.  H.'  But  find- 
ing the  situation  desperate,  he  fully  admitted 
the  imposture  at  the  end  of  April  to  Albany 
Wallis,  the  attorney  of  Norfolk  Street,  and 
on  29  May  he  suddenly  left  his  father's  house 
without  communicating  his  intention  to  any 
of  the  family.  Before  the  end  of  the  year  he 
gave  a  history  of  the  forgeries  in  an  '  Au- 
thentic Account  of  the  Shakesperian  MSS.,' 
avowedly  written  '  to  remove  the  odium 
under  which  his  father  laboured.'  George 
Steevens  made  the  unfounded  statement  that 
this  work  was  published,  by  arrangement  be- 
tween father  and  son,  with  the  sole  view  of 
'  whitewashing  the  senior  culprit '  (NICHOLS, 
Lit.  III.  vii.  8).  This  opinion  gained  ground, 
and  the  old  man's  distress  of  mind  was  piti- 
able. He  still  refused  to  believe  his  son,  a  lad 




of  nineteen,  capable  of  the  literary  skill  need- 
ful to  the  production  of  the  papers,  or  to  re- 
gard the  proof  of  forgery  as  sufficient.  He 
published  in  November  1796  '  A  Vindication 
of  his  Conduct,'  defending  himself  from  the 
charges  of  having  wilfully  deceived  the  pub- 
lic, and  with  the  help  of  Thomas  Caldecott 
attacked  Malone,  whom  he  regarded  as  his 
chief  enemy,  in  'An  Investigation  of  Mr.  Ma- 
lone's  Claim  to  the  Character  of  Scholar  and 
Critic.'  On  29  Oct.  1796  he  was  ridiculed  on 
the  stage  at  Covent  Garden  as  Sir  Bamber 
Blackletter  in  Reynolds's  '  Fool  of  Fortune.' 
When  in  1797  he  published  his  '  Picturesque 
Tour  on  the  Wye,'  the  chilling  reception 
•with  which  it  met  and  the  pecuniary  loss  to 
which  it  led  proved  how  low  his  reputation 
liad  fallen.  George  Chalmers's  learned  'Apo- 
logy for  the  Believers  in  the  Shakesperian 
Papers/  with  its  'Supplemental  Apology' 
(1797),  mainly  attacked  Malone,  made  little 
reference  to  the  papers,  and  failed  to  re- 
store Ireland's  credit.  In  1799  he  had  the 
hardihood  to  publish  both  '  Vortigern '  and 
*  Henry  II,'  the  copyrights  of  which  his  son 
gave  him  before  leaving  home,  and  he  made 
vain  efforts  to  get  the  latter  represented  on 
the  stage.  Obloquy  still  pursued  him,  and 
more  than  once  he  contemplated  legal  pro- 
ceedings against  his  detractors.  He  died  in 
July  1800,  and  Dr.  Latham,  who  attended 
him,  recorded  his  deathbed  declaration,  '  that 
lie  was  totally  ignorant  of  the  deceit,  and  was 
equally  a  believer  in  the  authenticity  of  the 
manuscripts  as  those  who  were  the  most  cre- 
dulous '  (Diabetes,  1810,  p.  176).  He  was 
never  reconciled  to  his  son.  His  old  books 
and  curiosities  were  sold  by  auction  in  Lon- 
don 7-15  May  1801.  The  original  copies  of 
the  forgeries  and  many  rare  editions  of  Shake- 
speare's works  were  described  in  the  printed 
catalogue.  His  correspondence  respecting 
the  forgeries  was  purchased  by  the  British 
Museum  in  1877  (cf.  Addit.  MS.  30349-53). 
Gillray  published,  1  Dec.  1797,  a  sketch  of 
Ireland  as  '  Notorious  Characters,  No.  I.,' 
with  a  sarcastic  inscription  in  verse  by  Wil- 
liam Mason  (cf.  Gent.  Mag.  1797,  p.  931). 
Ireland  was  anxious  to  proceed  against  the 
artist  for  libel  (Addit.  MS.  30348,  f.  35). 
Two  other  plates,  '  The  Gold  Mines  of  Ire- 
land,' by  John  Nixon,  and  '  The  Ghost  of 
Shakespeare  appearing  to  his  Detractors,'  by 
Silvester  Harding,  introduce  portraits  of  Ire- 

Meanwhile  William  Henry  had  wandered 
almost  penniless  through  Wales  and  Glou- 
cestershire, visiting  at  Bristol,  in  the  autumn 
)f  1796,  the  scenes  connected  with  Chatter- 
on' s  tragic  story.  His  appeals  to  his  father 
or  money  were  refused.  On  6  June  1796  he 

had  married  in  Clerkenwell  Church  Alice 
Grudge,  and  in  November  1797  he  wrote  home 
that '  he  had  been  living  on  his  wife's  cloaths, 
linnen,  furniture,  &c.,  for  the  best  part  of  six 
months.'  He  thought  of  going  on  the  stage, 
but  his  applications  were  treated  with  scorn, 
and  he  began  planning  more  tragedies  after 
the  pattern  of '  Vortigern.'  In  1798  he  opened 
a  circulating  library  at  1  Princes  Place,  Ken- 
nington,  and  sold  imitations  in  his  feigned 
handwriting  of  the  famous  forged  papers.  A 
copy  of '  Henry  II'  transcribed  in  this  manner 
is  now  in  the  British  Museum  (Addit.  MS. 
12052).  A  complete  set  of  the  forgeries 
belonged  at  a  later  date  to  William  Thomas 
Moncrieff  the  dramatist  (Notes  and  Queries, 
5th  ser.  v.  160),  and  was  presented  in  1877  to 
the  Birmingham  Shakespeare  Memorial  Li- 
brary, where  it  was  destroyed  by  fire  in  1879. 
Book-collectors,  in  pity  of  his  poverty,  em- 
ployed him  to  '  inlay '  illustrated  books,  and 
rumours  of  his  dishonesty  in  such  employ- 
ment were  current  at  one  time.  In  1802 
he  had  a  gleam  of  better  fortune,  and  was 
employed  by  Princess  Elizabeth,  afterwards 
landgravine  of  Hesse-Homburg  [q.  v.],  to 
prepare  a  '  Frogmore  Fete.'  Finally  he  ob- 
tained fairly  regular  employment  of  varied 
kinds  from  the  London  publishers.  He  was 
in  Paris  in  1822,  and  thenceforth  described 
himself  on  the  title-pages  of  his  books  as 
'  member  of  the  Athenaeum  of  Sciences  and 
Arts  at  Paris.'  His  verses  show  some  literary 
facility,  and  his  political  squibs  some  power 
of  sarcasm.  Throughout  his  writings  he  exhi- 
bits sufficient  skill  to  dispose  of  the  theory 
that  he  was  incapable  of  forging  the  Shake- 
spearean manuscripts.  That  achievement  he 
always  regarded  with  pride,  and  complained 
until  his  death  of  the  undeserved  persecution 
which  he  suffered  in  consequence.  His '  Con- 
fessions,' issued  in  1805,  expanded  his  'Au- 
thentic Account'  of  1796,  and  was  reissued  in 
London  in  1872,  and  with  a  preface  by  Mr. 
Grant  White  in  New  York  in  1874.  Almost 
his  latest  publication  was  a  reissue  of '  Vorti- 
gern' (1832),  prefaced  by  a  plaintive  rehearsal 
of  his  misfortunes.  He  died  at  Sussex  Place,  St. 
George's-in-the-Fields,  on  17  April  1835,  and 
was  survived  by  a  daughter,  Mrs.  A.  M.  de 
Burgh.  Mr.  Ingleby  describes  his  wife  as 
belonging  to  the  Kentish  family  of  Culpepper, 
and  widow  of  Captain  Paget,  R.N. ;  but  this 
does  not  correspond  with  what  we  learn  from 
the  elder  Ireland's  papers  of  the  lady  whom 
young  Ireland  married  in  1796 ;  he  may,  how- 
ever, have  married  a  second  time. 

A  portrait  of  W.  H.  Ireland  at  the  age  of 
twenty-one  was  drawn  and  etched  by  Silvester 
Harding  in  1798.  An  engraving  by  Mackenzie 
is  dated  1818.  A  miniature  of  him  in  middle 




life,  painted  on  ivory  by  Samuel  Drummond, 
hangs  in  Shakespeare's  birthplace  at  Strat- 

W.  H.  Ireland's  chief  publications  in  verse 
were  'Ballads  in  Imitation  of  the  Antient,' 
chiefly  on  historical  subjects,  and  '  Mutius 
Scaevola,'  an  historical  drama  in  blank  verse 
(both  in  1801) ;  under  the  pseudonym  of  Paul 
Persius, '  A  Ballade  wrotten  on  the  Feastynge 
and  Merrimentes  of  Easter  Maunday  laste 
paste '  (1802) ;  '  Rhapsodies,'  by  the '  author  of 
the  Shaksperian  MSS.'  (1803) ;  '  The  Angler, 
a  didactic  poem  by  Charles  Clifford,'  1804, 
12mo ;  '  All  the  Blocks,  or  an  Antidote  to 
All  the  Talents,'  by  Flagellum,  and  '  Stul- 
tifera  Navis,  or  the  Modern  Ship  of  Fools,' 
anon.,  both  in  1807  ;  '  The  Fisher  Boy ' 
and  '  The  Sailor  Boy,'  narrative-poems,  after 
the  manner  of  Bloom  field,  both  issued  under 
the  pseudonym  of  ' H.  C.,  Esq.,'  1809  (2nd 
edit,  of  the  latter,  1822);  '  Neglected  Genius, 
a  poem  illustrating  the  untimely  and  un- 
fortunate fate  of  many  British  Poets,'  1812, 
chiefly  treating  of  Chatterton,with  imitations 
of  the  Rowley  MSS.  and  of  Butler's  ' Hudi- 
bras  ; '  '  Jack  Junk,  or  the  Sailor's  Cruise  on 
Shore,'  by  the  author  of  '  Sailor  Boy,'  1814 ; 
'  Chalcographiminia,  or  the  Portrait-Collector 
and  Printseller's  Chronicle,'  by  Satiricus 
Scriptor,  1814,  in  which  he  is  said  to  have  been 
assisted  by  Caulfield,  and '  Scribbleomania,  or 
the  Printer's  Devil's Polichronicon,' edited  by 
'  Anser  Pen-drag-on,  Esq.,'  1815,  8vo. 

His  novels  and  romances  included  '  The 
Abbess  ; '  'The  Woman  of  Feeling,'  1803, 
4  vols.  12mo ;  '  Gondez  the  Monk,  a  Romance 
of  the  Thirteenth  Century,'  4  vols.  1805 ;  and 
'The  Catholic,  or  Acts  and  Deeds  of  the 
Popish  Church,'  1826.  '  Les  Brigands  de 
1'Estramadure,'  published  at  Paris  in  1823 
(2  vols.),  was  described  as  translated  from 
the  English  of  W.  H.  Ireland.  '  Rizzio,  or 
Scenes  in  Europe  during  the  Sixteenth  Cen- 
tury,' was  edited  from  Ireland's  manuscript 
by  G.  P.  R.  James  in  1849. 

Other  of  his  works  were :  '  The  Maid  of 
Orleans,'  a  translation  of  Voltaire's '  Pucelle,' 
1822  ;  '  France  for  the  last  Seven  Tears,'  an 
attack  on  the  Bourbons,  1822 ;  '  Henry 
Fielding's  Proverbs,'  1822  (?)  ;  '  Memoir  of  a 
Young  Greek  Lady  (Pauline  Panam),'  an 
attack  on  the  Prince  of  Saxe-Coburg,  1823 ; 
'Memoir  of  the  Duke  of  Rovigo,'  1823; 
'Memoirs  of  Henry  the  Great  and  of  the 
Court  of  France,'  1824;  'The  Universal 
Chronologist  from  the  Creation  to  1825,' 
under  the  pseudonym  of  Henry  Boyle,  Lon- 
don, 1826;  '  Shaksperiana :  Catalogue  of 
all  the  Books,  Pamphlets,  &c.,  relating  to 
Shakespeare'  (anon.),  1827;  'History  of 
Kent,' 4  vols.  1828-34;  'Life  of  Napoleon 

Bonaparte,'  4  vols.  1828  ;  '  Louis  Napoleon's 
Answer  to  Sir  Walter  Scott's  "  Life  of  Na- 
poleon,"' a  translation,  1829;  'Authentic 
Documents  relating  to  the  Duke  of  Reich- 
stadt,'  1832.  In  1830  he  produced  a  series 
of  political  squibs:  'The  Political  Devil/ 
'Reform,'  'Britannia's  Cat  o'  Nine  Tails,'  and 
'  Constitutional  Parodies.' 

[Gent.  Mag.  1800,  pt.  ii.  pp.  901,  1000;  Fra- 
ser's  Mag.  August  1860  (art.  by  T.  J.  Arnold) ; 
London  Review,  October  1860  ;  Ingleby's  Shake- 
speare, The  Man  and  the  Book,  pt.  ii.  pp.  144 
sq. ;  Prior's  Life  of  Malone,  pp.  222-7  ;  W.  H. 
Ireland's  Authentic  Account  (1796),  Confessions 
(1805),  and  Preface  to  Vortigern  (1832);  Ge- 
nest's  Account  of  the  Stage,  vii.  245  sq.  For  an 
account  of  contemporary  pamphlets  on  the  manu- 
scripts controversy  see  R.  W.  Lowe's  Bibliogra- 
phical Account  of  Theatrical  Literature.  The 
story  of  the  forgery  is  the  subject  of  Mr.  James- 
Payn's  novel,  The  Talk  of  the  Town  (1885).  Brit. 
Mus.  Addit.  MSS.  30349-53  contain  the  elder 
Ireland's  correspondence  respecting  the  forgeries 
and  a  number  of  cuttings  from  contemporaneous 
newspapers.  In  the  British  Museum  are  also 
many  specimens  of  the  younger  Ireland's  forged 
documents  and  of  his  inscriptions  on  old  books.] 

S.  L. 

LIAM (1636-1679),  Jesuit,  born  in  1636,  was 
eldest  son  of  William  Ireland  of  CroftonHallr 
Yorkshire,  by  Barbara,  daughter  of  Ralph 
(afterwards  Lord)  Eure  of  Washingborough,. 
Lincolnshire.  He  was  sent  at  an  early  age 
to  the  English  College  at  St.  Omer,  was  ad- 
mitted into  the  Society  of  Jesus  7  Sept.  1655, 
and  made  a  professed  father  in  1673.  After 
being  for  some  years  confessor  to  the  Poor 
Clares  at  Gravelines,  he  was  in  1677  sent  to- 
the  English  mission,  and  shortly  afterwards 
became  procurator  of  the  province  in  London. 
On  the  night  of  28  Sept.  1678  he  was  arrested 
by  a  body  of  constables,  headed  by  Titus  Gates 
in  person,  and  carried  before  the  privy  council, 
together  with  Thomas  Jenison,  John  Grove 
[q.  v.],  Thomas  Pickering,  and  John  Fenwick 
[q.  v.]  After  examination  by  the  privy  council 
the  prisoners  were  committed  to  Newgate, 
where  Ireland  appears  to  have  undergone  ex- 
ceptionally severe  treatment.  He  was  tried  at 
the  Old  Bailey  sessions  on  17  Dec.  following, 
the  charge  against  him  being  that,  in  addition 
to  promoting  the  general  plot,  he  had  been 
present  at  a  meeting  held  in  William  Har- 
court's  rooms  on  19  Aug.  1678,  when  a  plan 
for  assassinating  the  king  was  discussed,  and 
it  was  finally  decided  to  '  snap  him  in  his 
morning's  walk  at  Newmarket.'  Ireland  at- 
tempted to  prove  an  alibi,  and  in  a  journal 
written  afterwards  in  Newgate  he  accounted 
for  his  absence  from  London  on  every  day 
between  3  Aug.  and  14  Sept.  The  trial  oc- 




eurred,  however,  at  the  moment  when  the 
excitement  concerning  the  plot  was  at  its 
climax.  Edward  Coleman  [q.  v.],  the  first 
victim,  had  been  executed  barely  a  fortnight, 
Gates  was  at  the  summit  of  his  popularity, 
«.nd  the  death  of  Sir  Edmund  Berry  Godfrey 

£}.  v.]  was  still  fresh  in  people's  memory.  The 
ard  swearing  of  Gates  and  Bedloe,  together 
with  the  evidence  of  a  woman  called  Sarah 
Pain,  who  swore  to  having  seen  Ireland  on 
20  Aug.  at  a  scrivener's  in  Fetter  Lane,  over- 
came any-scruples  on  the  part  of  the  jury. 
Chief-justice  Scroggs  summed  up  against  the 
prisoner,  who  in  vain  pleaded  his  relationship 
to  the  Pendrells  of  Boscobel,  and  the  death 
of  his  uncle,  Francis  Ireland,  in  the  king's  ser- 
vice. Ireland  was  executed  together  with  John 
Grove  on  3  Feb.  1679,  the  event  being  at- 
tended (it  was  alleged  by  the  victim's  friends) 
by  a  number  of  miraculous  circumstances, 
which  are  detailed  in  Tanner's  '  Brevis  Rela- 
tio  Felicis  Agonis,'  Prague,  1683,  and  in 
Foley's  'Jesuits,'  v.  233  seq.  Portraits  of 
Ireland  are  given  in  both  these  works.  A 
deposition,  '  plainly  proving '  that  Ireland's 
plea  of  an  alibi  was  false,  was  subsequently 
published  by  Robert  Jenison  (1649-1688) 
[q.  v.],  and  further  charges  were  brought 
against  Ireland  in  John  Smith's  '  Narrative 
containing  a  further  Discovery  of  the  Popish 
Plot,'  1679,  fol.,  p.  32.  The  supposed  plot  of 
Ireland  was  also  the  occasion  of  another  very 
curious  pamphlet  entitled  '  The  Cabal  of 
several  notorious  Priests  and  Jesuits  dis- 
covered as  William  Ireland  .  .  .  Shewing 
their  endeavours  to  subvert  the  Government 
and  Protestant  Religion  ...  by  a  Lover  of  his 
King  and  Country  who  was  formerly  an  Eye- 
witness of  those  things '  (London),  1679,  fol. 
[Cobbett's  State  Trials,  vii.  570  sq. ;  The  His- 
tory of  the  Plot,  or  a  Brief  and  Historical  Account 
of  the  Charge  and  Defence  of  William  Ireland, 
•&c.,  London,  1679,  fol. ;  Challoner's  Memoirs  of 
Missionary  Priests,  1748,  ii.  208,  376;  Burnet's 
Own  Time.ii.  178;  Gillow's  Diet,  of  Engl.  Cath. 
iii.  552;  Lingard's  Hist.  ix.  191.]  T.  S. 

JKIRETON,  HENRY  (1611-1651),  regi- 
''cide,  baptised  3  Nov.  1611,  was  the  eldest 
son  of  German  Ireton  of  Attenborough,  near 
Nottingham.  His  father,  who  settled  at 
eAttenborough  about  1605,  was  the  younger 
brother  of  William  Ireton  of  Little  Ireton 
in  Derbyshire  (CORNELIUS  BKOWN,  Worthies 
of  Nottinghamshire,  p.  182).  Henry  became 
in  1626  a  gentleman-commoner  of  Trinity 
College,  Oxford,  and  took  the  degree  of  B.A. 
in  1629.  According  to  Wood,  '  he  had  the 
character  in  that  house  of  a  stubborn  and 
saucy  fellow  towards  the  seniors,  and  there- 
fore his  company  was  not  at  all  wanting' 
(Athena  O.wn.  ed.  Bliss,  iii.  298).  In  1629 

he  entered  the  Middle  Temple  (24  Nov.), 
but  was  never  called  to  the  bar  ( The  Trial 
of  Charles  I,  with  Biographies  of  Bradshaw, 
Ireton,  fyc.,  in  Murray's  Family  Library,  1832, 
xxxi.  130). 

At  the  outbreak  of  the  civil  war  Ireton  was 
living  on  his  estate  in  Nottinghamshire, '  and 
having  had  an  education  in  the  strictest  way 
of  godliness,  and  being  a  man  of  good  learn- 
ing, great  understanding,  and  other  abilities, 
he  was  the  chief  promoter  of  the  parliament's 
interest  in  the  county '  (HtrTCHirrsoN,  Me- 
moirs of  Col.  Hutchinson,  ed.  1885,  i.  168).  On 
30  June  1642  the  House  of  Commons  nomi- 
nated Ireton  captain  of  the  troop  of  horse  to  be 
raised  by  the  town  of  Nottingham  (Commons' 
Journals,  ii.  664).  With  this  troop  he  joined 
the  army  of  the  Earl  of  Essex  and  fought  at 
Edgehill,  but  returned  to  his  native  county 
Avith  it  at  the  end  of  1642,  and  became  major 
in  Colonel  Thornhagh's  regiment  of  horse 
(HUTCHINSON,  i.  169, 199).  In  July  1643  the 
Nottinghamshire  horse  took  part  in  the  vic- 
tory at  Gainsborough  (28  July),  and  shortly 
afterwards  Ireton  '  quite  left  Colonel  Thorn- 
hagh's regiment,  and  began  an  inseparable 
league  with  Colonel  Cromwell'  (ib.  pp.  232, 
234 ).  He  was  appointed  by  Cromwel  1  deputy 
governor  of  the  Isle  of  Ely,  began  to  fortify 
the  isle,  and  was  allowed  such  freedom  to 
the  sectaries  that  presbyterians  complained 
it  was  become  'a  mere  Amsterdam'  (Man- 
chester's Quarrel  with  Cromwell,  Camden 
Soc.,  1875,  pp.  39,  73).  He  served  in  Man- 
chester's army  during  1644,  with  the  rank  of 
quartermaster-general,  and  took  part  in  the 
Yorkshire  campaign  and  the  second  battle  of 
Newbury.  Although  Ireton,  in  writing  to 
Manchester,  represented  the  distressed  con- 
dition of  the  horse  for  want  of  money  (Hist. 
MSS.  Comm.  8th  Rep.  pt.  ii.  p.  61),  he  was 
anxious  that  Manchester  should  march  west 
to  join  Waller,  and  after  the  miscarriages  at 
Newbury  supported  Cromwell's  accusation 
of  Manchester  by  a  most  damaging  deposi- 
tion (  Cal.  State  Papers,  Dom.  1644-5,  p.  158). 

Ireton  does  nyt  appear  in  the  earliest  list 
of  the  officers  of  the  new  model,  but  directly 
the  campaign  began  he  obtained  the  com- 
mand of  the  regiment  of  horse  to  which  Sir 
Michael  Livesey  had  been  at  first  appointed 
(Lords'  Journals,  viii.  278 ;  SPEIGGE,  Anglia 
JRediviva,  ed.  1854,  p.  331).  The  night  before 
the  battle  of  Naseby  he  surprised  the  royal- 
ists' quarters,  '  which  they  had  newly  taken 
up  in  Naseby  town,'  took  many  prisoners, 
and  alarmed  their  whole  army.  Next  day 
Fairfax,  at  Cromwell's  request,  appointed 
Ireton  commissary-general  of  the  horse  and 
gave  him  the  command  of  the  cavalry  of  the 
left  wing.  The  wing  under  his  command 

Ireton  3 

was  worsted  by  Rupert's  cavaliers  and  par- 
tially broken.  Ireton,  seeing  some  of  the 
parliamentary  infantry  hard  pressed  by  a 
brigade  of  the  king's  foot,  '  commanded  the 
division  that  was  with  him  to  charge  that 
body  of  foot,  and  for  their  better  encourage- 
ment he  himself  with  great  resolution  fell 
in  amongst  the  musketeers,  where  his  horse 
being  shot  under  him,  and  himself  run  through 
the  thigh  with  a  pike  and  into  the  face  with 
an  halbert,  was  taken  prisoner  "by  the  enemy.' 
When  the  fortune  of  the  day  turned  Ireton 
promised  his  keeper  liberty  if  he  would  carry 
him  back  to  his  own  party,  and  thus  suc- 
ceeded in  escaping  (ib.  pp.  36, 39, 42).  He  re- 
covered from  his  wounds  sufficiently  quickly 
to  be  with  the  army  at  the  siege  of  Bristol 
in  September  1645  (ib.  pp.  99, 106-18).  The 
letter  of  summons  in  which  Fairfax  endea- 
voured to  persuade  Rupert  to  surrender  that 
city  was  probably  Ireton's  -work. 

Ireton  was  one  of  the  negotiators  of  the 
treaty  of  Truro  (14  March  1646),  and  was 
afterwards  despatched  with  severalregiments 
of  horse  to  block  up  Oxford,  and  prevent  it 
from  being  provisioned  (ib.  pp.  229,  243). 
The^king  tried  to  open  negotiations  with  him, 
and  sent  a  message  offering  to  come  to  Fair- 
fax, and  live  wherever  parliament  should 
direct,  '  if  only  he  might  be  assured  to  live 
and  continue  king.'  Ireton  refused  to  discuss 
the  king's  offers,  but  wrote  to  Cromwell  beg- 
ging him  to  communicate  the  king's  message 
to  parliament.  Cromwell  blamed  him  for 
doing  even  that,  on  the  ground  that  soldiers 
ought  not  to  touch  political  questions  at  all 
(CART,  Memorials  of  the  Civil  War,  i.  1 : 
GARDINER,  Great  Civil  War,  ii.  470).  Ireton 
took  part  in  the  negotiations  which  led  to  the 
capitulation  of  Oxford,  and  married  Bridget, 
Cromwell's  daughter,  on  15  June  1646,  a  few 
days  before  its  actual  surrender.  The  cere- 
mony took  place  in  Lady  Whorwood's  house 
at  Holton,  near  Oxford,  and  was  performed 
by  William  Dell  [q.  v.],  one  of  the  chaplains 
attached  to  the  army  (CARLTLE,  Cromwell, 
i.  218,  ed.  1871). 

Though  the  marriage  wasthe  result  of  the 
friendship  between  Cromwell  and  Ireton, 
rather  than  its  cause,  it  brought  the  two  men 
closer  together.  The  union  and  the  confidence 
which  existed  between  them  was  during  the 
next  four  years  a  factor  of  great  importance 
in  English  politics.  Each  exercised  much 
influence  over  the  other.  'No  man,'  says 
Whitelocke, '  could  prevail  so  much,  nor  order 
Cromwell  so  far,  as  Ireton  could '  (Memorials, 
f.  516).  Ireton  had  a  large  knowledge  of  poli- 
tical theory  and  more  definite  political  views 
than  Cromwell,  and  could  present  his  views 
logically  and  forcibly  either  in  speech  or 

*  Ireton 

writing.  On  the  other  hand,  Cromwell's 
wider  sympathies  and  willingness  to  accept 
compromises  often  controlled  and  moderated 
Ireton's  conduct. 

On  30  Oct.  1645  Ireton  was  returned  to 
parliament  as  member  for  Appleby ;  but  there 
is  no  record  of  his  public  action  in  parlia- 
ment until  the  dispute  between  the  army 
and  the  parliament  began  (Names  of  Mem- 
bers returned  to  serve  in  Parliament,  i.  495). 
His  justification  of  the  petition  of  the  army, 
which  the  House  of  Commons  on  29  March 
1647  declared  seditious,  involved  him  in  a 
personal  quarrel  with  Holies,  who  openly 
derided  his  arguments.  A  challenge  was  ex- 
changed between  them,  and  the  two  went 
out  of  the  house  intending  to  fight,  but  were 
stopped  by  other  members,  and  ordered  by 
the  house  to  proceed  no  further.  On  this 
basis  Clarendon  builds  an  absurd  story  that 
Ireton  provoked  Holies,  refused  to  fight,  and 
submitted  to  have  his  nose  pulled  by  his  cho- 
leric opponent  ( Clarendon  MSS.  2478,  2495 ; 
Rebellion,  x.  104;  LTJDLOW,  ed.  1751,  p.  94; 
Commons'  Journals,  2  April  1647).  Thomas 
Shepherd  of  Ireton's  regiment  was  one  of  the 
three  troopers  who  presented  the  appeal  of 
the  soldiers  to  their  generals,  which  Skippon 
on  30  April  brought  to  the  notice  of  the 
House  of  Commons.  In  consequence  Ireton, 
Cromwell,  Skippon,  and  Fleetwood,  being- 
all  four  members  of  parliament,  as  well  as 
officers  of  the  army,  were  despatched  by  the 
house  to  Saffron  Walden  '  to  employ  their 
endeavours  to  quiet  all  distempers  in  the 
army.'  The  commissioners  drew  up  a  report 
on  the  grievances  of  the  soldiers,  which  Fleet- 
wood  and  Cromwell  were  charged  to  present, 
while  Skippon  and  Ireton  remained  at  head- 
quarters to  maintain  order.  Ireton  foresaw 
a  storm  unless  parliament  was  more  mode- 
rate, and  had  little  hope  of  success.  In 
private  and  in  public  he  had  at  first  dis- 
couraged the  soldiers  from  petitioning  or 
taking  action  to  secure  redress,  but  when  an 
open  breach  occurred  he  took  part  with  the 
army  (Clarke  Papers,  i.  94,  102;  GARY,  Me- 
morials of  the  Civil  War,  i.  205,  207,  214). 
When  Fairfax  demanded  by  whose  orders 
Joyce  had  removed  the  king  from  Holdenbyr 
Ireton  owned  that  he  had  given  orders  for 
securing  the  king  there,  though  not  for  taking- 
him  thence  (Huntingdon's  reasons  for  laying- 
down  his  commission,  MASERES,  Tracts,  i. 
398).  From  that  period  his  prominence  in 
setting  forth  the  desires  of  the  army  and  de- 
fending its  conduct  was  very  marked. '  Colonel 
Ireton,'  says  Whitelocke,  'was  chiefly  em- 
ployed or  took  upon  him  the  business  of  the 
pen,  .  .  .  and  was  therein  encouraged  and 
assisted  by  Lieutenant-general  Cromwell, 




his  father-in-law,  and  by  Colonel  Lambert ' 
(Memorials,  f.  254). 

The  form,  if  not  the  idea,  of  the  '  engage- 
ment' of  the  army  (5  June)  was  probably 
due  to  Ireton,  and  the  remonstrance  of  14  June 
was  also  his  work  (RTJSHWOETH,  vi.  512, 564). 
lie  took  part  in  the  treaty  between  the  com- 
missioners of  the  army  and  the  parliament, 
and  when  the  former  decided  to  draw  up  a 
general  summary  of  their  demands  for  the 
settlement  of  the  kingdom,  the  task  was 
entrusted  to  Ireton  and  another  (Clarke 
Papers,  i.  148,  211).  The  result  was  the 
manifesto  known  as  '  The  Heads  of  the  Army 
Proposals.'  By  it  Ireton  hoped  to  show  the 
nation  what  the  army  would  do  with  power 
if  they  had  it,  and  he  was  anxious  that  no 
fresh  quarrel  with  parliament  should  take 
place  until  the  manifesto  had  been  published 
to  the  world.  He  hoped  also  to  lay  the 
foundation  of  an  agreement  between  king 
and  parliament,  and  to  establish  the  liberties 
of  the  people  on  a  permanent  basis  (ib.  pp.  179, 
197).  But,  excellent  though  this  scheme  of 
settlement  was,  it  was  too  far  in  advance  of 
the  political  ideas  of  the  moment  to  be  ac- 
cepted either  by  king  or  parliament.  Ireton 
was  represented  as  saying  that  what  was 
offered  in  the  proposals  was  so  just  and  rea- 
sonable that  if  there  were  but  six  men  in 
the  kingdom  to  fight  to  make  them  good, 
he  would  make  the  seventh  ('  Hunting- 
don's Reasons,'  MASEEES,  i.  401).  In  his 
anxiety  to  obtain  the  king's  assent  he  modi- 
fied the  proposals  in  several  important  points, 
and  consequently  imperilled  his  popularity 
with  the  soldiers.  "When  the  king  rejected 
the  terms  offered  him  by  parliament,  Ireton 
vehemently  urged  a  new  treaty,  and  told 
the  house  that  if  they  ceased  their  addresses 
to  the  king  he  could  not  promise  them  the 
support  of  the  army  (22  Sept.  1647).  Pam- 
phlets accused  him  of  juggling  and  under- 
hand dealing,  of  betraying  the  army  and 
deluding  honest  Cromwell  to  serve  his  own 
ambition,  and  of  bargaining  for  the  govern- 
ment of  Ireland  as  the  price  of  the  king's 
restoration  (Clarke  Papers,  i.  Preface,  xl- 
xlvi ;  A  Declaration  of  some  Proceedings  of 
Lieutenant-colonel  John  Lilburn,  1648,  p.  15). 
In  the  debates  of  the  council  of  the  army 
during  October  and  November  1649,  Sexby 
and  Wildman  attacked  him  with  the  greatest 
bitterness.  Ireton  passionately  disavowed 
all  private  engagements,  and  asserted  that  if 
he  had  used  the  name  of  the  army  to  support 
a  further  application  to  the  king,  it  was 
because  he  sincerely  believed  himself  to  be 
acting  in  accordance  with  the  army's  views. 
He  had  no  desire,  he  said,  to  set  up  the  king 
or  parliament,  but  wished  to  make  the  best 

use  possible  of  both  for  the  interest  of  the 
kingdom  (  Clarke  Papers,  i.  233).  In  resisting 
a  rupture  with  the  king  he  urged  the  army, 
for  the  sake  of  its  own  reputation,  to  fulfil  the 
promises  publicly  made  in  its  earlier  declara- 
tions (ib.  p.  294).  With  equal  vigour  he  op- 
posed the  new  constitution  which  the  level- 
lers brought  forward,  under  the  title  of '  The 
Agreement  of  the  People,'  and  denounced 
the  demand  for  universal  suffrage  as  destruc- 
tive to  property  and  fatal  to  liberty,  although 
for  a  limitation  of  the  duration  and  powers 
of  parliament  and  a  redistribution  of  seats 
he  was  willing  to  fight  if  necessary  (ib. 
p.  299).  He  wished  to  limit  the  veto  of  the 
king  and  the  House  of  Lords,  but  objected 
to  the  proposal  to  deprive  them  altogether 
of  any  share  in  legislation. 

Burnet  represents  Ireton  as  sticking  at 
nothing  in  order  to  turn  England  into  a  com- 
monwealth ;  but  in  the  council  of  the  army  he 
was  in  reality  the  spokesman  of  the  conser- 
vative party  among  the  officers,  anxious  to 
maintain  as  much  of  the  existing  constitu- 
tion as  possible.  The  constitution  was  always 
in  his  mouth,  and  he  detested  and  dreaded 
nothing  so  much  as  the  abstract  theories  of 
natural  right  on  which  the  levellers  based 
their  demands  (ib.  Preface,  pp.  Ixvii-lxxi ; 
BTTENET,  Own  Time,  ed.  1833,  i.  85). 

On  5  Nov.  the  council  of  the  army  sent  a 
letter  to  the  speaker,  disavowing  any  desire 
that  parliament  should  make  a  fresh  applica- 
tion to  the  king,  and  Ireton  at  once  withdrew 
from  their  meetings,  protesting  that  unless 
they  recalled  their  vote  he  would  come  there 
no  more  (Clarke  Papers, -p.  441).  But  the  flight 
of  the  king  to  the  Isle  of  Wight  (11  Nov.) 
led  to  an  entire  change  in  his  attitude.  The 
story  of  the  letter  from  Charles  to  the  queen, 
which  Cromwell  and  Ireton  intercepted,  is 
scarcely  needed  to  account  for  this  change. 
Without  it  Ireton  perceived  the  impossibility 
of  the  treaty  with  Charles,  on  which  he  had 
hoped  to  rest  the  settlement  of  the  king- 
dom (BiKCH,  Letters  between  Colonel  Robert 
Hammond,  General .Fai'r/a.r,&c.,1764,  p.  19). 
He  held  that  the  army's  engagements  to  the 
king  were  ended,  and  when  Berkeley  brought 
the  king's  proposals  for  a  personal  treaty  to 
the  army,  received  him  with  coldness  and 
disdain,  instead  of  his  former  cordiality 
(29  Nov.  1647 ;  BERKELEY,  Memoirs ;  MA- 
SEEES, i.  384).  Huntingdon  describes  him  as 
saying,  when  the  probability  of  an  agreement 
between  king  and  parliament  was  spoken 
of,  '  that  he  hoped  it  would  be  such  a  peace 
as  we  might  with  a  good  conscience  fight 
against  them  both '  (ib.  i.  404).  When  Charles 
refused  the  '  Four  Bills,'  Ireton  urged  par- 
liament to  settle  the  kingdom  without  him 



(WALKER,  History  of  Independency,  i.  71, 
ed.  1601).  As  yet  he  was  not  prepared  to 
abandon  the  monarchy,  and  for  a  time  sup- 
ported the  plan  of  deposing  the  king  and 
setting  the  Prince  of  Wales  or  Duke  of  York 
on  the  throne  (ib.  p.  107 ;  GARDINER,  Great 
Civil  War,  iii.  294,  342). 

In  the  second  civil  war  Ireton  served  under 
Fairfax  in  the  campaigns  in  Kent  and  Essex. 
After  the  defeat  of  the  royalists  at  Maid- 
stone  he  was  sent  against  those  in  Canter- 
bury, whocapitulated  on  his  approach  (8  June 
1648)  (RUSHWORTH,  vii.  1149 ;  Lords'  Jour- 
nals, x.  320).  He  then  joined  Fairfax  before 
Colchester,  and  was  one  of  the  commissioners 
who  settled  the  terms  of  its  surrender  (RUSH- 
WORTH,  vii.  1244).  To  Ireton's  influence 
and  to  his  'bloody  and  unmerciful  nature' 
Clarendon  and  royalist  writers  in  general 
attribute  the  execution  of  Lucas  and  Lisle 
(Rebellion,  xi.  109 ;  Mercurius  Pragmaticus, 
3-10  Oct.  1648;  GARDINER,  Great  Civil  War, 
iii.  463).  Ireton  approved  the  decision  of 
the  council  of  war  which  sentenced  them  to 
death,  and  defended  its  justice  both  in  an 
argument  with  Lucas  himself  at  the  time 
and  subsequently  as  a  witness  before  the  high 
court  of  justice.  There  is  no  foundation  for 
the  charge  that  the  sentence  was  a  breach 
of  the  capitulation  [see  FAIRFAX,  THOMAS, 
third  LORD  FAIRFAX]. 

The  fall  of  Colchester  (28  Aug.)  was  fol- 
lowed by  a  renewal  of  agitation  in  the  army, 
and  Ireton's  regiment  was  one  of  the  first  to 
petition  for  the  king's  trial  (RUSHWORTH,  vii. 
1298).  Already  a  party  in  the  parliament  was 
anxious  that  the  army  should  interpose  to  stop 
the  treaty  of  Newport,  but  Ludlow  found  Ire- 
ton  strongly  opposed  to  premature  action.  He 
thought  it  best 'to  permit  the  king  and  the  par- 
liament to  make  an  agreement,  and  to  wait  till 
they  had  made  a  full  discovery  of  their  inten- 
tions, whereby  the  people,  becoming  sensible 
of  their  danger,  would  willingly  join  to  oppose 
them'  (LTJDLOW,  Memoirs,  p.  102).  About 
the  end  of  September  Ireton  offered  to  lay 
down  his  commission,  and  desired  a  discharge 
from  the  army,  'which  was  not  agreed  unto' 
(GARDINER,  Great  Civil  War,  iii.  473-5). 
For  a  time  he  left  the  headquarters  and  re- 
tired to  Windsor,  where  he  is  said  to  have 
busied  himself  in  drawing  up  the  army  re- 
monstrance of  16  Nov.  1648  (reprinted  in 
Old  Parl.  Hist,  xviii.  161).  All  obstacles  to 
agreement  among  the  officers  of  the  army 
were  removed  by  the  king's  rejection  of  their 
last  overtures.  'It  hath  pleased  God,'  wrote 
Ireton  to  Colonel  Hammond,  'to  dispose  the 
hearts  of  your  friends  in  the  army  as  one  man 
.  .  .  to  interpose  in  this  treaty,  yet  in  such 
wise  both  for  matter  and  manner  as  we  be- 

j  lieve  will  not  only  refresh  the  bowels  of  the 
saints,  but  be  of  satisfaction  to  every  honest 
member  of  parliament.'     He  conjured  Ham- 
mond, in  the  national  interest,  to  prevent 
i  the  king  from  escaping,  and  endeavoured  to 
;  convince  him  that  he  ought  to  obey  the  army 
j  rather  than  the  parliament  (BiRCH,  Letters 
\  to  Hammond,  pp.  87,  97).     In  conjunction 
j  with  Ludlow  he  arranged  the  exclusion  of 
I  obnoxious  members  known  as '  Pride's  Purge' 
j  (Memoirs,  p.   104).     In  conjunction  with 
I  Cromwell  he  gave  directions  for  bringing  the 
j  king  from  Hurst  Castle ;  he  sat  regularly  in 
I  the  high  court  of  justice,  and   signed  the 
\  warrant  for  the  king's  execution  (NALSON, 
Trial  of  Charles  I,  1684). 

During  December  1648  the  council  of  the 
army  was  again  busy  considering  a  scheme 
for  the  settlement  of  the  kingdom,  which 
resulted  in  the '  Agreement  of  the  People '  pre- 
sented to  the  House  of  Commons  on  20  Jan. 

1649  (Old  Parl.  Hist,  xviii.  516).     The  first 
sketch  of  the  'Agreement'  was  not  Ireton's, 
but  by  the  time  it  left  the  council  of  war  it 
had  been  revised  and  amended  till  it  sub- 
stantially represented  his  views.     While  a 
section  in  the  council  held  that  the  magis- 
trate had  no  right  to  interfere  with  any  man's 
religion,  Ireton  claimed  for  him  a  certain 
power  of  restraint  and  punishment.  Lilburne 
complains  that  Ireton  '  showed  himself  an 
absolute  king,  against  whose  will  no  man 
must  dispute'  (Legal  Fundamental  Liberties, 
1649,  2nd  ed.  p.  35).     Outside  the  council  of 
war  his  influence  was  limited.    The  levellers 
hated  him  as  much  as  they  did  Cromwell, 
and  denounced  both  in  the  '  Hunting  of  the 
Foxes  by  five  small   Beagles  '  (24   March 
1649)  and  in  Lilburne's  '  Impeachment  of 
High  Treason  against  Oliver  Cromwell  and 
his  son-in-law,  Henry  Ireton'  (10  Aug.  1649). 
With  the  parliament  he  was,  as  the  chief 
author  of  the  'Agreement,' far  from  popular, 
and  though  he  was  added  by  them  to  the 
Derby  House  Committee  (6  Jan.  1649)  they 
refused  to  elect  him  to  the  council  of  state 
(10  Feb.  1649). 

On  15  June  1649  Ireton  was  selected  to 
accompany  Cromwell  to  Ireland  as  second  in 
command,  and  set  sail  from  Milford  Haven 
on  15  Aug.  His  division  was  originally  in- 
tended to  effect  a  landing  in  Munster,  but 
the  design  was  abandoned,  and  he  disem- 
barked at  Dublin  about  the  end  of  the  month 
(Commons' Journals,  vi.  234;  MURPHY,  Crom- 
well in  Ireland,  p.  74).  During  Cromwell's 
illness  in  November  1649,  Ireton  and  Michael 
Jones  commanded  an  expedition  which  cap- 
tured Inistioge  and  Carrick,  and  in  February 

1650  he  took  Ardfinnan  Castle  on  the  Suir 
(CARLYLE,  CromwelCs  Letters,  cxvi.  cxix.) 



On  4  Jan.  1650  the  parliament  appointed  him 
president  of  Munster  (  Cal.  State  Papers,  Dora. 
1649-50,  pp.  476, 502 ;  Commons' Journals,  vi. 
343).  When  Cromwell  was  recalled  to  Eng- 
land he  appointed  Ireton  to  act  as  his  deputy 
(29  May  1650).  Parliament  approved  the 
choice  (2  July),  and  appointed  Ludlow  and 
three  other  commissioners  to  assist  Cromwell 
in  the  settlement  of  Ireland  (ib.  vi.  343, 479). 
All  Connaught,  the  greater  part  of  Munster, 
and  part  of  Ulster  still  remained  to  be  con- 
quered. Ireton  began  by  summoning  Carlow 
(2  July  1650),  which  surrendered  on  24  July. 
Waterford  capitulated  on  6  Aug.  and  Dun- 
cannon  on  17  Aug.  Half  Athlone  was  taken 
(September)  and  Limerick  was  summoned 
(6  Oct.),  but  as  the  season  was  too  late  for  a 
siege  it  was  merely  blockaded.  Ireton's  army 
went  into  winter  quarters  at  Kilkenny  in 
the  beginning  of  November  (GILBERT,  Apho- 
rismical  Discovery,  iii.  218-25 ;  BOELASE, 
Hist,  of  the  Irish  Rebellion,  ed.  1743,  App. 
pp.  22-46).  The  campaign  of  1651  opened 
late.  On  2  June  Ireton  forced  the  passage 
of  the  Shannon  at  Killaloe,  and  the  next  day 
came  before  Limerick,  which  did  not  capitu- 
late till  Oct.  27.  In  announcing  the  fall  of 
Limerick  he  congratulated  the  parliament 
that  the  city  had  not  accepted  the  conditions 
tendered  it  at  the  beginning  of  the  siege. 
This  obstinacy,  he  said,  had  served  to  the 
greater  advantage  of  the  parliament '  in  point 
of  freedom  for  prosecution  of  justice — one  of 
the  great  ends  and  best  grounds  of  the  war ; ' 
and  also  '  in  point  of  safety  to  the  English 
planters,  and  the  settling  and  securing  of 
the  Commonwealth's  interest  in  this  nation ' 
(GILBERT,  iii.  265).  Twenty-four  persons 
were  excepted  from  mercy,  some  on  account 
of  their  influence  in  prolonging  the  resist- 
ance, others  as  '  original  incendiaries  of  the 
rebellion,  or  prime  engagers  therein '  (ib.  p. 
267).  Seven  of  the  excepted  were  imme- 
diately hanged,  and  others  reserved  for  future 
trial  by  civil  or  military  courts.  Ireton's 
severity,  however,  was  not  indiscriminate. 
His  'noble  care'  of  Hugh  O'Neill,  the  go- 
vernor of  Limerick,  is  praised  by  the  author 
of  the '  Aphorismical  Discovery'  (iii.  21).  He 
cashiered  Colonel  Tothill  for  breaking  a  pro- 
mise of  quarter  made  to  certain  Irish  prisoners, 
and  executed  two  other  officers  for '  the  kill- 
ing one  Murphy,  an  Irishman'  (BORLASE, 
App.  p.  34 ;  Several  Proceedings  in  Parlia- 
ment, 31  July-7  Aug.  1651).  The  distinc- 
tion he  drew  between  the  different  classes 
among  his  opponents  is  clearly  set  forth  in 
his  letter  of  summons  to  Galway  (7  Nov. 
1651 ;  Mercurius  Politicus,  p.  1401).  Ireton's 
policy  as  to  the  settlement  of  Ireland  was  a 
continuation  of  Cromwell's.  He  regarded 

the  replantation  of  the  country  with  English 
colonists  as  the  only  means  of  permanently 
securing  its  dependence  on  England.  He 
ordered  the  inhabitants  of  Limerick  and 
Waterford  to  leave  those  towns  with  their 
families  and  goods  within  a  period  of  from 
three  to  six  months,  on  the  ground  that  their 
obstinate  adherence  to  the  rebellion  and  the 
principles  of  their  religion  rendered  it  im- 
possible to  trust  them  to  remain  in  places  of 
such  strength  and  importance.  He  promised, 
however,  to  show  favour  to  any  who  had 
taken  no  share  in  the  massacres  with  which 
the  rebellion  began,  and  to  make  special  pro- 
vision for  the  support  of  the  helpless  and 
aged  (BORLASE,  p.  345).  Toleration  of  any 
kind  he  refused,  believing  that  the  catholics 
were  a  danger  to  the  state,  and  that  they 
claimed  not  merely  existence  but  supremacy. 
He  forbade  all  officers  and  soldiers  under  his 
command  to  marry  catholic  Irishwomen  who 
could  not  satisfactorily  prove  the  sincerity  of 
their  conversion  to  protestantism  (1  Mayl651 ; 
Several  Proceedings  in  Parliament,  p.  1458 ; 
LUDLOW,  Memoirs,  p.  145). 

In  the  civil  government  of  Ireland  and  in 
the  execution  of  his  military  duties  Ireton's 
industry  was  indefatigable.  Chief-justice 
Cooke  describes  him  '  as  seldom  thinking  it 
time  to  eat  till  he  had  done  the  work  of  the 
day  at  nine  or  ten  at  night,'  and  then  willing 
to  sit  up  '  as  long  as  any  man  had  business 
with  him.'  '  He  was  so  diligent  in  the  pub- 
lic service,'  says  Ludlow,  'and  so  careless  of 
everything  that  belonged  to  himself,  that  he 
never  regarded  what  clothes  or  food  he  used, 
what  hour  he  went  to  rest,  or  what  horse  he 
mounted '  (ib.  p.  143).  Immoderate  labours 
and  neglect  of  his  own  health  produced  their 
natural  result,  and  after  the  capture  of  Lime- 
rick Ireton  caught  the  prevailing  fever,  and 
died  on  26  Nov.  1651.  On  9  Dec.  parliament 
ordered  him  a  funeral  at  the  public  expense 
(  Commons'  Journals,  vii.  115).  His  body  was 
brought  to  Bristol,  and  conveyed  to  London, 
where  it  lay  in  state  at  Somerset  House,  and 
was  interred  on  6  Feb.  1652  in  Henry  VII's 
Chapel  in  Westminster  Abbey  (CHESTER, 
Westminster  Abbey  Registers,  p.  522 ;  CaL 
State  Papers,  Dom.  1651-2,  pp.  66, 276).  His 
funeral  sermon  was  preached  by  John  Owen, 
and  published  under  the  title  of '  The  Labour- 
ing Saint's  Dismission  to  his  Rest '  (ORME, 
Life  of  Owen,  p.  139).  An  elegy  on  his  death 
is  appended  to  Thomas  Manley's '  Veni,  Vidi, 
Vici'(12mo,  1652).  A  magnificent  monument 
was  erected  with  a  fervid  epitaph,  which  is 
printed  in  Crull's  '  Antiquities  of  Westmin- 
ster'  (ed.  1722,  ii.  App.  p.  21).  '  If  Ireton  could 
have  foreseen  what  would  have  been  done  by 
them/  writes  Ludlow, '  he  would  certainly 



have  made  it  his  desire  that  his  body  might 
haA'e  found  a  grave  where  his  soul  left  it,  so 
much  did  he  despise  those  pompous  and  ex- 
pensive vanities,  having  erected  for  himself  a 
more  glorious  monument  in  the  hearts  of  good 
men  by  his  affection  to  his  country,  his  abili- 
ties of  mind,  his  impartial  justice,  his  dili- 
gence in  the  public  sen-ice,  and  his  other 
virtues,  which  were  a  far  greater  honour 
to  his  memory  than  a  dormitory  amongst 
the  ashes  of  kings '  (Memoirs,  p.  148).  On 
4  Dec.  1660  the  House  of  Commons  ordered 
the  '  carcasses '  of  Cromwell,  Ireton,  Brad- 
shaw,  and  Pride  to  be  taken  up,  drawn  on  a 
hurdle  to  Tyburn,there  to  be  hanged  up  in  their 
coffins  for  some  time,  and  after  that  buried 
under  the  gallows  (Commons'  Journals,  viii. 
197).  This  sentence  was  carried  into  effect 
on  26-30  Jan.  1661  [see  CROMWELL,  OLIVER]. 
The  royalist  conception  of  Ireton's  cha- 
racter is  given  by  Sir  Philip  Warwick  (Me- 
moirs, p.  354)  and  by  Clarendon  (Rebellion, 
xiii.  175).  The  latter  describes  him  as  a  man 
'  of  a  melancholic,  reserved,  dark  nature,  who 
communicated  his  thoughts  to  very  few,  so 
that  for  the  most  part  he  resolved  alone,  but 
was  never  diverted  from  any  resolution  he 
had  taken,  and  he  was  thought  often  by  his  \ 
obstinacy  to  prevail  over  Cromwell,  and  to 
extort  his  concurrence  contrary  to  his  own  | 
inclinations.  But  that  proceeded  only  from  | 
his  dissembling  less,  for  he  was  never  re- 
served in  the  communicating  his  worst  and  ' 
most  barbarous  purposes,  which  the  other 
always  concealed  and  disavowed.'  Accord-  j 
ing  to  Ludlow,  Ireton  was  in  the  last  years 
of  his  life  'entirely  freed  from  his  former  j 
manner  of  adhering  to  his  own  opinion, 
which  had  been  observed  to  be  his  greatest 
infirmity '  (Memoirs,  p.  144).  Ludlow  s  pane- 
gyric on  the  lord  deputy  expresses  the  general 
opinion  of  his  companions  in  arms.  '  We  that 
knew  him,'  wrote  Hewson,  'can  and  must 
say  truly  we  know  no  man  like-minded, 
most  seeking  their  own  things,  few  so  singly 
mind  the  things  of  Jesus  Christ,  of  public 
concernment,  of  the  interest  of  the  precious 
sons  of  Zion '  (Several  Proceedings  in  Par- 
liament, 4-11  Dec.  1651).  John  Cooke  de- 
scribes Ireton's  character  at  length  in  the 
preface  to  '  Monarchy  no  Creature  of  God's 
making'  (12mo,  1652),  dwelling  on  his  in- 
dustry, self-denial,  love  of  justice,  godliness, 
and  extraordinary  learning.  Ireton's  disin- 
terestedness was  undoubted.  On  the  news 
that  parliament  had  voted  him  a  reward  of 
2,000/.  a  year  he  said  '  that  they  had  many 
just  debts,  which  he  desired  they  would  pay 
before  they  made  any  such  presents;  that 
he  had  no  need  of  their  land,  and  therefore 
would  not  have  it,  and  that  he  should  be 

more  contented  to  see  them  doing  the  ser- 
vice of  the  nation  than  so  liberal  in  dispos- 
ing of  the  public  treasure.'  'And  truly,' 
adds  Ludlow,  '  I  believe  he  was  in  earnest ' 
(Memoirs,  p.  143;  Commons'  Journals,  vii. 
15).  This  disinterestedness,  combined  with 
the  rigid  republicanism  attributed  to  Ireton, 
led  to  the  belief  that  he  would  have  op- 
posed Cromwell's  usurpation,  and  made  him 
the  favourite  hero  of  the  republican  party 
(CLARENDON,  Rebellion,  xiii.  175 ;  Life  of 
Col.  Hutchinson,  ii.  185).  Portraits  of  Ireton 
and  his  wife  by  Robert  Walker,  in  the  pos- 
session of  Mr.  Charles  Polhill,  were  num- 
bers 785  and  789  in  the  National  Portrait 
Exhibition  of  1866.  Engravings  are  given 
in  Houbraken's  '  Illustrious  Heads,'  and 
Vandergucht's  illustrations  to  Clarendon's 
'  Rebellion.'  A  royalist  newspaper,  in  a  pre- 
tended hue  and  cry  after  Ireton,  thus  de- 
scribes his  person  :  '  A  tall,  black  thief,  with 
bushy  curled  hair,  a  meagre  envious  face, 
sunk  hollow  eyes,  a  complection  between 
choler  and  melancholy,  a  four-square  Machia- 
vellian head,  and  a  nose  of  the  fifteens '  (The 
Man  in  the  Moon,  1-15  Aug.  1649). 

Ireton's  widow,  Bridget  Cromwell,  mar- 
ried in  1652  General  Charles  Fleetwood 
[q.  v.],  and  died  in  1662.  By  her  Ireton 
left  one  son  and  three  daughters:  (1)  Henry, 
married  Katharine,  daughter  of  Henry 
Powle,  speaker  of  the  House  of  Commons  in 
1689,  became  lieutenant-colonel  of  dragoons 
and  gentleman  of  the  horse  to  William  III. 
He  left  no  issue ;  (2)  Elizabeth,  born  about 
1647,  married  in  1674  Thomas  Polhill  of  Ot- 
ford,Kent;  (3)  Jane,  born  about  1648,  mar- 
ried in  1668  Richard  Lloyd  of  London; 
(4)  Bridget,  born  about  1650,  married  in 
1669  Thomas  Bendish  (NoBLE,  House  of 
Cromwell,  ed.  1787,  ii.  324-46 ;  WAYLEX, 
House  of  Cromwell,  1880,  pp.  58,  72 ;  Notes 
and  Queries,  5th  ser.  vi.  391,  and  art.  supra 

JOHN  IRETON  (1615-1689),  brother  of  the 
general,  was  lord  mayor  of  London  in  1658, 
and  was  knighted  by  Cromwell.  After  the 
Restoration  he  was  excepted  from  the  Act  of 
Indemnity,  and  for  a  time  imprisoned  in  the 
Tower.  In  1662  he  was  transported  to  Scilly, 
was  released  later,  and  imprisoned  again  in 
1685  ( NOBLE,  i.  445;  Cal.  State  Papers, 
Dom.  1661-2,  p.  460).  Another  brother, 
Thomas  Ireton,  captain  in  Colonel  Rich's 
regiment  in  1645,  was  seriously  wounded  at 
the  storming  of  Bristol  (SPRIGGE,  pp.  121, 

[Lives  of  Ireton  are  contained  in  Wood's 
Athense  Oxon.  ed.  Bliss,  iii.  298 ;  Noble's  Souse 
of  Cromwell,  ed.  1787,  ii.  319;  and  Cornelius 
Brown's  Worthies  of  Notts,  1882,  p.  181.  The 




fullest  biography  is  that  appended  to  the  Trial 
of  Charles  I  and  of  some  of  the  regicides,  vol. 
xxxi.  of  Murray's  Family  Library,  1832.  Let- 
ters by  Ireton  are  printed  in  Gary's  Memorials 
of  the  CivilWar,  1842;  Birch's  Letters  to  Colonel 
Kobert  Hammond,  1764;  and  Nickolls's  Origi- 
nal Letters  and  Papers  addressed  to  Oliver 
Cromwell,  1743.  Borlase's  History  of  the  Irish 
Rebellion,  ed.  1743,  has  a  valuable  supplement, 
containing  a  number  of  Ireton's  letters  derived 
from  the  papers  of  his  secretary,  Mr.  Cliffe.  For 
other  authorities  on  his  services  in  Ireland  see 
the  bibliography  of  the  article  on  Oliver  Crom- 
well. The  Clarke  Papers,  published  by  the  Cam- 
den  Society  (vol.  i.  1891),  throw  much  light  on 
Ireton's  career,  and  contain  reports  of  his  speeches 
in  the  council  of  the  army.  The  Memoirs  of  Lud- 
low  and  the  Life  of  Colonel  Hutchinson  are  of 
special  value  for  Ireton's  Life.]  C.  H.  F. 

IRETON,  RALPH  (d.  1292),  bishop  of 
Carlisle,  was  a  member  of  a  family  that  took 
its  name  from  the  village  of  Irton,  near  Ra- 
venglass  in  Cumberland,  where  it  held  estates 
that  remained  in  its  possession  until  the 
eighteenth  century.  A  pedigree  in  Hutch- 
inson's  '  Cumberland'  (i.  573)  makes  him  the 
son  of  Stephen  Irton,  and  assigns  him  two 
brothers,  Robert  and  Thomas.  Ralph  Ireton 
became  a  canon  regular  of  the  order  of  St. 
Augustine,  at  the  priory  of  Gisburne  in  Cleve- 
land. In  1261  he  first  appears  as  prior  of 
Gisburne  (DUGDALE,  Monasticon,  vi.  266),  an 
office  which  he  held  until  26  Dec.  1278,  when 
he  was  elected  by  the  prior  and  canons  of 
Carlisle,  who  were  also  of  the  Augustinian 
order,  as  bishop  of  Carlisle.  At  a  previous 
election  on  13  Dec.  the  chapter  had  chosen 
William  Rotherfield,  dean  of  York,  who  had, 
however,  declined  the  promotion.  The  second 
election  was  without  royal  license,  and  Ed- 
ward I  fined  the  chapter  five  hundred  marks 
and  refused  his  assent.  Moreover,  the  Arch- 
bishop of  York  delayed  his  confirmation  of 
the  election,  and  after  his  death  the  bishop- 
elect,  whom  the  chapter  still  refused  to  recog- 
nise, appealed  in  despair  to  Pope  Nicholas  III, 
who  appointed  a  committee  of  three  cardi- 
nals to  investigate  the  matter.  They  decided 
that  the  election  had  been,  on  highly  tech- 
nical grounds,  informal,  whereupon  the  pope 
quashed  the  appointment,  but  at  once  nomi- 
nated Ireton  to  the  vacant  see  by  papal  pro- 
vision. Ireton,  who  was  still  in  Rome,  was 
there  consecrated  by  Ordonius  Alurz, cardinal 
bishop  of  Tusculum,  one  of  the  three  com- 
missioners. On  9  April  1280  Nicholas,  when 
informing  King  Edward  of  these  events, 
urged  him  to  receive  Ireton  as  bishop  (Fcedera, 
i.  579).  At  the  end  of  May  Ireton  was  back 
in  England.  Edward  accepted  the  pope's 
advice,  and  on  10  July  1280  Ireton's  tempo- 
ralities were  restored.  The  prior  and  con- 

vent were  pardoned  on  paying  100/.  to  the 

Ireton  was  active  in  his  diocese.  The 
Franciscans  of  Carlisle,  the  probable  authors 
of  the  so-called  '  Chronicle  of  Lanercost,'  give 
a  very  black  account  of  his  doings.  He  was 
a  man  of  foresight  and  wisdom,  but  exceed- 
ingly avaricious.  His  constant  visitations 
became  mere  means  of  despoiling  his  poverty- 
stricken  clergy.  In  October  1280  he  extorted 
a  tenth  from  a  diocesan  council,  and  insisted 
that  it  should  be  paid  on  a  real,  and  not  on. 
a  traditional,  valuation,  and  in  the  new 
money.  He  incurred  special  odium  by  extort- 
ing large  sums  of  money  from  the  '  anniver- 
sary' priests  who,  without  benefices,  earned 
a  precarious  livelihood  by  saying  private- 
masses.  This  he  devoted  to  building  a  new 
roof  and  adding  glass  and  stall-work  to 
his  cathedral  (Chron.  de  Lanercost,  pp.  102,. 

105,  145).     A  visitation   of  Lanercost  in. 
1281  seems  to  have  been  equally  resented 
(ib.  p.  106). 

Ireton's  benefactions  were  insignificant. 
In  1282  he  appropriated  the  church  of  Ad- 
dingham  and  gave  it  to  the  prior  of  his  cathe- 
dral, though  this  was  only  the  confirmation  of 
a  grant  of  Christiana  Bruce  (RAINE,  Papers 
from  Northern  Registers,  p.  250,  Rolls  Ser.) 
In  1287  he  confirmed  a  grant  of  the  church  of 
Bride  Kirk  to  his  old  comrades  at  Gisburne 
(Monasticon,  vi.  274).  He  recovered  Dalston 
manor  and  church  from  Michael  Barclay, 
and  sought  in  vain  to  obtain  the  tithes  of 
the  newly  cultivated  lands  in  Inglewood 
Forest  for  his  chapter  (HuTCHiNSOtf,  Cumber- 
land, ii.  622-3).  Ireton's  most  important  poli- 
tical employment  was  with  Bishop  Antony 
Bek  [q.  v.],  on  the  embassy  sent  to  negotiate- 
the  marriage  of  Edward,  the  king's  son,  and 
Margaret  of  Norway.  On  18  July  1290  the- 
envoys  brought  the  negotiation  to  a  success- 
ful issue  iu.  the  treaty  of  Brigham.  Ireton 
was  at  the  famous  gatherings  at  Norhani  and 
Berwick  in  1291,  and  was  in  the  same  year 
appointed  jointly  with  the  Bishop  of  Caith- 
ness to  collect  the  crusading  tenth  in  Scot- 
land. He  attended  the  London  parliament 
in  January  1292,  and  died  suddenly  at  his 
manor  of  Linstock,  near  Carlisle,  imme- 
diately after  his  return,  on  28  Feb.  or 
1  March  1292.  He  was  buried  in  Carlisle- 
Cathedral,  where  on  25  May  a  great  fire  de- 
stroyed his  tomb,  along  with  much  of  his- 
new  work.  This  was  looked  upon  as  a 
judgment  for  his  extortions  from  the  sti- 
pendiary priests. 

[Rymer's  Fcedera,  vol.  i.,  Eecordedit. ;  Steven- 
son's Historical  Documents  relating  to  Scotland, 
vol.  i.;  Chron.  of  Lanercost,  pp.  101,  102,  105- 

106,  113,  143,  1 44-5 (Maitland  Club);  Heming- 




burgh,  i.  40  (Engl.  Hist,  Soc.) ;  Le  Neve's  Fasti 
Ecclesise  Anglicanae,  ed.  Hardy,  iii.  233 ;  Parl. 
Writs,  vol.  i. ;  Hutchinson's  Cumberland,  i.  573, 
ii.  622-3  ]  T.  F.  T. 

IRLAND,  JOHN  (f.  1480),  divine  and 
•diplomatist,  apparently  a  native  of  Scotland, 
.settled  in  Paris,  and  became  a  doctor  of  the 
Sorbonne.  A  Johannes  de  Hirlandia,  '  bac- 
calaureus  Navarricus,'  appears  in  the  index 
t>ut  not  in  the  text  of  Bulaeus  (Hist.  Univ. 
Paris,  vol.  v.)  as  rector  of  the  university  of 
Paris  in  1469.  Irland's  Scottish  birth  and 
proved  ability  caused  Louis  XI  of  France  to 
send  him  to  Scotland  in  1480  to  urge  James  III 
to  declare  war  with  England  and  to  recon- 
cile Alexander  Stewart,  duke  of  Albany 
fq.  v.],  with  his  brother,  James  III.  In  the 
atter  object  he  failed,  but  he  is  said  to  have 
greatly  impressed  James,  who  induced  him 
to  return  to  live  in  Scotland,  and  gave  him 
a  rich  benefice  (DEMPSTER,  Hist.  Eccl.  Gentis 
Scotorum,  No.  752).  He  was  doubtless  the 
Dr.  John  Irland,  doctor  of  theology  and  rec- 
tor of  Hawick,  who  was  one  of  the  Scottish 
ambassadors  sent  in  1484  to  France  to  re- 
ceive the  oath  of  Charles  VIII  to  the  treaty 
of  1483  (CRAWFURD,  Affairs  of  State,  i.  45, 
ed.  1726  ;  MICHEL,  Les  Ecossais  en  France}. 
On  23  Sept.  1487  Henry  VII,  at  the  request 
of  King  J  ames,  granted  a  safe-conduct  to  the 
Bishop  of  St.  Andrews  and  John  Irland,  clerk  ; 
(Fcedera,  orig.  ed.,  xii.  326).  According  to  i 
Dempster,  Irland  wrote :  1.  'In  Magistrum  ! 
Sententiarum,'  in  four  books.  2.  A  book  of 
sermons.  3.  '  Reconciliations  Modus  ad  Ja-  I 
cobum  III  Kegem  super  dissidio  cum  Duce  i 
Albanise.'  4.  One  book  of  letters. 

[Dempster's  Hist.  Eccl.  Gentis  Scot.  (Ban- 
natyne  Club),  1829;  Michel's  Les  Ecossais  en 
France;  Burton's  Hist,  of  Scotland,  iii.  22.] 

J.  T-T. 

IRLAND,  ROBERT  (d.  1561),  professor 
of  law  at  Poitiers,  was  the  second  son  of 
Alexander  Irland  of  Burnben  in  Lorn  and 
Margaret  Coutts.  His  family,  an  old  and  ; 
important  one,  was  originally  settled  in  the 
west  of  Scotland,  but  the  elder  male  line  be- 
coming extinct  the  estates  passed  by  marriage 
about  1300  to  the  Abercrombies.  Irland,  when 
a  young  man,  went  to  France  about  1496. 
Having  completed  his  studies  at  the  univer- 
sity of  Poitiers,  he  there  received  the  degree  of 
doctor  of  laws,  and  in  1502  obtained  one  of 
•the  chairs  of  law  in  that  university.  Letters 
of  naturalisation  were  granted  to  him  by 
Francis  I  in  May  1521.  Irland,  whose  lec- 
tures were  well  attended,  acquired  a  great 
reputation  as  a  jurist.  Philippe  Hurault, 
chancellor  of  France,  and  de  Harley,  first  pre- 
sident of  parliament,  and  other  well-known 

statesmen  were  among  his  pupils.  Baron, 
professor  of  law  at  Bourges,  whom  Cujas 
termed  the  most  learned  man  of  his  time, 
dedicated  (25  Dec.  1536)  to  Irland  in  highly 
laudatory  terms  his  work,  '  The  Economy  of 
the  Pandects.'  Rabelais  refers  to  Irland  in 
treating  of  the  decretals.  '  II  m'avint/  he 
says, '  un  jour  a  Poitiers  chez  1'Ecossais  Doctor 
Decretalipotens,  &c.,  &c.'  He  occupied  his 
chair  for  about  sixty  years,  and  died  at  an 
advanced  age  on  15  March  1561.  He  was 
twice  married,  first  to  Marie  Sauveteau,  by 
whom  he  had  one  son,  John,  who  became 
counsellor  in  the  parliament  of  Rennes  ;  and 
again  to  Claire  Aubert,  of  a  noble  family  of 
Poitou,  by  whom  he  had  two  sons,  Louis 
and  Bonaventuve. 

BOXAYEXTFRE  IRLAXD  (1551-1612  ?)  SUC- 

ceeded  his  father  in  the  professorship  of  laws 
at  Poitiers,  was  a  colleague  of  Adam  Black- 
wood  [q.  v.],  and  was  a  conseiller  du  roi 
of  the  city.  He  wrote  :  '  Remontrances  au 
roi  Henri  III,  au  nom  du  pays  de  Poitou,' 
Poitiers,  n.d.,  8vo  (HoEFEB).  A  philosophi- 
cal treatise  entitled  '  Bonaventurse  Irlandi 
antecessorum  primicerii  sive  decani  et  con- 
siliarii  regii  apud  Pictavos,  de  Emphasi  et 
Hypostasi  ad  recte  judicandi  ration  em  con- 
sideratio,'  Poitiers,  1599, 8vo.  By '  Emphase' 
he  designated  the  false  or  misleading  forms 
under  which  things  may  be  presented  so  as 
to  delude  our  apprehension  or  our  judgment; 
and  by  '  Hypostase,'  the  truth  or  reality  of 
things  which  is  hid  from  us.  He  proposes, 
in  a  manner  somewhat  akin  to  that  of  Bacon 
in  indicating  his  '  Idola,'  to  guard  the  mind 
against  the  seductions  of  the  imagination. 
He  refers  to  his  master  Ramus,  whose  errors 
he  deplores.  In  the  preface  to  this  work  he 
mentions  that  he  had  written  a  life  of  his 
father,  and  had  dedicated  it  to  the  Chancellor 
de  Chiverny.  It  does  not  seem  to  have  been 
published.  He  also  wrote  a  '  Latin  speech 
on  the  birth  of  the  Dauphin  Louis  XIII, 
dedicated  to  Henry  IV,' Poitiers,  1605, 12mo. 
He  died  about  1612.  According  to  a  cus- 
tom much  in  vogue  during  the  sixteenth 
century  his  name  of  Bonaventure  was  fre- 
quently translated  into  Greek,  Eutyches  or 
Eutychius.  Dreux  du  Radier  states  that 
some  of  his  contemporaries  called  him  indif- 
ferently by  the  one  or  the  other  name.  The 
family  of  Irland  intermarried  with  the  best 
families  of  Poitou,  and  Robert  Irland's  de- 
scendants in  France  are  very  numerous  at 
the  present  time. 

[Letters  patent  passed  under  the  great  seal 
of  Scotland,  19  April  1665,  giving  genealogy, 
and  attesting  the  noble  descent  of  Eobert  Irland, 
included  in  Flores  Pictavienses,  by  Napoleon 
Wyse,  Perigueux,  1859;  Filleau's  Dictionnaire 




des  families  de  1'ancien  Poitou,  ii.  234,  238  ; 
Kabelais'  Pantagruel,  lib.  iv.  chap.  lii. ;  Michel's 
LesEcossais  en  France;  Bibliotheque  historique 
et  critique  du  Poitou,  par  Dreux  du  Radier,  5  vols. 
18mo,  Paris,  1754  ;  Nouvelle  Biographie  Gene- 
rale,  par  Hoefer,  Paris,  1868  ;  Dempster's  Hist. 
Eccles.  Gentis  Scotorum,  No.  748.]  J.  G.  F. 

1883),  theological  writer, born  at  Hoddesdon, 
Hertfordshire,  12  Sept.  1812,  was  second  son 
of  the  Rev.  JOSEPH  IKONS  (1785-1852),  by  his 
first  wife,  Mary  Ann,  daughter  of  William 
Broderick.  His  mother  died  in  1828.  His 
father,  a  popular  evangelical  preacher,  born  at 
Ware,  Hertfordshire,  on  5  Nov.  1785,  com- 
menced preaching  in  March  1808  under  the 
auspices  of  the  London  Itinerant  Society,  was 
ordained  an  independent  minister  on  21  May 
1814,  was  stationed  at  Hoddesdon  from  1812 
to  1815,  and  at  Sawston,  near  Cambridge, 
from  1815  to  1818,  and  was  minister  of  Grove 
Chapel,  Camberwell,  Surrey,  from  1818  until 
his  death  at  Camberwell  on  3  April  1852 
(BAYFIELD,  Memoir  of  the  Rev.  Joseph  Irons, 

William  Josiah,  after  being  educated  at 
home,  matriculated  from  Queen's  College, 
Oxford,  on  12  May  1829,  and  graduated 
B.A.  1833,  M.A.  1835,  B.D.  1842,  and  D.D. 
1854.  He  was  curate  of  St.  Mary,  Newing- 
ton  Butts,  Surrey,  from  1835  till  1837,  when 
he  was  presented  to  the  living  of  St.  Peter's, 
Walworth.  He  became  vicar  of  Barkway 
in  Hertfordshire  in  1838,  vicar  of  Bromp- 
ton,  Middlesex,  17  Sept.  1840,  honorary 
canon  of  St.  Paul's  Cathedral  December 
1840,  rector  of  Wadingham,  Lincolnshire, 
6  April  1870,  and  on  7  June  1872  rector 
of  St.  Mary  Woolnoth  with  St.  Mary  Wool- 
church-Haw  in  the  city  of  London,  on  the 
presentation  of  Mr.  Gladstone.  In  1870  he 
was  Bampton  lecturer  at  Oxford,  and  his 
published  lectures,  'Christianity  as  taught 
by  St.  Paul,'  reached  a  second  edition  in 
1871.  He  died  at  20  Gordon  Square,  Lon- 
don, on  18  June  1883.  He  married  first,  in 
1839,  Ann,  eldest  daughter  of  John  Melhuish 
of  Upper  Tooting,  who  died  14  July  1853  ; 
and  secondly,  on  28  Dec.  1854,  Sarah  Albinia 
Louisa,  youngest  daughter  of  Sir  Launcelot 
Shadwefl;  she  died  15  Dec.  1887.  _ 

Irons's  chief  work  is  the  'Analysis  of  Hu- 
man Responsibility,'  1869,  written  at  the  re- 
questof  the  foundersof  the  Victoria  Institute. 
There  Irons  lectured  on  Darwin's  '  Origin  of 
Species,'  on  TyndalPs '  Fragments  of  Science,' 
on  Mill's  'Essay  on  Theism,'  and  on  the 
'  Unseen  Universe.'  For  the  volume  of '  Re- 
plies to  Essays  and  Reviews '  he  wrote,  in 
1862, '  The  Idea  of  a  National  Church.'  He 
zealously  defended  church  establishment  in 

a  series  of  works,  of  which  the  earliest  was 
a  pamphlet  called  '  The  Present  Crisis,'  pub- 
lished in  1850,  and  the  latest  a  series  of 
letters  entitled 'The  Charge  of  Erastianism/ 
In  1855  appeared  a  pamphlet  signed  'A.  E./ 
entitled  '  Is  the  Vicar  of  Brompton  a  Trac- 
tarian  ? '  He  was  an  advocate  of  free  and  com- 
pulsory education,  and  suggested  an  entire 
modification  of  the  poor  law.  He  was  one- 
of  the  editors  of  the  '  Tracts  of  the  Anglican- 
Church,'  1842,  and  of  the  'Literary  Church- 
man.' In  the  latter  he  wrote  the  leading- 
articles  from  May  1855  to  December  1861. 
He  translated  the  '  Dies  Tree  '  of  Thomas  de- 
Celano  in  the  well-known  hymn  commencing 
'  Day  of  wrath !  0  day  of  mourning  ! ' 

Irons  wrote,  besides  the  works  mentioned 
and  single  sermons  and  addresses:  1.  'On 
the  Whole  Doctrine  of  Final  Causes,'  1836. 
2.  'On  the  Holy  Catholic  Church,' parochial 
lectures,  three  series,  1837-47.  3.  '  Our 
Blessed  Lord  regarded  in  his  Earthly  Re- 
lationship,' four  sermons,  1844.  4.  '  Notes 
of  the  Church,'  1845  ;  third  edit.,  1846. 
5.  '  The  Theory  of  Development  examined/ 
1846.  6. 'Fifty-two  Propositions.  A  Letter 
to  the  Rev.  Dr.  Hampden,'  1848.  7.  '  The- 
Christian  Servant's  Book,'  1849.  8.  'The 
Judgments  onBaptismal  Regeneration,'  1850. 
9.  '  The  Preaching  of  Christ/ 1 853.  1 0. '  The- 
Miracles  of  Christ,'  a  series  of  sermons,  1859. 
11.  'The  Bible  and  its  Interpreters,'  1865; 
2nd  edit.,  1869.  12.  '  On  Miracles  and  Pro- 
phecy,' 1867.  13. '  The  Sacred  Life  of  Jesus 
Christ.  Taken  in  Order  from  the  Gospels/ 

1867.  14.   'The   Sacred  Words   of  Jesus 
Christ.     Taken  in  Order  from  the  Gospels/ 

1868.  15.  '  Considerations  on  taking  Holy 
Orders,'  1872.    16. '  The  Church  of  all  Ages/ 
1875.      17.   '  Psalms  and  Hymns   for  the 
Church,'  1875 ;  another  edit.,  1883.    18. '  Oc- 
casional Sermons,'  chiefly  preached  at  St.. 
Paul's,  seven  parts,  1876. 

[Mackeson's  Church  Congress  Handbook,  1877, 
pp.  98-100 ;  Guide  to  the  Church  Congress,. 
1883,  p.  46;  Miller's  Singers  and  Songs  of  the- 
Church,  1869,  pp.  34,  515;  Times,  20  June  1883, 
p.  14,  21  June,  p,  5.]  G.  C.  B. 

IRONSIDE,  EDWARD  (1736 P-1803), 

topographer,  born  about  1736,  was  the  eldest 
son  of  Edward  Ironside,  F.S.A.,  banker,  of 
Lombard  Street,  who  died  lord  mayor  on 
27  Nov.  1753.  He  was  a  supercargo  in  the- 
East  India  Company's  service.  For  many 
years  he  lived  at  Twickenham,  where  he  died1 
on  20  June  1803,  aged  67,  and  was  buried  on 
the  28th  (LYSONS,  Environs,  Suppl.  pp.  319, 
322 ;  Gent.  Mag.  vol.  Ixxiii.  pt.  i.  p.  603). 
He  wrote  '  The  History  and  Antiquities  of 
Twickenham ;  being  the  First  Part  of  Paro- 



chial  Collections  for  the  County  of  Middlesex,' 
4to,  London,  1797,  issued  in  Nichols's 'Biblio- 
theca  Topographica  Britannica,'  vol.  x.  No.  6. 
It  was  to  have  been  followed  by  a  history  of 
Isleworth,  which  he  did  not  complete. 
[Nichols's  Lit.  Anecd.  ix.  194.]  G.  G. 

IRONSIDE,  GILBERT,  the  elder  (1588- 
1671 ),  bishop  of  Bristol,  elder  son  of  Ralph 
Ironside,  by  Jane,  daughter  of  William  Gil- 
bert ,  M.A.  of  Magdalen  College,  Oxford,  supe- 
rior beadle  of  arts,  was  born  at  Hawkesbury, 
near  Sodbury,  Gloucestershire,  on  25  Nov. 
1588.  His  father,  Ralph  Ironside  (1550?- 
1629), born  at  Houghton-le-Spring,  Durham, 
about  1550,  was  third  son  of  John  Ironside  of 
Iloughton-le-Spring  (d.  1581) ;  matriculated 
from  St.  Edmund  Hall,  Oxford,  20  Dec.  1577, 
and  graduated  B.A.  in  1580-1.  Elected  a 
fellow  of  University  College,  he  graduated 
M.A.  in  1585,  and  B.D.  in  1601.  He  was 
rector  of  Long  Bredy  and  of  Winterbourne 
Abbas,  both  in  Dorset,  and  died  25  May  1629. 
He  is  often  confused  with  his  second  son, 
also  Ralph  (1 590-1 683),who  took  holy  orders, 
became  rector  of  Long  Bredy  in  succession 
to  his  father,  and  is  said  to  have  been  ejected 
from  his  benefice  by  the  Long  parliament, 
and  to  have  been  reduced  to  the  utmost 
poverty  (HuiCHlNS,  Hist,  of  Dorset,  ii.  194). 
On  the  Restoration  the  younger  Ralph  was 
reinstated  in  his  living ;  was  chosen  proctor 
of  the  clergy  in  convocation,  and  became  arch- 
deacon of  Dorset  in  1661.  He  died  o  March 
1682-3,  and  was  buried  in  Long  Bredy 
Church,  where  there  is  a  monument  to  him. 

Gilbert  Ironside  matriculated  at  Trinity 
College,  Oxford,  22  June  1604,  and  became 
scholar  of  his  college 28 May  1605,B.A.  1608, 
M.A.  1612,  B.D.  1619,  and  D.D.  1660,  and 
feUow  of  Trinity  1613.  In  1618  he  was 
presented  to  the  rectory  of  Winterbourne 
Steepleton,  Dorsetshire,  by  Sir  Robert  Miller. 
In  1629  he  succeeded  his  father  in  the  benefice 
•of  Winterbourne  Abbas.  He  was  also  rector 
of  Yeovilton  in  Somerset.  Wood  says  that 
he  kept  his  preferments  during  the  protec- 
torate, but  this  statement  seems  doubtful  (ib. 
ii.  198).  Either  by  marriage  or  other  means 
he  amassed  a  large  fortune  before  the  Resto- 
ration. On  13  Oct.  1660  he  was  appointed 
to  a  prebendal  stall  in  York  Minster,  but  re- 
signed the  post  next  year,  when  on  13  Jan. 
1661  he  was  consecrated  bishop  of  Bristol. 
As  a  man  of  wealth  he  was  considered  fitted 
to  maintain  the  dignity  of  the  episcopate 
with  the  reduced  revenues  of  the  see  (Woon, 
Athena  Oxon.  iii.  940,  iv.  849).  At  Bris- 
tol Ironside  showed  much  forbearance  to 
nonconforming  ministers.  Calamy  gives  the 
particulars  of  a  long  conference  between 

him  and  John  Wesley  [q.  v.]  of  Whitchurch 
(father  of  Samuel  Wesley  [q.  v.]  of  Epworth 
and  grandfather  of  the  famous  John  Wesley 
[q.  v.]).  Wesley  refused  to  use  the  Book 
of  Common  Prayer,  and,  according  to  Ken- 
nett,  '  the  bishop  was  more  civil  to  him  than 
he  to  the  bishop.'  Finding  him  impracti- 
cable, Ironside  is  said  to  have  closed  the 
interview  with  the  words,  '  I  will  not  meddle 
with  you,  and  will  do  you  all  the  good  I  can ' 
(KEXXETT,  Register,  p.  919;  CAIAJIY,  Me- 
morial, pp.  438-47).  Ironside  died  on 
19  Sept.  1671,  and  was  buried  in  his  cathedral 
without  any  memorial,  near  the  steps  of  the 
bishop's  throne.  He  married  (1)  Elizabeth, 
daughter  of  Edward  Frenchman  of  East 
Compton,  Dorsetshire,  and  (2)  Alice,  daugh- 
ter of  William  Glisson  of  Marnhull,  Dorset- 
shire. By  his  first  wife  he  was  father  of 
four  sons,  of  whom  Gilbert,  the  third  son, 
is  separately  noticed. 

He  was  the  author  of  '  Ten  Questions  of 
the  Sabbath  freely  described,'  Oxford,  1637; 
and  two  separately  published  sermons,  1660 
and  1684. 

[Wood's  Athense  Oxon.  iii.  940,  iv.  896-7 ;  Ken- 
nett's  Register/pp.  295,  328,  331,  354, 919  ;  Hut- 
chins's  Hist,  of  Dorset,  Introd.  vol.  xxv.  pt.  ii.  pp. 
198,  280;  Calamy's  Memorial,  pp.438-47  ;  Lans- 
downeMSS.  987,  102,  No.  2;  Burke's  Landed 
Gentry.]  E.  V. 

IRONSIDE,  GILBERT,  the  younger 
(1632-1701),  bishop  of  Bristol  and  of  Here- 
ford, third  son  of  Gilbert  Ironside  the  elder 
[q.  v.],  was  born  at  Winterbourne  Abbas  in 
1G32.  On  14  Nov.  1650  he  matriculated  at 
Wadham  College,  Oxford,where  he  graduated 
B.A.  on  4  Feb.  1652-3,  M.A.  22  June  1655, 
B.D.  12  Oct.  1664,  D.D.  30  June  1666.  He 
became  scholar  of  his  college  in  1651,  fellow 
in  1656,  and  was  appointed  public  reader  in 
grammar  in  1659,  bursar  in  1659  and  1661, 
sub-warden  in  1660,  and  librarian  in  1662. 
He  was  presented  in  1663  to  the  rectory  of 
Winterbourne  Faringdon  by  Sir  John  Miller, 
with  which  he  held  from  1666,  in  succes- 
sion to  his  father,  the  rectory  of  Winter- 
bourne  Steepleton.  On  the  promotion  of  Dr. 
Blandford  to  the  see  of  Oxford  in  1667,  he 
was  elected  warden  of  Wadham,  an  office 
which  he  held  for  twenty-five  years.  Ac- 
cording to  Wood  he  was  '  strongly  averse 
to  Dr.  Fell's  arbitrary  proceedings,'  and  re- 
fused to  serve  the  office  of  vice-chancellor 
during  his  life.  After  Fell's  death  in  1686, 
he  filled  the  office  from  1687  to  1689,  and 
when  James  II  made  his  memorable  visit  to 
Oxford  in  September  1687,  with  the  view  of 
compelling  the  society  of  Magdalen  College 
to  admit  his  nominee  as  president,  Ironside 




in  a  discussion  with  the  king  insisted  on 
the  fellows'  rights  (WoOD,  Life,  pp.  cvii-xii ; 
BLOXAM,  Magdalen  College  and  James  II, 
Oxf.  Hist.  Soc.,  pp.  90-2).  He  declined  in 
November  an  invitation  to  dine  with  the 
king's  special  commissioners  on  the  evening 
after  they  had  expelled  the  fellows  of  Mag- 
dalen, saying,  ;  My  taste  differs  from  that  of 
Colonel  Kirke.  I  cannot  eat  my  meals  with 
appetite  under  a  gallows '  (MACATTLAY,  Hist. 
vol.  ii.  chap,  viii.)  '  The  new  chancellor  has 
much  pleased  the  university,'  wrote  Sykes 
to  Dr.  Charlett,  '  by  his  prudent  behaviour 
in  all  things,  and  I  hear  that  the  king  was 
pleased  to  say  that  he  was  an  honest,  blunt 
man '  (AUBREY,  Lives,  i.  36). 

After  the  revolution,  Ironside  was  re- 
warded for  his  resistance  by  being  appointed 
bishop  of  Bristol.  Hearne  spitefully  writes 
that  he  supported  the  Prince  of  Orange, 
so  as  to  'get  a  wife  and  a  bishopric.'  But 
the  emolument  of  the  Bristol  see  was  small, 
and  Ironside  was  consecrated,  13  Oct.  1689, 
on  the  understanding  that  he  should  be 
translated  to  a  more  lucrative  see  when 
opportunity  offered.  Accordingly,  on  the 
death  of  Bishop  Herbert  Croft,  he  was  trans- 
ferred to  the  see  of  Hereford  in  July  1691. 
He  died  on  27  Aug.  1701,  and  was  buried  in 
the  church  of  St.  Mary  Somerset,  Thames 
Street,  London.  On  the  demolition  of  that 
church  in  1867,  the  bishop's  remains  were 
transferred  to  Hereford  Cathedral. 

He  appears  to  have  been  conspicuous  for 
the  roughness  of  his  manners  among  his  Ox- 
ford contemporaries  ('  Table  Talk  of  Bishop 
Hough,'  in  Collectanea,  ii.  415,  Oxf.  Hist. 
Soc.)  When  about  sixty  years  of  age,  ac- 
cording to  Wood,  Ironside  married  'a  fair 
and  comely  widow '  of  Bristol,  whose  maiden 
name  was  Robinson. 

Ironside  published,  with  a  short  preface 
from  his  own  pen,  Bishop  Ridley's  account 
of  a  disputation  at  Oxford  on  the  sacrament, 
together  with  a  letter  of  Bradford's,  Oxford, 
1688,  and  a  sermon  preached  before  the  king 
on  23  Nov.  1684,  Oxford,  1685. 

A  portrait  is  in  the  hall  of  Wadham  Col- 

[Wood's  Athense  Oxon.  iv.  896  ;  Wood's  Life, 
pp.  cv,  cvii-xii;  Hutchins's  Dorset,  Introd.  p. 
xxvi,  ii.  529  ;  Macaulay's  Hist,  of  England,  ii. 
304 ;  Bloxam's  Magdalen  College  and  James  II, 
pp.  90-2,  and  passim;  Gardiner's  Eeg.  of  Wad- 
ham  College,  p.  184 ;  Hearne's  Coll.,  ed.  Doble 
(Oxf.  Hist.  Soc.),  i.  97.]  E.  V. 

(d.  1658),  royalist,  was  descended  from  Wil- 
liam de  Irvine,  who  was  armour-bearer  to 
Robert  Bruce,  and  was  rewarded  for  his  de- 
voted services  by  a  grant  of  the  forest  of 

Drum,  Aberdeenshire,  at  that  time  part  of 
a  royal  forest.  A  grandson  of  William  de 
Irvine  (Sir  Alexander)  distinguished  himself 
at  the  battle  of  Harlaw  (1411),  in  a  hand- 
to-hand  encounter  with  MacLean  of  Dowart, 
general  of  Donald  of  the  Isles,  in  which  both 
were  slain.  The  prowess  of  this  '  gude  Sir 
Alexander  Irvine'  is  specially  celebrated  in 
the  ballad  on  the  battle  of  Harlaw.  Other 
heads  of  the  family  rendered  important  ser- 
vices to  subsequent  sovereigns,  and  in  the 
seventeenth  century  the  lairds  of  Drum  vied 
in  wealth  and  power  with  many  families  of 
noble  rank. 

Alexander,  the  royalist,  was  the  eldest  son 
of  Alexander,  ninth  laird  of  Drum,  by  Lady 
Marion,  daughter  of  Robert  Douglas,  earl  of 
Buchan.  He  was  probably  educated  at  the 
university  of  Aberdeen,  where  the  name  of 
Alexander  Irvine  occurs  as  an  entrant  on  the 
ides  of  December  1614  (Fasti  Aber.  p.  454). 
In  December  1634  he  was  appointed  sheriff 
of  Aberdeen  (SPALDING,  Memorials,  i.  55), 
and  the  appointment  was  annually  renewed 
for  many  years  (ib.  passim).  As  one  of  the 
commissioners  for  Aberdeen  he  received  in 
1638  an  order  to  cause  the  people  to  subscribe 
the  king's  covenant  and  bond  (ib.  p.  Ill), 
and  he  was  one  of  the  few  commissioners  in 
the  north  who  aided  the  Marquis  of  Huntly  in 
that  work  (ib.  p.  112 ;  GORDON,  Scots  Affairs, 
i.  122).  He  also  accompanied  Huntly  to  the 
cross  of  Aberdeen,  when  the  king's  proclama- 
tion discharging  the  Service  Book  was  read 
(SPALDING,  i.  113).  On  the  outbreak  of  hos- 
tilities in  1639,  Montrose  on  6  April  quartered 
five  hundred  highlandmen  sent  by  Argyll  on 
the  lands  of  the  laird  of  Drum,  where  '  they 
lived  lustelie  upon  the  goods,  sheep,  corn, 
and  victual  of  the  ground '  (ib.  p.  162)  until 
the  llth  (ib.  p.  166).  Irvine  himself  had 
meanwhile,  on  28  March,  taken  ship  for  Eng- 
land (ib. p.  151);  but  in  June  he  returned  in 
a  collier  brig  under  the  command  of  Lord 
Aboyne,  and  finally,  landing  on  the  6th  (ib. 
p.  203),  assisted  in  the  capture  of  Aberdeen 
for  the  king  (ib.  p.  205).  Afterwards  he  pro- 
ceeded to  fortify  his  place  of  Drum  (ib.  p.  265), 
but  according  to  Gordon  it  was  '  not  strong 
by  nature,  and  scarcely  fencible  at  that  time 
by  art '  (Scots  Affairs,  iii.  197).  On  2  June 
1640  General  Monro  arrived  before  it  with 
the  Earl  Marischal.  Irvine  was  absent,  but 
when  Monro  proceeded  to  open  fire  his  wife 
agreed  to  deliver  the  castle,  on  condition  that 
the  garrison  were  permitted  to  go  out  free 
with  their  arms  and  baggage,  and  that  she 
and  her  children  were  allowed  to  reside  in 
one  of  the  rooms.  She  moreover  promised 
to  send  her  husband  to  Monro  at  Aberdeen 
(GORDON,  pp.  197-8 ;  SPALDING,  i.  280-1). 




Irvine  accordingly  delivered  himself  up  to 
Monro,  by  whom  he  was  courteously  re- 
ceived, but  was  det  ained  a  prisoner  (ib.  p.  283"), 
and  on  the  llth  was  sent  with  other  anti- 
covenanters  to  Edinburgh,  where  they  were 
warded  in  the  Tolbooth,  Irvine  being  also 
fined  ten  thousand  merks  (ib.  p.  288).  While 
he  was  still  a  prisoner  in  Edinburgh  he  was 
again  named  sheriff  of  Aberdeen,but  his  lands 
were  plundered  by  the  covenanting  soldiers 
(ib.  p.  295),  and  on  23  July  the  tenants  were 
required  to  pay  their  rents  to  the  Earl  Ma- 
rischal  (ib.  p.  308).  He  obtained  his  liberty 
early  in  1641,  and,  discouraged  both  by  the 
disasters  that  had  befallen  him  and  by  the 
absence  of  the  Marquis  of  Huntly  from  the 
country,  he  conformed  to  the  covenant.  On 
20  Nov.  1643  he,  however,  refused  to  subscribe 
the  covenant  at  Aberdeen,  affirming  that  it 
was  sufficient  to  have  subscribed  it  in  his  own 
parish  church  (ib.  ii.  293).  In  January  1644 
he  refused  to  attempt  the  apprehension  of  the 
Marquis  of  Huntly  (ib.  p.  306),  but  refrained 
from  actually  assisting  the  royal  cause.  When 
Huntly  on  26  March  assembled  a  large  force 
in  Aberdeen  in  behalf  of  the  king,  Irvine — 
though  his  son  Alexander  (see  below)  was 
present — 'baid  at  hame,  and  miskenit  all' 
(ib.  p.  330).  In  the  beginning  of  the  follow- 
ing year  (1645)  Argyll  and  the  Earl  Ma- 
rischal  paid  a  hostile  visit  to  Drum.  Irvine 
and  his  sons  were  absent ;  but  although  the 
visitors  were  welcomed  by  Irvine's  '  lady  and 
his  gude  daughter,  Lady  Mary  Gordon,'  both 
ladies  were  evicted  from  the  house  '  in  pitiful 
form,'  and  with  difficulty  'got  twa  wark  naigs 
[horses]  which  bure  thame  in  to  Aberdeen '  (ib. 
p.  354).  The  place  of  Drum  was  then  plun- 
dered by  the  soldiers,  not  only  of  its  provi- 
sions, but  of  all  its  costly  furniture,  and  left  in 
charge  of  fifty  musketeers  (ib.  p.  355).  The 
reason  for  these  forcible  proceedings  was  that 
Irvine's  two  sons  were  giving  active  support 
to  the  royalists  in  the  north,  and  although 
Irvine  intimated  his  disapproval  of  their  con- 
duct, and  '  came  to  the  lords  in  humble 
manner,'  his  professions  were  not  trusted  and 
he  received  no  redress,  the  only  favour  granted 
him  being  leave  to  go  to  his  daughter's  house 
at  Frendracht  (ib.  p.  356).  As  evidence  of 
his  good  faith  he  attended,  on  24  May  1645, 
a  meeting  of  the  covenanting  committee  in 
Aberdeen  (ib.  p.  370),  but  on  subsequently 
going  to  Edinburgh,  where  his  sons  were  im- 
prisoned in  the  Tolbooth,  he  was  confined 
(November)  within  the  town  (ib.  p.  431),  and 
was  not  permitted  to  return  home  till  31  May 
in  the  following  year  (ib.  p.  478).  Being 
called  in  1652  to  subscribe  the  covenant  by 
the  presbytery  of  Aberdeen,  he  affirmed  that 
neither  in  conscience  nor  honour  could  he 

agree  to  what  was  proposed.  On  being- 
threatened  with  excommunication,  he  sent 
a  protest  to  the  presbytery  (printed  in  Mis- 
cellany of  the  Spalding  Club,  iii.  205-7),  and 
appealed  to  Colonel  O  verton,  who  commanded 
the  parliamentary  forces  in  the  district.  No 
further  steps  appear  to  have  been  taken 
against  him.  On  12  April  1656  Irvine  sup- 
plemented his  father's  gift  for  the  foundation 
of  bursaries  in  Marischal  College,  Aberdeen 
(Fasti  Marts,  p.  207).  He  died  in  May  1658. 
By  his  wife,  Magdalene,  eldest  daughter  of 
Sir  John  Scrimgeour,  he  had,  besides  other 
children,  two  sons,  ALEXANDER  IRVINE,  tenth 
laird  (d.  1687),  and  ROBERT  IRVINE  (d.  1645), 
who  were  among  the  most  persistent  sup- 
porters of  the  cause  of  Charles  in  the  north. 
They  were  excommunicated,  and  on  14  April 
1644  a  price  was  put  upon  their  heads.  After 
setting  sail  from  Fraserburgh,  they  were  com- 
pelled by  stress  of  weather  to  put  in  at  Wick, 
where  they  were  apprehended  and  imprisoned 
in  the  castle  of  Keiss.  Thence  they  were  sent 
to  Edinburgh,  and  confined  in  the  Tolbooth. 
Robert  died  there  on  6  Feb.  1 644-5  (SPALDIN G, 
ii.  446).  but  Alexander,  after  being  removed  to- 
the  castle  of  Edinburgh,  obtained  his  liberty 
through  the  triumph  of  Montrose  at  Kilsyth 
in  1645.  After  the  Restoration  Charles  II 
renewed  to  him  the  offer  of  the  earldom  of 
Aberdeen — of  which  a  patent  to  his  father 
had  been  prevented  from  passing  the  great 
seal  by  the  outbreak  of  the  revolution — but 
he  declined  the  honour.  He  died  in  1687, 
and  was  buried  in  Drum's  aisle,  in  the  parish- 
church  of  St.  Nicholas,  Aberdeen.  After  the 
death  of  his  first  wife,  Lady  Margaret  Gor- 
don, fourth  daughter  of  the  first  Marquis 
of  Huntly,  he  married  Margaret  Coutts,  a 
maiden  of  low  degree,  '  the  weel-faured  May  T 
of  the  well-known  ballad/  The  Laird  o'  Drum  / 

[Spalding's  Memorialls  of  the  Trebles  (Spald- 
ing Club) ;  Gordon's  Scots  Affairs  (Spaldin* 
Club) ;  Sir  James  Balfour's  Annals ;  Miscellany 
of  the  Spalding  Club,  vol.  iii. ;  Burke's  Landed 
Gentry;  Anderson's  Scottish  Nation.]  T.  F.  H. 

IRVINE,  ALEXANDER  (1793-1873), 
botanist,  son  of  a  well-to-do  farmer,  was 
born  at  Daviot,  Aberdeenshire,  in  1793.  He 
was  educated  at  the  grammar  school  at  Daviot 
and  at  Marischal  College,  Aberdeen,  which  he 
left  in  1819  to  engage  in  private  tuition.  In 
1824  he  came  to  London  in  pursuit  of  the 
same  profession.  He  afterwards  acted  as 
schoolmaster  at  Albury,  in  London,  at  Bris- 
tol, and  at  Guildford.  He  finally  opened  a 
school  in  1851  at  Chelsea.  For  eight  or  ten 
years  toward  the  close  of  his  life  he  held  a 
ministerial  office  in  the  Irvingite  church  at 
White  Notley,  Essex,  but  did  not  reside 




there.  He  died  in  Upper  Manor  Street,  Chel- 
sea, on  13  May  1873,  and  was  buried  in 
Brompton  cemetery. 

Irvine  interested  himself  in  botany  at  an 
early  age,  and  on  his  first  visit  to  London 
(1824)  he  made  extensive  collections  in  the 
surrounding  country.  John  Stuart  Mill  and 
William  Pamplin  often  accompanied  him  in 
his  botanical  excursions.  A  manuscript  cata- 
logue of  over  six  hundred  species,  which  he 
found  within  a  two-mile  radius  of  Hampstead 
Heath,  was  compiled  by  him  between  1825 
and  1834.  After  contributing  to  Loudon's 
e  Magazine  of  Natural  History,'  he  published 
in  1838,  while  at  Albury,  his  so-called  '  Lon- 
don Flora,'  the  first  part  of  which  includes 
plants  from  all  the  south-eastern  counties  and 
the  second  part  from  the  whole  of  Britain.  A 
new  edition  is  dated  1846. 

Irvine  was  in  the  habit  of  making  long 
summer  excursions  in  Wales,  Scotland,  or 
England,  mostly  on  foot,  and  became  a  con- 
tributor to  the  old  series  of  the  '  Phyto- 
logist.'  On  its  cessation  at  the  death  of 
the  editor  (George  Luxford)  in  1854,  Irvine 
edited  a  new  series,  which  was  carried  on 
through  six  volumes,  at  a  pecuniary  loss, 
from  May  1855  to  July  1863,  when  Pamplin, 
the  publisher,  retired  from  business.  With 
the  earlier  numbers  of  this  magazine  were 
given  away  some  sheets  of  a  descriptive  work 
on  British  botany.  This  material  Irvine  in- 
corporated in  his  most  comprehensive  work, 
the  '  Illustrated  Handbook  of  British  Plants,' 
a  popular  manual,  issued  in  five  parts  in  1858. 
Always  endeavouring  to  popularise  the  study 
of  his  favourite  science,  he  started  in  Novem- 
ber 1863  the  '  Botanist's  Chronicle,'  a  penny 
monthly  periodical.  This  he  circulated  with 
a  catalogue  of  second-hand  books  which  he 
had  for  sale.  It  only  ran,  however,  to  seven- 
teen numbers.  In  addition  to  botany,  Irvine 
made  a  close  study  of  the  Scriptures,  and  left 
behind  him  manuscript  collections  of  pro- 
verbs and  folk-lore. 

[Journal  of  Botany,  1873,  p.  222  ;  Gardeners' 
Chronicle,  1873,  p.  1017.]  G.  S.  B. 

1638-1685),  physician,  philologist,  and  anti- 
quary, was  a  younger  son  of  Christopher 
Irvine  of  Robgill  Tower,  Annandale,  and 
barrister  of  the  Temple  (ANDERSON",  Scottish 
Nation,  ii.  538),  of  the  family  of  Irvine  of 
Bonshaw  in  Dumfriesshire.  He  calls  him- 
self on  one  of  his  title-pages '  Irvinus  abs  Bon 
Bosco.'  He  was  brother  of  Sir  Gerard  Irvine, 
bart.,  of  Castle  Irvine,  co.  Fermanagh,  who 
died  at  Dundalk  in  1689. 

Irvine,  like  his  relative,  James  Irvine  of 
Bonshaw,  who  seized  Donald  Cargill,  was 


an  ardent  royalist  and  episcopalian,  and  was 
ejected  from  the  college  of  Edinburgh  in 
1638  or  1639  for  refusing  the  covenant.  In- 
volving himself  in  some  unexplained  way  in 
the  Irish  troubles  of  the  following  years,  he 
was  deprived  of  his  estate  (Preface  to  his 
Nomenclature?).  'After  my  travels,'  he  con- 
tinues, '  the  cruel  saints  were  pleased  to  mor- 
tify me  seventeen  nights  with  bread  and 
water  in  close  prison'  (ib.)  Allowed  to  re- 
turn to  Scotland,  he  was  reduced  to  teaching 
in  schools  at  Leith  and  Preston  (SiBBALD, 
Bibliotheca  Scotica,  MS.  Adv.  Lib.  ap.  CHAM- 
BERS). About  1650  or  1651  Irvine  resumed 
the  profession  to  which  he  seems  to  have  been 
bred,  and  became  surgeon,  and  finally  phy- 
sician, at  Edinburgh.  He  was  present  in  the 
camp  of  Charles  II  in  Athol  in  June  1651 
(Preface  to  Anatomia  Sambuci).  After  the 
battle  of  Worcester  he  made  his  peace  with 
the  party  in  power,  and  was  appointed  about 
1652  or  1653  surgeon  to  Monck's  army  in 
Scotland.  This  office  he  held  until  the 
Restoration.  He  was  in  London  in  1659, 
and  after  the  Restoration  held  the  office  of 
surgeon  to  the  horse-guards.  By  what  he 
calls  '  a  cruel  misrepresentation '  he  lost  his 
public  employment  before  1682  (Preface  to 
Nomenclatura).  Irving  says  he  was  also  his- 
toriographer to  Charles  II.  On  17  Nov.  1681 
the  Scottish  privy  council  granted  his  petition 
that  he  should  be  allowed  to  practise  in  Edin- 
burgh, of  which  he  was  a  burgess,  free  of  in- 
terference from  the  newly  incorporated  Col- 
lege of  Physicians.  This  act  was  ratified  by 
the  Scottish  parliament  in  1685  (Acts  of 
Parl.  ofScotl.  viii.  530-1).  The  date  of  his 
death  is  unknown.  He  married  Margaret, 
daughter  of  James  Whishard,  laird  of  Pot- 
terow,  and  had  two  sons,  Christopher,  M.D., 
and  James. 

Irvine  published    the  following  works : 

1.  'Bellum  Grammaticale,  ad  exemplar  Ma- 
gistri  Alexandri  Humii  .  .  .  editum,'  a  '  tra- 
gico-comcedia '  in  five  acts  and  in  verse,  nar- 
rating a  war  of  the  nouns  and  the  verbs. 
This  rare  jeu  d'esprit  is  stated  by  Chambers 
to  have  been  first  published  in  1650,  but  the 
copy  in  the  British  Museum,  printed  at  Edin- 
burgh in  1658  in  8vo,  bears  no  signs  of  being 
a  second  edition.     It  was  reprinted  in  1698. 

2.  '  Anatomia  Sambuci,'  by  Martin  Bloch- 
witz,  translated  by  C.  Irvine,  London,  1655, 
12mo.     3.  '  Medicina  Magnetica,  or  the  art 
of  Curing  by  Sympathy,'  London  (?),  1656, 
8vo,  dedicated  to  Monck;   a  curious  tract 
reviving  some  of  the  wildest  ideas  of  Para- 
celsus.    4.  '  J.  Wallsei  [of  Leyden]  Medica 
Omnia,'  edited  by  C.  Irvine,  London,  1660, 
8vo  (preface  dated  London,  26  July  1659). 
5.  'Locorum,  nominum  propriorum  .  .  .  quae 




in  Latinis  Scotorum  H  istoriis  occummt  expli- 
catio  vernacula.  ...  Ex  schedis  T.  Craufurdii 
excussit . . .  C.  Irvine,'  Edinburgh,  1665,  8vo, 
pp.  79.  6.  '  Historise  Scoticae  nomenclatura 
Latino-vernacula,'  Edinburgh,  1682, 8vo,  and 
1697, 4to,  fulsomely  dedicated  to  James,  duke 
of  York,  at  the  time  he  was  high  commis- 
sioner in  Scotland  (an  expansion  of  No.  5). 
This  has  twice  been  reprinted,  by  James  Watt, 
Montrose,  1817, 16mo,  and  at  Glasgow,  1819, 
12mo.  Irvine  also  projected,  but  never  car- 
ried out,  a  work  '  On  the  Historic  and  An- 
tiquitie  of  Scotland.' 

[The  fullest  account  of  Irvine  is  in  Chambers's 
Diet,  of  Eminent  Scotsmen,  ed.  Thomson,  ii.  339 ; 
Burke's  Landed  Gentry.]  J.  T-T. 

IRVINE,  JAMES  (1833-1889),  portrait- 
painter,  born  in  1833,  was  eldest  son  of  John 
Irvine,  wright,  of  Meadowburn,  Menmuir, 
Forfarshire.  He  was  educated  at  Menmuir 

garish  school ;  became  a  pupil  of  Colvin 
mith  [q.  v.],  the  painter,  at  Brechin;  subse- 
quently studied  at  the  Edinburgh  Academy, 
and  was  afterwards  employed  by  Mr.  Carnegy- 
Arbuthnott  of  Balnamoon  to  paint  portraits 
of  the  old  retainers  on  his  estate.  Irvine 
practised  as  a  portrait-painter  for  some  years 
at  Arbroath,  and  then  removed  to  Montrose. 
After  a  period  of  hard  struggle  he  became 
recognised  as  one  of  the  best  portrait-painters 
in  Scotland,  and  received  numerous  commis- 
sions. He  was  an  intimate  friend  of  George 
Paul  Chalmers  [q.  v.]  Among  his  best-known 
portraits  were  those  of  James  Coull,  a  sur- 
vivor of  the  sea-fight  between  the  Shannon 
and  the  Chesapeake  (which  was  painted  for 
Mr.  Keith  of  Usan,  and  of  which  Irvine 
painted  four  replicas),  of  Dr.  Calvert,  rector 
of  Montrose  Academy,  and  other  well-known 
residents  at  Montrose.  He  also  painted  some 
landscapes.  He  had  begun  memorial  por- 
traits of  the  Earl  and  Countess  of  Dalhousie 
for  the  tenantry  on  thePanmure  estate,  when 
he  died  of  congestion  of  the  lungs  at  his  resi- 
dence, Brunswick  Cottage,  Hillside,  Mont- 
rose, 17  March  1889,  in  his  sixty-seventh  year. 
[Dundee  Advertiser,  18  March  1889  ;  Scots- 
man, 18  March  1889.]  L.  C. 

IRVINE,  WILLIAM,M.D.  (1743-1787), 

chemist,  was  the  son  of  a  merchant  in  Glas- 
gow, where  he  was  born  in  1743.  He  entered 
the  university  of  his  native  town  in  1756,  and 
studied  medicine  and  chemistry  under  Dr. 
Joseph  Black  [q.  v.],  whom  he  assisted  in  his 
first  experiments  on  the  latent  heat  of  steam. 
After  graduating  M.D.  he  visited  London 
and  Paris  for  purposes  of  professional  im- 
provement, was  appointed  on  his  return  in 
1766  lecturer  on  materia  medica  in  the  uni- 
versity of  Glasgow,  and  succeeded  Eobison 

in  1770  in  the  chair  of  chemistry.  His  lec- 
tures were  described  by  Cleghorn  as  remark- 
able for  erudition,  sagacity,  and  explanatory 
power.  His  experiments  were  largely  de- 
voted to  the  furtherance  of  manufactures. 
He  was  working  at  the  improvement  of  glass- 
making  processes  in  a  large  factory  in  which 
he  was  concerned  when  he  was  attacked  with 
a  fever,  which  proved  fatal  on  9  July  1787. 
The  offer  of  a  lucrative  post  under  the  Spanish 
government  came  to  him  upon  his  deathbed. 
By  his  wife,  Grace  Hamilton,  he  left  one  son, 
William  (1776-1811)  [q.  v.],  who  published 
from  his  father's  papers,  with  some  additions 
of  his  own, '  Essays,  chiefly  on  Chemical  Sub- 
jects,' London,  1805.  Irvine's  doctrine  of  the 
varying  capacities  of  different  bodies  for  heat 
was  defended,  and  his  method  of  experiment- 
ing was  explained  by  his  son  in  Nicholson's 
'  Journal  of  Natural  Philosophy '  (vi.  25,  xi.  50). 
[Preface  to  Irvine's  Essays  on  Chemical  Sub- 
jects ;  preface  to  William  Irvine  the  younger's 
Letters  on  Sicily ;  Edinburgh  Medical  Commen- 
taries for  1787,  p.  455  (Cleghorn)  ;  Watt's  Bibl. 
Brit. ;  Poggpndorff's  Biographisch-Literarisches 
Handworterbuch ;  Black's  Lectures  on  Chemistry, 
i.  504  (Robison).j  A.  M.  C. 

IRVINE,  WILLIAM  (1741-1804), 
American  brigadier-general,  was  born  near 
Inniskilling,  Ireland,  3  Nov.  1741,  studied 
medicine  at  Dublin  University,  and  served 
as  a  surgeon  in  the  royal  navy  during  part 
of  the  war  of  1756-63.  He  resigned  before 
the  close  of  the  war,  emigrated,  and  settled 
in  medical  practice  at  Carlisle,  Pennsylvania. 
He  sided  with  the  colonists  at  the  beginning 
of  the  revolution,  and  took  an  active  part  in 
public  affairs.  He  was  a  member  of  the 
provincial  convention  assembled  at  Phila- 
delphia, 15  July  1774,  which  recommended 
a  general  congress.  He  was  appointed  by 
congress  colonel  of  the  6th  Pennsylvanian 
infantry  and  ordered  to  Canada.  He  raised 
the  regiment,  led  it  through  the  mouth  of 
the  Sorel,  and  commanded  it  in  the  attempted 
surprise  of  the  British  at  Three  Rivers.  He 
was  taken  prisoner  on  16  June  1776,  and  was 
released  on  parole,  but  was  not  exchanged 
until  6  May  1778.  He  was  a  member  of 
the  court-martial  that  tried  General  Charles 
Lee.  In  1778  he  commanded  the  2nd  Penn- 
sylvanian infantry,  and  in  1779  was  made 
brigadier-general  and  given  command  of  the 
2nd  Pennsylvanian  brigade,  with  which  he 
was  engaged  at  Staten  Island  and  in  Wayne's 
unsuccessful  attempt  on  Bull's  Ferry,  21-22 
July  1780.  He  attempted  unsuccessfully  to 
raise  a  corps  of  Pennsylvanian  cavalry.  In 
March  1782  he  was  sent  to  Fort  Pitt  to  com- 
mand on  the  western  frontier,  where  he  re- 
mained until  October  1783.  In  1785  he  was 


appointed  agent  for  the  state  of  Pennsylvania 
to  examine  the  public  lands,  and  had  the 
administration  of  the  act  directing  the  distri- 
bution of  the  donation-lands  promised  to  the 
soldiers  of  the  revolution.  He  suggested  the 
purchase  of  the  piece  of  land  known  as  '  The 
Triangle,'  to  give  Pennsylvania  an  outlet  on 
Lake  Erie.  He  was  a  member  of  the  conti- 
nental congress  of  1786,  and  was  one  of  the 
assessors  for  settling  the  accounts  of  the  union 
with  individual  states.  He  commanded  the 
Pennsylvanian  state  militia  against  thewhisky 
insurgents  in  1794 ;  served  as  a  representative 
in  the  third  congress  from  2  Dec.  1793  to 
3  March  1795 ;  subsequently  he  removed  to 
Philadelphia,  and  in  1801  was  made  superin- 
tendent of  military  stores  there.  He  was  pre- 
sident of  the  state  society  of  Cincinnati  at  the 
time  of  his  death,  which  took  place  at  Philadel- 
phia 29  July  1804.  Two  of  Irvine's  brothers 
were  in  the  military  service  of  the  revolution, 
Andrew,  a  captain  of  infantry,  and  Matthew, 
a  surgeon  ;  and  he  left  several  sons  serving 
as  officers  in  the  United  States  army. 

[Appleton's  Cyclop.  American  Biography, 
vol.  iii.  The  statement  in  Appleton  that  Irvine 
'graduated'  at  Dublin  is  doubtful,  as  the  name 
does  not  appear  in  the  Dublin  Catalogue  of 
Graduates.]  H.  M.  C. 

IRVINE,  WILLIAM  (1776-1811),  phy- 
sician, son  of  William  Irvine  (1743-1787) 
[q.  v.],  professor  of  chemistry  at  Glasgow,  was 
born  there  in  1776.  He  studied  medicine  in 
the  university  of  Edinburgh,where  he  took  the 
degree  of  M.D.  25  June  1798.  His  thesis,  'De 
Epispasticis,'  was  based  upon  an  unpublished 
essay  of  his  father's  on  nervous  diseases  (Pre- 
face to  Chemical  Essays,  1805).  He  became 
a  licentiate  of  the  College  of  Physicians  of 
London  25  June  1806,  and  his  professional  life 
was  spent  in  the  medical  service  of  the  army 
as  physician  to  the  forces.  In  1805  he  pub- 
lished his  father's '  Essays,  chiefly  on  Chemical 
Subjects.'  In  1808  he  was  stationed  in  Sicily, 
and  in  1810  his  most  important  work  ap- 
peared, '  Some  Observations  upon  Diseases, 
chiefly  as  they  occur  in  Sicily.'  This  book 
is  based  upon  observations  on  malarial  fever 
and  dysentery  made  in  the  general  army 
hospital  at  Messina,  and  contains  several 
acute  remarks,  such  as  that  abscess  of  the 
liver  is  associated  with  dysentery,  that  it 
may  burst  through  the  diaphragm  into  the 
lung,  and  the  patient  nevertheless  recover. 
Shingles  was  then  confused  with  erysipelas, 
but  he  notes  accurately  a  difference  in  the 
results  of  treatment  which  is  due  to  the  de- 
finite duration  of  the  former  disease.  He 
had  carefully  compared  his  own  observations 
with  those  of  George  Cleghorn  [q.  v.]  and  of 
James  Currie  [q.  v.]  on  similar  fevers,  and 


had  studied  minutely  the  observations  of 
Hippocrates  on  diseases  of  the  Mediterranean 
region.  He  died  of  fever  at  Malta,  23  May 
1811.  After  his  death  were  published  in  1813 

his  '  Letters  on  Sicily.' 

[Works ;  Hunk's  Coll.  of  Phys.  iii.  37.] 


IRVING,  DAVID,  LL.D.  (1778-1860), 
biographer  and  librarian,  fourth  and  youngest 
son  of  Janetus  Irving  of  Langholm,  Dum- 
friesshire, by  Helen,  daughter  of  Simon  Little, 
was  born  at  Langholm  on  5  Dec.  1778.  After 
a  sound  preliminary  education  at  Langholm, 
David  entered  Edinburgh  University  in  1796, 
and  in  1801  graduated  M.A.  While  a  stu- 
dent he  was  a  successful  private  tutor,  and 
enjoyed  the  friendship  of  the  veteran  critic, 
Dr.  Anderson,  to  whom  in  1799  he  '  grate- 
fully inscribed '  his  '  Life  of  Robert  Fergus- 
son,  with  a  Critique  on  his  Works.'  This 
puerile  and  imperfect  performance  was  fol- 
lowed by  similar  biographies  of  William 
Falconer  of  the  '  Shipwreck,'  and  Russell  the 
historian  of  modern  Europe,  and  the  three 
sketches  were  republished  together  in  1800, 
with  a  dedication  to  Andrew  Dalzel,  the 
Edinburgh  professor  of  Greek.  In  1801  ap- 
peared Irving's  '  Elements  of  English  Com- 
position,' which  has  been  a  very  popular  text- 

Abandoning  his  original  intention  of  be- 
coming a  clergyman,  Irving  for  a  time  studied 
law,  but  at  length  settled  to  literary  pursuits. 
In  1804  he  published  in  two  volumes  '  The 
Lives  of  the  Scotish  Poets ;  with  Preliminary 
Dissertations  on  the  Literary  History  of  Scot- 
land and  the  Early  Scotish  Drama.'  This 
evinced  both  learning  and  critical  capacity, 
and  it  was  followed  in  1805  by  the  'Life 
of  George  Buchanan,'  which  amply  demon- 
strated Irving's  wide  and  minute  scholarship, 
exceptional  faculty  for  research,  and  literary 
dexterity.  Revised  and  enlarged,  the  work  re- 
appeared in  1817  as  '  Memoirs  of  the  Life  and 
Writings  of  George  Buchanan.'  In  1808  the 
university  of  Aberdeen  conferred  on  Irving 
the  honorary  degree  of  LL.D.,  and  in  the  same 
year  he  was  candidate  for  the  chair  of  classics 
at  Belfast,  but  withdrew  before  the  election. 
InlSlO  he  marriedthe  daughter  of  Dr.  Robert 
Anderson  (1750-1830)  [q.  v.],  who  died  in 
1812  after  the  birth  of  a  son.  In  1813  he 
printed  a  touching '  Memorial  of  Anne  Mar- 
garet Anderson,'  for  private  circulation.  Up 
to  1820  Irving  devoted  himself  to  literary 
work,  and  to  the  interests  of  a  few  university 
students  who  boarded  with  him.  His  super- 
intendence of  their  studies  led  to  his  printing 
in  1815  'Observations  on  the  Study  of  the 
Civil  Law,'  which  was  reprinted  in  1820  and 




1823,  and  in  1837  appeared  in  an  enlarged 
form  as  ;  An  Introduction  to  the  Study  of  the 
Civil  Law.' 

In  1820  Irving  became  principal  librarian 
of  the  Faculty  of  Advocates,  passing  his  first 
vacation  at  Gottingen,  in  accordance  with 
the  terms  of  his  appointment.  This  gained 
him  new  friends  and  valuable  experience, 
and  brought  him  in  time  the  Gottingen  de- 
gree of  doctor  of  laws.  In  October  of  this 
year  he  married  his  cousin,  Janet  Laing  of 
Canonbie,  Dumfriesshire,  and  for  twenty- 
nine  years  pursued  a  quiet,  but  prosperous 
and  happy  career.  At  the  disruption  in  1843 
lie  joined  the  seceders  from  the  church  of 
Scotland,  remaining  a  valued  member  of  the 
Free  church.  In  1848  the  curators  of  the 
library,  on  account  apparently  of  his  ad- 
vancing years,  induced  him  to  resign  his  post.  I 
Thenceforth  he  lived  a  retired  and  studious 
life,  amassing  a  private  library  of  about  seven 
thousand  volumes.  He  died  at  Meadow  Place, 
Edinburgh,  on  11  May  1860. 

Irving  published  much  during  his  last 
forty  years.  In  1821  he  edited,  with  bio- 
graphical notices,  the  poems  of  Alexander 
Montgomerie,  author  of '  The  Cherrie  and  the 
Sloe.'  For  the  Bannatyne  Club  he  prepared, 
in  1828-9,  an  edition  of  Dempster's  '  De 
Scriptoribus  Scotis ; '  in  1835  a  reprint  of 
Robert  Charteris's  edition  of  '  Philotus,  a 
Comedy ; '  and,  in  1837,  the  first  edited  issue 
of  David  Buchanan's  Lives :  '  Davidis  Bu- 
chanani  de  Scriptoribus  Scotis  Libri  Duo.' 
For  the  Maitland  Club  he  edited  in  1830 
'  Clariodus,  a  Metrical  Romance,'  from  a  six- 
teenth-century manuscript,  and  in  1832 '  The 
Moral  Fables  of  Robert  Henryson  :  reprinted 
from  the  edition  of  Andrew  Hart.'  He  did  not 
revise  Hart's  text,  but  he  furnished  a  valu- 
able preface.  Between  1830  and  1842  he  con- 
tributed to  the  seventh  edition  of  the  '  Ency- 
clopaedia Britannica  '  the  articles  on  Juris- 
prudence, Canon  Law,  Civil  Law,  and  Feudal 
Law,  besides  numerous  important  Scottish 
biographies,  many  of  which  were  republished, 
in  1839,  in  two  volumes,  entitled  '  Lives  of 
Scotish  Writers.'  In  1854  Irving  reissued, 
with  enlarged  preface  and  notes,  Selden's 
'  Table  Talk,'  which  he  had  edited  in  1819. 
He  likewise  progressed  with  his  'History 
of  Scotish  Poetry,'  which  he  began  in  1828 ; 
it  appeared  posthumously  in  1861,  edited  by 
Dr.  John  Carlyle,  with  a  prefatory  memoir 
by  Dr.  David  Laing.  Several  of  the  '  Ency- 
clopaedia '  articles — notably  those  on  Bar- 
bour,  Dunbar,  Henryson,  and  Lindsay — were 
incorporated  in  this  work.  Although  it  wants 
revision  in  the  light  of  researches  undertaken 
since  the  date  of  its  composition,  it  remains 
the  standard  authority  on  its  subject. 

[Laing's  Memoir  prefixed  to  Scotish  Poetry ; 
Gent.  Mag.  1860,  i.  645  ;  Dr.  Hanna's  obituary 
notice  in  the  Witness.]  T.  B. 

IRVING,  EDWARD  (1792-1834),  divine, 
was  born  at  Annan  on  4  Aug.  1792,  on  the 
same  day  as  Shelley.  His  father,  Gavin 
Irving,  was  a  tanner,  of  a  family  long  esta- 
blished in  the  neighbourhood ;  his  mother, 
Mary  Lowther,  was  the  daughter  of  a  small 
landed  proprietor.  As  a  boy,  he  was  emi- 
nently successful  in  gaining  school  prizes, 
and  showed  a  partiality  for  attending  the  ser- 
vices of  extreme  presbyterians,  seceders  from 
the  church  of  Scotland,  at  the  neighbouring 
hamlet  of  Ecclefechan,  Carlyle's  birthplace. 
There  he  doubtless  received  impressions  which 
influenced  his  future  career.  At  thirteen  he 
went  to  Edinburgh  University,  where  he  gra- 
duated in  1809.  Though  he  does  not  appear 
to  have  been  a  remarkably  distinguished  stu- 
dent, he  attracted  the  favourable  notice  of 
Professors  Christison  and  Leslie,  by  whose 
recommendation  he  obtained  in  ISlOthe  mas- 
tership of  the  so-called  mathematical  school 
just  established  at  Haddington.  Here  he  re- 
mained two  years  teaching,  studying  for  the 
ministry,  and  at  the  same  time  giving  private 
lessons  to  a  little  girl,  Jane  Baillie  Welsh, 
who  was  destined  to  influence  his  life  in  future 
years.  In  1812,  by  the  continued  patronage 
of  Sir  John  Leslie,  he  obtained  the  master- 
ship of  a  newly  established  academy  at  Kirk- 
caldy,  on  the  northern  shore  of  the  Firth  of 
Forth,  which  he  administered  successfully, 
but,  if  lingering  traditions  may  be  trusted, 
with  unreasonable  severity  towards  his 
scholars.  He  found  another  female  pupil 
destined  to  affect  his  future  life  in  Isabella 
Martin,  daughter  of  the  minister  of  the  parish, 
and,  after  obtaining  a  license  to  preach  in 
June  1815,  occasionally  assisted  her  father, 
not  greatly,  as  would  appear,  to  the  edifica- 
tion of  the  people.  '  He  had  ower  muckle 
gran'ner,'  they  said.  While  at  Kirkcaldy 
he  made  the  acquaintance  of  Carlyle,  who 
arrived  in  the  autumn  of  1816  to  take  charge 
of  an  opposition  school.  Irving  received  his 
competitorwith  the  utmost  generosity.  '  Two 
Annandale  people,'  he  said,  'must  not  be 
strangers  in  Fife.'  Neither  teacher  appears 
to  have  taken  a  very  engrossing  or  strictly 
professional  interest  in  his  pursuit,  and  they 
speedily  became  fast  friends.  Irving,  the 
elder  man,  and  at  the  time  by  much  the  more 
interesting  and  conspicuous,  was  in  a  posi- 
tion to  be  of  the  greatest  service  to  Carlyle, 
who  gratefully  records  the  stimulus  of  his 
conversation  and  the  access  to  books  which 
he  afforded  to  him.  '  But  for  Irving  I  had 
never  known  what  the  communion  of  man 
with  man  means.'  In  1818  Irving  resigned 




his  appointment,  a  proceeding  speedily  imi- 
tated by  Carlyle,  and  he  repaired  to  Edin- 
burgh with  a  view  to  qualifying  himself  for 
some  profession.  He  learned  French  and 
Italian,  he  attended  lectures  in  chemistry  and 
natural  history,  and,  not  wholly  despairing 
of  being  a  preacher  yet,  burned  all  his  unap- 
preciated Kirkcaldy  sermons,  and  exercised 
himself  in  writing  others  on  a  new  model. 
When,  in  August  1819,  he  found  another 
opportunity  of  preaching,  he  succeeded  so 
well  that  Dr.  Chalmers,  one  of  his  audience, 
invited  him  to  become  his  assistant  at  St. 
John's,  Glasgow,  where  he  settled  in  October. 
This  congregation  thus  had  for  a  time  the 
two  most  famous  modern  preachers  of  Scot- 
land ;  but  Irving  felt  himself  entirely  eclipsed 
by  Chalmers.  The  consciousness  that  he 
was  unjustly  depreciated  combined  with  in- 
creased confidence  in  his  own  powers  to  sti- 
mulate the  ambition  which  had  always  been 
a  leading  trait  in  his  character,  but  which 
circumstances  had  hitherto  repressed.  He 
became  restless  and  uncomfortable,  and  em- 
braced the  opportunity  of  a  new  sphere 
afforded  by  the  invitation  which  he  received 
in  1822  from  the  little  chapel  in  Hatton 
Garden,  London,  connected  with  the  Cale- 
donian Asylum,  although  a  knowledge  of 
Gaelic  should  have  been  a  requisite,  and  the 
congregation  was  so  small  and  poor  that  it 
at  first  seemed  unable  to  give  the  bond  for 
the  minister's  due  stipend  required  by  the 
church  of  Scotland.  These  difficulties  were 
eventually  surmounted,  and, '  at  the  highest 
pitch  of  hope  and  anticipation,'  Irving  re- 
moved to  London  in  July  1822.  He  had 
already,  in  May  1821,  given  Carlyle  an  in- 
troduction to  Jane  Welsh,  and  had  parted 
from  his  friend  after  an  earnest  conversation 
on  Drumclog  Moss,  unforgotten  by  either. 

Byron  scarcely  leapt  into  fame  with  more 
suddenness  than  Irving.  The  new  preacher's 
oratory  was  pronounced  worthy  of  his  melo- 
dious and  resonant  voice,  noble  presence, 
commanding  stature,  and  handsome  features, 
which  were  marred  only  by  a  slight  obliquity 
of  vision.  The  little  chapel  was  soon  crowded, 
and  the  original  congregation  was  almost  lost 
in  the  influx  of  the  more  brilliant  members  of 
London  society.  His  celebrity  is  said  to  have 
been  greatly  aided  by  a  compliment  paid  him 
by  Canning  in  the  House  of  Commons,  but, 
however  attracted,  his  hearers  remained.  One 
great  source  of  magnetism  in  Irving  was  un- 
doubtedly the  tone  of  authority  that  he  as- 
sumed. Others  might  reason  and  expostulate, 
he  dictated.  The  effect  of  Irving's  success  on 
his  own  character  was  unfavourable ;  it  fos- 
tered that  '  inflation '  which  Carlyle  had  al- 
ready remarked  in  him  in  his  obscure  Kirk- 

caldy days,  and,  by  encouraging  his  belief  in 
his  own  special  mission,  made  him  a  ready 
prey  to  flatterers  and  fanatics.  His  first  im- 
portant publication, '  An  Argument  for  Judg- 
ment to  come,'  published  along  with  his  '  Ora- 
tions '  in  1823,  is  in  its  origin  almost  incredi- 
bly silly,  being  a  protest  against  the  respec- 
tive Visions  of  Judgment  of  Southey  and 
Byron,  which  Irving  thought  equally  profane. 
It  is  no  wonder  that  he  himself  soon  became 
a  mark  for  satirists,  but  their  attacks  only 
served  to  evince  his  popularity. 

Irving's  domestic  circumstances  were  not 
satisfactory.  On  13  Oct.  1823  he  was  married 
at  the  manse  of  Kirkcaldy  to  Isabella  Martin, 
after  an  eleven  years'  engagement,  which,  as 
Mrs.  Oliphant  significantly  says,  '  had  sur- 
vived many  changes,  both  of  circumstances 
and  sentiment.'  It  is  in  fact  now  known 
that  Irving  had  been  in  1821  deeply  in  love 
with  Jane  Welsh,  who  had  before  conceived 
a  childish  attachment  to  him.  that  she  at 
that  time  reciprocated  his  feeling,  that  he 
had  endeavoured  to  persuade  the  Martin 
family  to  release  him  from  his  engagement, 
that  they  had  refused,  and  that  he  fulfilled 
it  reluctantly,  though  with  the  best  grace  in 
his  power.  The  marriage  proved  neverthe- 
less much  happier  than  might  have  been  ex- 
pected ;  but  it  was  still  the  greatest  of  mis- 
fortunes to  Irving  to  have  missed  a  wife 
I  capable  of  advising  and  controlling  him,  and 
found  one  who  '  could  bring  him  no  ballast 
for  the  voyage  of  life.'  Her  admiration  and 
affection  led  her  to  surround  him  with  wor- 
]  shippers,  inferior  people  themselves,  who  kept 
superior  people  away.  Carlyle,  whose  criti- 
cism might  have  been  very  valuable,  found 
it  impossible  to  keep  up  any  intimate  inter- 
course with  his  old  friend.  '  If  I  had  married 
Irving,'  said  Jane  Welsh  Carlyle  long  after- 
wards, '  the  tongues  would  never  have  been 

While  Irving's  extravagant  assumptions 
in  the  pulpit  served  to  provide  frivolous  so- 
ciety in  London  with  a  new  sensation,  the 
student  of  ecclesiastical  history  may  see  in 
them  a  premonition  of  the  great  sacerdotal 
reaction  which  occurred  ten  years  later,  a 
reaction  grounded  on  very  different  postu- 
lates and  supported  by  very  different  argu- 
ments, but  equally  expressive  of  a  tendency  in 
the  times.  Indeed,  when  Irving  arrived  in 
London  in  1822,  partly  by  inevitable  reaction 
from  the  lukewarmness  of  the  eighteenth  cen- 
tury, partly  from  the  marvellous  political  his- 
tory of  the  preceding  thirty  years,  a  great 
revival  of  enthusiastic  religious  feeling  was 
beginning.  People  could  hardly  be  blamed  for 
seeing  a  fulfilment  of  prophecy  in  the  events 
of  the  French  revolution ;  and,  this  granted, 




the  corollary  of  an  impending  end  of  the  world 
was  but  reasonable.  The  Apocalyptic  ten- 
dency expressed  itself  in  the  poetry  and  art 
of  the  time ;  in  Byron's  '  Heaven  and  Earth' 
and  Moore's '  Loves  of  the  Angels ; '  and  in  the 
pictures  of  Danby  and  Martin.  It  was  inevi- 
table that  Irving  should  go  with  the  current, 
and  equally  so  that  he  should  be  entirely 
carried  away  by  it.  His  entire  absorption  in 
the  subject  may  be  dated  from  the  beginning 
of  1826,  when  he  became  acquainted  with 
the  work  of  the  Spanish  Jesuit  Lacunza,  pub- 
lished under  the  pseudonym  of  Aben  Ezra, 
'  The  Coming  of  the  Messiah  in  Glory  and 
Majesty.'  Deeply  impressed,  he  resolved  to 
translate  it,  and  the  intimacy  which  this  task 
occasioned  with  Henry  Drummond  [q.  v.] 
and  others  of  similar  sentiments  gave  birth 
to  the  conferences  for  the  study  of  unfulfilled 
prophecy  which  for  many  years  continued 
to  be  held  at  Drummond's  seat  at  Albury. 
The  translation  was  published  in  1827,  with 
a  long  preface,  which  has  been  reprinted 
separately.  Irving's  eloquence  had  long  ago 
transformed  his  originally  small  and  poor 
congregation  into  a  large  and  rich  one,  and 
at  this  time  the  fact  became  externalised  in  a 
new  church  in  Regent  Square,  then  regarded 
as  the  handsomest  of  any  not  belonging  to 
the  establishment  in  London.  There,  Sunday 
after  Sunday  a  thousand  persons  assembled 
to  hear  Irving  expound  for  three  hours  at  a 
stretch,  though,  as  he  assured  Chalmers,  he 
could  bring  himself  down  to  an  hour  and 
forty  minutes.  A  less  devoted  congregation 
at  Hackney  Chapel  dropped  away  at  the  end 
of  two  hours  and  a  half,  and  the  prudent 
Chalmers  began  to  fear  '  lest  his  prophecies 
and  the  excessive  length  and  weariness  of 
his  services  may  not  unship  him  altogether.' 
Chalmers  was  right.  Whether  from  Irving's 
prolixity,  or  their  own  fickleness,  or  from  the 
distance  of  the  new  church  from  any  leading 
thoroughfare,  the  fashionable  crowds  that 
had  filled  Hatton  Garden  stopped  short  of 
Regent  Square.  Irving  proved  his  sincerity 
by  making  no  attempt  to  bring  them  back. 
Early  in  1828  he  published  his  '  Lectures  on 
Baptism,'  evincing  a  decided  approximation 
to  the  views  of  the  sacramental  party  in  the 
church  of  England.  In  May  of  that  year  he 
undertook  a  journey  in  Scotland,  with  the 
object  of  proclaiming  the  imminence  of  the 
second  advent.  The  experiences  of  this  tour 
were  of  a  chequered  character.  Chalmers 
thought  his  Edinburgh  lectures '  woeful,'  but 
he  brought  the  Edinburgh  people  out  to  hear 
them  at  five  in  the  morning.  At  his  native 
Annan  he  was  received  with  enthusiasm  ; 
but  at  Kirkcaldy  an  unfortunate  accident 
from  the  fall  of  the  overcrowded  galleries 

made  him,  most  unreasonably,  an  object  of 
popular  displeasure.  On  this  tour  he  con- 
tracted a  friendship  with  Campbell  of  Row, 
soon  about  to  be  tried  for  heresy,  which 
gave  support  to  the  suspicions  of  heterodoxy 
which  were  beginning  to  be  entertained 
against  himself.  They  were  increased  by  the 
publication  at  the  end  of  the  year  of  his 
'  Sermons  on  the  Trinity,'  though  these  had 
been  delivered  in  1825  without  exciting  cri- 
ticism from  any  quarter.  Early  in  1829  the 
'  Morning  Watch,'  a  journal  on  unfulfilled 
prophecy,  entirely  pervaded,  as  Mrs.  Oliphant 
remarks,  by  Irving,  was  established  by  the 
members  of  the  Albury  conference.  Another 
expedition  to  Scotland  followed,  and  at  the 
beginning  of  1830  his  tract,  '  The  Orthodox 
and  Catholic  Doctrine  of  our  Lord's  Human 
Nature,'  exposed  him  to  open  charges  of 
heresy,  intensified  by  the  accusations  simi- 
larly brought  against  his  friends  Campbell, 
Scott,  and  Maclean.  For  the  time,  how- 
ever, inquisition  remained  in  abeyance,  while 
public  attention  was  directed  to  matters  of 
a  more  exciting  character,  and  which  gave 
an  easier  handle  to  Irving's  adversaries. 

The  'unknown  tongues' — the  crowning 
development  of  Irving's  ministrations — were 
first  heard  on  28  March  1830,  from  the  mouth 
of  Mary  Campbell, '  in  the  little  farmhouse  of 
Fernicarry,  at  the  head  of  the  Gairloch.'  On 
Irving's  theories  of  the  second  advent,  this 
and  the  miraculous  cure  of  Miss  Campbell, 
which  was  believed  to  have  occurred  shortly 
afterwards,  were  events  to  be  expected,  and 
he  can  scarcely  be  excused  of  excessive  cre- 
dulity for  having  rather  encouraged  than 
repressed  the  manifestations  which  rapidly 
multiplied.  They  were  at  first  confined  to 
private  prayer-meetings,  but  on  16  Oct.  1831 
the  public  services  in  Regent  Square  Church 
were  interrupted  by  an  outbreak  of  unin- 
telligible discourse  from  a  female  worshipper, 
and  such  occurrences  speedily  became  ha- 
bitual. '  I  did  rejoice  with  great  joy,'  owns 
Irving,  '  that  the  bridal  jewels  of  the  church, 
had  been  found  again.'  The  manifestations 
have  been  described  by  many,  both  speakers 
and  hearers.  The  best  descriptions  are  the 
vivid  account  of  Robert  Baxter,  himself  an 
agent,  who  ended  by  attributing  them  to 
diabolical  possession,  and  that  by  Irving 
himself,  who,  obliged  to  maintain  the  Pente- 
costal affinities  of  the  phenomenon,  is  exceed- 
ingly indignant  with  '  the  heedless  sons  of 
Belial 'who  pronounced  the  utterances  mere 
gibberish ;  and  protests  that,  on  the  contrary, 
'  it  is  regularly  formed,  well  proportioned, 
deeply  felt  discourse,  which  evidently  want- 
eth  only  the  ear  of  him  whose  native  tongue 
it  is  to  make  it  a  very  masterpiece  of  power- 




ful  speech.'  But  whose  native  tongue  was 
it  ?  Miss  Campbell  conjectured,  for  unknown 
reasons,  the  Pelew  Islanders'.  The  whole 
story  is  a  curious  instance  of  religious  delu- 

Irving  had  never  been  on  cordial  terms 
with  the  religious  world,  and  since  the  de- 
livery in  1826  of  a  powerful  sermon  advo- 
cating the  prosecution  of  missions  by  strictly 
apostolic  methods,  he  had  been  regarded  by 
it  with  suspicion  and  dislike.  An  attempted 
prosecution  for  heresy  in  December  1830 
had  failed  for  the  time  in  consequence  of  Ir- 
ving's  withdrawal  from  the  jurisdiction  of  the 
London  presbytery,  but  he  was  now  helpless. 
The  church  trustees,  who  disapproved  of  the 
tongues,  were  clearly  bound  to  take  steps  for 
the  abatement  of  what  they  regarded  as  an 
intolerable  nuisance,  and  as  Irving  was  not 
prepared  '  defendre  a  Dieu  de  faire  miracle 
en  ce  lieu,'  no  course  but  his  removal  was 
possible.  He  defended  himself  with  an  im- 
perious haughtiness  little  calculated  to  con- 
ciliate his  judges,  most  of  whom  were  pro- 
bably inimical  to  him  on  other  grounds,  but 
the  most  friendly  tribunal  could  hardly  have 
come  to  any  other  decision,  and  he  was  re- 
moved from  the  pulpit  of  Regent  Square 
Church  on  26  April  1832.  The  larger  part 
of  the  congregation,  numbering  no  less  than 
eight  hundred  communicants,  nevertheless 
adhered  to  him,  and  found  temporary  refuge 
in  a  large  bazaar  in  Gray's  Inn  Road,  which 
was  shared  with  them,  much  to  their  dis- 
satisfaction, by  Robert  Owen.  In  the  autumn 
Irving's  followers,  reconstituted  (as  they  as- 
serted) with  'the  threefold  cord  of  a  sevenfold 
ministry,'  and  assuming  the  title  of  the  '  Holy 
Catholic  Apostolic  Church,'  removed  to  the 
picture  gallery  in  Newman  Street  which 
had  formerly  been  used  by  Benjamin  West. 
Though  now  the  minister  of  a  dissenting  con- 
gregation, Irving  retained  his  status  as  a 
clergyman  of  the  church  of  Scotland  until 
his  deprivation  by  the  presbytery  of  Annan, 
on  13  March  1833,  on  a  charge  of  heresy  re- 
specting the  sinlessness  of  Christ.  The  tri- 
bunal was  not  a  highly  competent  one,  and 
its  decision  carried  little  moral  weight.  It 
broke  Irving's  heart  nevertheless.  He  tra- 
velled for  some  time  through  his  native 
county,  addressing  crowded  audiences  in  the 
open  air,  and  then  returned  to  London  to 
find  himself  suspended  and  almost  deposed 
by  his  own  congregation,  of  which  the  world 
naturally  supposed  him  to  be  prophet,  priest, 
and  king.  It  was  far  otherwise.  Irving  him- 
self had  never  been  favoured  with  any  super- 
natural gifts ;  he  was  consequently  bound, 
on  his  own  principles,  to  give  place  to  those 
\vhohad.  When,  therefore,  immediately  upon 

his  return  an  inspired  voice  proclaimed  that, 
having  lost  his  orders  in  the  church  of  Scot- 
land, he  must  not  administer  the  sacraments 
until  he  had  received  fresh  ones,  he  could 
only  acquiesce  and  stand  aside.  He  accepted 
the  situation  with  the  utmost  meekness,  con- 
senting without  a  murmur  to  be  controlled 
and  on  occasion  rebuked  by  inferior  men, 
whose  alleged  revelations  on  points  of  cere- 
monial were  often  in  violent  contrast  with 
his  own  ideas  and  the  traditions  of  the  church 
to  which  he  had  hitherto  belonged.  He  still 
preached,  and  occasionally  undertook  mis- 
!  sions  at  the  bidding  of  the  authorities  who 
had  assumed  the  direction  of  his  conscience, 
but  never  came  prominently  before  the  world, 
and  his  own  rank  in  his  community  was  only 
that  of  an  inferior  minister.  His  health  de- 
clined rapidly.  The  last  glimpse  of  him  as 
j  a  writer  is  obtained,  in  the  autumn  of  1834, 
from  a  series  of  letters  written  to  his  wife 
while  he  was  on  a  journey  through  the  west 
midland  counties  and  Wales  in  search  of 
health,  and  preparing  for  another  mission  to 
Scotland.  These  letters,  in  every  way  more 
simple,  natural,  and  human  than  the  more 
celebrated  epistles  of  former  years,  convey  a 
most  affecting  picture  of  the  man  sinking  into 
the  grave.  After  his  arrival  at  Glasgow  his 
strength  entirely  failed,  and  he  expired  on 
7  Dec.  1834,  his  last  words  being,  '  If  I  die, 
I  die  unto  the  Lord.'  He  was  buried  in  the 
crypt  of  Glasgow  Cathedral.  Few  of  his 
children  survived  to  adult  age,  but  he  left 
a  son,  Martin  Howy  Irving,  who  obtained 
distinction  as  a  professor  in  Australia. 

The  'Irvingite'  or  'Holy  Catholic  Apos- 
tolic Church'  still  survives.  A  fine  Gothic 
church,  built  in  Gordon  Square  in  1854,  is 
the  chief  home  of  the  denomination. 

Irving's  character  offers  a  paradox  in  many 
respects.  As  a  general  rule,  a  person  in  whom 
the  moral  qualities  are  greatly  in  excess  of  the 
intellectual  may  be  a  pleasing  figure,  but  not 
a  picturesque  or  imposing  one.  The  person, 
too,  who  obtains  a  large  share  of  public  notice 
by  mere  eloquence,  without  solid  acquire- 
ments or  valuable  ideas,  is  usually  something 
of  a  charlatan.  Irving  was  one  of  the  most 
striking  figures  in  ecclesiastical  history,  and 
as  exempt  from  every  taint  of  charlatanism 
as  a  man  can  be.  He  cannot  be  acquitted  of 
an  enormous  over-estimate  of  his  own  powers 
and  a  fatal  proneness  to  believe  himself  set 
apart  for  extraordinary  works ;  but  this  mis- 
taken self-confidence  never  degenerated  into 
conceit,  and  on  many  occasions  he  gave  evi- 
dence of  a  most  touching  humility.  Morally 
his  character  was  most  excellent ;  his  life 
was  a  succession  of  tender  and  charitable 
actions,  in  so  far  as  his  polemics  left  him 



time  and  opportunity.  Intellectually  he  was 
weak,  to  say  nothing  of  his  deficiency  in 
judgment  and  common  sense ;  his  voluminous 
writings  are  a  string  of  sonorous  common- 
places, empty  of  useful  suggestion  and  ori- 
ginal thought.  This  poverty  of  matter  is  in 
part  redeemed  by  the  dignity  of  the  manner, 
for  which  Irving  has  never  received  sufficient 
credit.  The  composition  is  always  fine,  often 
noble ;  and,  though  it  is  certainly  framed  upon 
biblical  models,  such  perfect  imitation  implies 
delicate  taste  as  well  as  rhetorical  power.  In 
his  familiar  letters,  however,  the  maintenance 
of  this  exalted  pitch  soon  becomes  exceedingly 

[Oliphant's  Life  of  Edward  Irving;  Wilks's 
Edward  Irving,  an  Ecclesiastical  and  Literary 
Biography ;  Carlyle's  Reminiscences,  and  Essay 
on  Irving  in  Eraser's  Mag.  for  January  1835; 
Froude's  Thomas  Carlyle ;  Jane  Welsh  Carlyle's 
Memorials  ;  Mrs.  Alexander  Ireland's  Life  of 
Jane  Welsh  Carlyle ;  Baxter's  Narration  of  Facts ; 
Hazlitt's  Spirit  of  the  Age  ;  Collected  Writings 
of  Edward  Irving,  edited  by  G.  Carlyle.] 

E.  G. 

IRVING,  GEORGE  VERE  (1815-1869), 
lawyer  and  antiquary,  born  in  1815,  was  only 
son  of  Alexander  Irving  of  Newton,  Lanark- 
shire, afterwards  a  Scottish  judge  with  the 
title  of  Lord  Newton.  In  1837  he  was 
called  to  the  Scottish  bar.  He  took  a  great 
interest  in  the  volunteer  movement,  and 
became  captain  of  the  Carnwath  troop.  He 
died  at  5  St.  Mark's  Crescent,  Regent's 
Park,  London,  on  29  Oct.  1869,  aged  53 
(Edinburgh  Evening  Courant,  3  Nov.  1869, 
p.  4). 

Irving  was  F.S.A.  Scot,  and  vice-president 
of  the  British  Arch  geological  Association. 
He  also  contributed  frequently  to  '  Notes 
and  Queries.'  His  works  are:  1.  'Digest  of 
the  Law  of  the  Assessed  Taxes  in  Scotland/ 
8vo,  Edinburgh,  1841.  2.  'Digest  of  the 
Inhabited  House  Tax  Act,'  8vo,  London, 
1852.  3.  '  The  Upper  Ward  of  Lanarkshire 
described  and  delineated.  The  Archaeological 
and  Historical  Section  by  G.  V.  Irving.  The 
Statistical  and  Topographical  Section  by 
Alexander  Murray,'  3  vols.  4to,  Glasgow, 

[Notes  and  Queries,  4th  ser.  iv.  398;  Irving's 
Book  of  Scotsmen,  p.  234.]  G-.  G. 

IRVING,  JOSEPH  (1830-1891),  histo- 
rian and  annalist,  born  at  Dumfries  2  May 
1830,  was  son  of  Andrew  Irving,  joiner. 
After  being  educated  at  the  parish  school  of 
Troqueer,  Maxwelltown,  on  the  opposite 
bank  of  the  Nith  from  Dumfries,  he  served 
an  apprenticeship  as  a  printer  in  the  office  of 
the 'Dumfries  Standard;'  subsequently  prac- 

tised as  compositor  and  journalist  in  Dum- 
fries and  Sunderland  ;  was  for  a  time  on  the 
staff  of  the  '  Morning  Chronicle,'  London, 
and  in  1854  became  editor  of  the  '  Dumbarton 
Herald.'  For  some  years  afterwards  he  was 
a  bookseller  in  Dumbarton,  published  a  his- 
tory of  the  county,  and  started  in  1867  the 
'Dumbarton  Journal,'  which  was  unsuccess- 
ful. In  1860  he  became  a  fellow  of  the  So- 
ciety of  Antiquaries  of  Scotland,  and  in  1864 
an  honorary  member  of  the  Archa3ological 
Society  of  Glasgow,  to  the  'Transactions'  of 
which  he  contributed  an  important  paper  on 
the  '  Origin  and  Progress  of  Burghs  in  Scot- 
land.' Disposing  of  his  Dumbarton  business 
in  1869  on  the  death  of  his  wife,  who  had 
helped  him  much  in  all  his  undertakings, 
Irving,  after  living  a  few  years  in  Renton, 
Dumbartonshire,  settled  in  Paisley  in  1880, 
where  he  wrote  for  the '  Glasgow  Herald'  and 
other  journals,  and  did  much  solid  literary 
work.  He  was  an  authority  on  Scottish  his- 
tory and  an  excellent  reviewer.  After  some- 
years  of  uncertain  health  he  died  at  Paisley 
2  Sept.  1891. 

Irving's  works  are  as  follows :  1.  '  The 
Conflict  at  Glenfruin :  its  Causes  and  Con- 
sequences, being  a  Chapter  of  Dumbarton- 
shire History,'  1856.  2.  '  History  of  Dum- 
bartonshire from  the  Earliest  Period  to  the 
Present  Time,' 1857  ;  2nd  edit.  1859.  3.  'The 
Drowned  Women  of  Wigtown  :  a  Romance 
of  the  Covenant,'  1862.  4.  '  The  Annals  of 
our  Time  from  the  Accession  of  Queen  Vic- 
toria to  the  Opening  of  the  present  Parlia- 
ment,' 1869  (new  edit.  1871),  with  two  sup- 
plements from  February  1871  to  19  March 
1874,  and  from  20  March  1874  to  the  occu- 
pation of  Cyprus,  published  respectively  in 
1875  and  1879 ;  a  further  continuation  brings 
the  record  from  1879  down  to  the  jubilee  of 
1887  (Lond.  1889),  and  Mr.  J.  Hamilton  Fyfe 
has  undertaken  a  later  supplement.  5.  '  The 
Book  of  Dumbartonshire :  a  History  of  the 
County,  Burghs,  Parishes,  and  Lands,  Me- 
moirs of  Families,  and  Notices  of  Industries/ 
a  sumptuous  and  admirable  work,  3  vols.  4tot 
1879.  6.  'The  Book  of  Eminent  Scotsmen/ 
1882,  a  compact  and  useful  record.  7.  'The 
West  of  Scotland  in  History/ 1885.  He  also 
published :  '  Memoir  of  the  Smolletts  of  Bon- 
hill  ' ;  '  Memoir  of  the  Dennistouns  of  Den- 
nistoun/  1859;  and  'Dumbarton  Burgh  Re- 
cords, 1627-1746/  4to,  1860.  Irving  has 
sterling  merits  as  a  local  historian,  and 
his  '  Annals '  Lis  a  standard  work  of  refer- 

[Information  from  Irving's  son,  Mr.  John 
Irving,  Cardross,  Dumbartonshire,  and  Mr. 
George  Stronach,  Advocates'  Library,  Edin- 
burgh; Glasgow  Herald,  5  Sept.  1891.]  T.  B. 






(1751-1828),  general,  born  30  Aug.  1751, 
was  son  of  Lieutenant-colonelPaulus^Emilius 
Irving,  who  was  wounded  at  Quebec  when 
serving  as  major  commanding  the  15th  foot 
under  Wolfe,  and  died  lieutenant-governor 
of  Upnor  Castle,  Kent,  in  1796.  His  mother 
was  Judith,  daughter  of  Captain  William 
Westfield  of  Dover.  He  was  appointed  lieu- 
tenant in  the  47th  foot  in  1764,  became  cap- 
tain in  1768,  and  major  in  1775.  He  served 
with  his  regiment  in  the  affair  at  Lexington, 
at  the  battle  of  Bunker's  Hill,  and  in  Boston 
during  the  blockade.  Subsequently  he  ac- 
companied the  regiment  to  Quebec,  and  was 
present  in  the  affair  at  Trois  Rivieres  and  the 
various  actions  of  Burgoyne's  army  down  to 
the  surrender  at  Saratoga,  17  Oct.  1777.  He 
was  afterwards  detained  as  a  prisoner  of  war  in 
America  for  three  years.  He  returned  home 
in  1781,  and  in  1783  became  lieutenant- 
colonel  47th  foot.  In  1790  he  took  the  regi- 
ment out  to  the  Bahamas,  where  he  served 
until  1795,  becoming  brevet-colonel  in  1791 
and  major-general  in  1794.  On  the  death 
of  Sir  John  Vaughan,  21  June  1795,  Irving 
succeeded  to  the  West  India  command,  in 
which  he  was  replaced  by  Major-general 
Leigh  in  September  of  the  same  year.  Irving 
then  assumed  the  command  in  St.  Vincent, 
and  on  2  Oct.  1795  carried  the  enemy's 
position  at  La  Vigie  with  heavy  loss.  He 
received  the  thanks  of  George  III,  conveyed 
through  the  Duke  of  York.  He  returned 
home  in  December  1795.  He  was  appointed 
colonel  of  the  6th  royal  veteran  battalion  in 
1802,  and  was  afterwards  transferred  to  the 
colonelcy  of  his  old  corps,  the  47th  (Lan- 
cashire) foot.  He  was  created  a  baronet 
19  Sept.  1809,  became  a  full  general  in  1812, 
and  died  at  Carlisle  31  Jan.  1828.  Irving 
married,  4  Feb.  1 786,  Lady  Elizabeth  St.  Law- 
rence, second  daughter  of  Thomas,  first  earl 
of  Howth,  by  whom  he  left  two  sons  and  a 
daughter.  The  baronetcy  became  extinct  on 
the  death  of  Irving's  younger  son,  the  third 
and  last  baronet. 

[Burke's  Baronetage,  1850 ;  Appleton's  Cyclop. 
American  Biography  under  'Irving,  Paulus 
^Emilius '  and  '  Irving,  Jacob  ^rnilius ; '  Gent. 
Mag.  xcviii.  pt.  i.  269-70;  Philippart's  Eoyal 
Military  Calendar,  1820,  i.  349-50.]  H.M.  C. 

IRWIN,  EYLES  (1751P-1817),  oriental 
traveller  and  miscellaneous  writer,  younger 
son  of  James  Irwin,  H.E.I.C.S.,  of  Hazeleigh 
Hall,  Essex,  by  his  wife  Sarah  (Beale),  widow 
of  Henry  Palmer,  was  born  in  Calcutta,  and 
educated  in  England  under  Dr.  Rose  at  Chis- 
wick.  Being  appointed  on  21  Nov.  1766  to 
a  writership  in  the  East  India  Company's 

service  in  the  Madras  presidency,  he  returned 
to  India  in  February  1768,  and  in  1771  was 
appointed  '  superintendent  of  the  company's 
grounds  within  the  bounds  of  Madras,'  &c. 
Upon  the  deposition  of  Lord  Pigot  in  1776, 
Irwin  signed  a  protest  against  the  revolution 
in  the  Madras  government,  and  on  his  refusal 
to  accept  the  post  of  assistant  at  Vizagapa- 
tam,  to  which  he  was  appointed  by  the  coun- 
cil in  November  1776,  was  suspended  from 
the  company's  service.  In  order  to  seek 
redress,  Irwin  sailed  for  England  early  in 
1777.  After  enduring  many  vicissitudes  of 
fortune  during  a  journey  of  eleven  months, 
a  full  account  of  which  is  given  in  his '  Series 
of  Adventures  in  the  course  of  a  Voyage  up 
the  Red  Sea,'  &c.,  Irwin  arrived  in  England! 
at  the  close  of  the  year,  and  found  that  ha 
had  already  been  reinstated  in  the  service  of 
the  company.  Returning  to  India  in  the 
autumn  of  1780  by  another  route,  which  is 
described  in  the  third  edition  of  his  '  Series 
of  Adventures,'  &c.,  he  was  appointed  by 
Lord  Macartney  on  6  Oct.  1781  a  member  of 
the  committee  of  '  assigned  revenue,'  and  in 
1783  was  made  the  superintendent  of  revenue 
in  the  Tinnevelly  and  Madura  districts.  Under 
his  advice,  Colonel  William  Fullarton  [q.  v.} 
undertook  a  successful  expedition  against 
the  Poligars,  and  by  his  judicious  manage- 
ment the  revenues  of  the  district  were  greatly 
improved.  In  November  1784  he  was  ordered 
to  the  Trichinopoly  district  to  arrange  '  the 
speediest  and  most  effectual  mode  of  paying 
off  the  fighting  men '  of  the  southern  army. 
In  March  1785  he  was  further  appointed  com- 
missary on  the  part  of  the  Madras  government 
to  negotiate  for  the  cession  of  the  Dutch 
settlements  on  the  coasts  of  Tinnevelly  and1 
Marawa,  and  in  consequence  of  the  surrender 
of  the  assignment,  delivered  over  the  district 
of  Tinnevelly  in  July  to  the  nabob's  agents. 
Towards  the  close  of  1785  Irwin  was  com- 
pelled to  return  to  England  on  account  of 
his  health,  and  in  1789  was  awarded  the  sum 
of  six  thousand  pagodas  by  the  court  of  direc- 
tors for  his '  able,  judicious,  and  upright  man- 
agement '  of  the  assigned  districts  south  of 
the  Coleroon.  In  1792  he  was  sent  out  with 
two  colleagues  to  China,  where  he  remained 
rather  less  than  two  years.  He  retired  from 
the  service  in  1794,  and  in  the  following  year 
was  an  unsuccessful  candidate  for  a  director- 
ship of  the  company.  The  remainder  of  his 
days  he  passed  in  retirement,  devoting  himself 
chiefly  to  literary  pursuits.  Irwin  died  at 
Clifton,  near  Bristol,  on  12  Aug.  1817,  and 
was  buried  in  the  old  churchyard  at  Clifton. 
He  appears  to  have  been  an  honest  and  able 
administrator.  His  character  is  said  to  have 
been  'remarkable  for  its  amiable  simplicity.' 



His  portrait,  painted  by  Romney,  is  in  the 
possession   of  his   great-grandson,   Charles 
Stuart  Pringle.     It  has  been  engraved  by  I 
James  Walker  and  Thornthwaite.     In  1778 
Irwin  married  Honor,  daughter  of  the  Rev. 
"William  Brooke  of  Dromavana  and  of  Fir-  , 
mount,  co.  Longford,  and  first  cousin  once  re-  i 
moved  of  Henry  Brooke  (1703  P-1783)  [q.  v.],  | 
the  author  of '  The  Fool  of  Quality.'    By  her  j 
he  had  three  sons  and  two  daughters.     His 
eldest  son,  James  Brooke  Irwin,  a  captain  in 
the  103rd  regiment,  was  killed  in  the  assault 
on  Fort  Erie  in  August  1814. 

Irwin  was  the  author  of  the  following 
•works:  1.  'Saint  Thomas's  Mount;  a  Poem,  j 
Written  by  a  Gentleman  in  India,'  London, 
1 774, 4to.  2. '  Bedukah,  or  the  Self-devoted,  ' 
anlndian  Pastoral,' London.  1776, 4to.  3. 'An 
Epistle  to  ...  George,  Lord  Pigot,  on  the 
Anniversary  of  the  Raising  of  the  Siege  of  j 
Madras.  Written  during  his  Lordship's  Con-  j 
finement  at  St.  Thomas's  Mount '  [in  verse],  ) 
anon.,  London,  1778, 4to.  4.  'Eastern  Eclo- 
gues ;  written  during  a  Tour  through  Arabia,  | 
Egypt  ...  in  the  year  MDCCLXXVII,'  &c.,  ' 
anon.,  London,  1780,  4to.  5.  '  A  Series  of 
Adventures,  in  the  course  of  a  Voyage  up 
the  Red  Sea,  on  the  coasts  of  Arabia  and 
Egypt,  and  of  a  Route  through  the  Desarts 
of  Thebais  ...  in  the  year  MDCCLXXVII.  , 
.  .  .  Illustrated  with  Maps,'  &c.,  London, 
1780,  4to;  2nd  edit.,  London,  1780,  4to ; 
•3rd  edit.,  '  with  a  Supplement  of  a  Voyage 
from  Venice  to  Latichea,  and  of  a  Route 
through  the  Desarts  of  Arabia,  by  Aleppo, 
Bagdad,  and  the  Tigris,  to  Busrah,  in  the 
years  1780  and  1781,'  &c.,  London,  1787, 
&vo,  2  vols.  Translated  from  the  third  edi- 
tion into  French  by  J.  P.  Parraud,  Paris, 
1792,  8vo,  2  torn.  6.  '  Occasional  Epistles, 
•written  during  a  Journey  from  London  to 
Busrah  ...  in  the  years  1780  and  1781 ' 
fin  verse],  London,  1783,  4to.  7.  '  Ode  to 
Robert  Brooke,  Esq.,  occasioned  by  the  death 
of  Hyder  Ally,'  London,  1 784,  4to.  8. '  The 
Triumph  of  Innocence  ;  an  Ode,  written  on 
the  Deliverance  of  Maria  Theresa  Charlotte, 
Princess  Royal  of  France,  from  the  Prison 
of  the  Temple,'  London,  1796,  4to.  9.  '  An 
.Enquiry  into  the  Feasibility  of  the  supposed 
Expedition  of  Buonapart6  to  the  East,'  Lon- 
don, 1798,  8vo.  10.  'Buonaparte  in  Egypt, 
or  an  Appendix  to  the  Enquiry  into  his  sup- 
posed Expedition  to  the  East/  Dublin,  1798, 
Svo.  11.  'Nil us,  an  Elegy.  Occasioned  by 
the  Victory  of  Admiral  Nelson  over  the 
Trench  Fleet  on  August  1,  1798,'  London, 
1798,  4to.  12. '  The  Failure  of  the  French 
Crusade,  or  the  Advantages  to  be  derived 
by  Great  Britain  from  the  restoration  of 
Egypt  to  the  Turks,'  London,  1799,  8vo. 

13.  '  The  Bedouins,  or  Arabs  of  the  Desert. 
A  Comic  Opera  in  three  Acts  [prose  and 
verse].  With  Corrections  and  Additions,' 
Dublin,  1802,  12mo.  14.  'Ode  to  Iberia,' 
London,  1808,  4to.  15.  '  The  Fall  of  Sara- 
gossa,  an  Elegy,'  1808,  4to.  16.  '  Napoleon, 
or  the  Vanity  of  Human  Wishes,'  1814,  4to, 
2  pts.  17.  'An  Elegy  to  the  Memory  of 
Captain  James  Brooke  Irwin,  who  perished 
...  in  the  Assault  of  Fort  Erie,  Upper 
Canada,  on  the  fifteenth  of  August,  1814,' 
London,  1814, 4to,  privately  printed.  18.  'An 
Essay  on  the  Origin  of  the  Game  of  Chess/ 
prefixed  to  'The  incomparable  Game  of  Chess 
developed  after  a  new  Method  .  .  .  translated 
from  the  Italian  of  Dr.  Ercole  dal  Rio  [or 
rather  D.  Ponziani].  By  J.  S.  Bingham/ 
London,  1820, 8vo.  This  essay  is  an  extract 
from  a  letter  written  by  Irwin  while  at  Can- 
ton, dated  14  March  1793,  and  communicated 
by  the  Earl  of  Charlemont  to  the  Royal  Irish 
Academy  (see  Transactions,  vol.  v.  'Antiqui- 
ties,' pp.  53-63). 

[Annual  Biog.  and  Obit.  1818,  ii.  221-36  ; 
European  Mag.  1789  xv.  179-81  (with  portrait), 
1817  Ixxii.  277;  Gent.  Mag.  1792  vol.  Ixii.  pt.  i. 
p.  276,  1817  vol.  Ixxxvii.  pt.  ii.  p.  376,  1818 
vol.  Lxxxviii.  pt.  i.  pp.  93-4 ;  Asiatic  Journal, 
1817,  iv.  425;  A  Collection  of  Letters,  chiefly 
between  the  Madras  Government  and  Eyles  Irwin, 
in  the  years  1781-5  (1888) ;  Colonel  William 
Fullarton's  View  of  the  English  Interests  in 
India,  1788;  Bishop  Caldwell's  Political  and 
General  History  of  the  District  of  Tinnevelly, 
1881,  pp.  82,  143-57;  Georgian  Era,  1834,  iii. 
465-6  ;  Baker's  Biog.  Dramatics,  1812,  vol.  i. 
pt.  i.  pp.  390-3;  Prinsep's  Record  of  Services  of 
Madras  Civilians,  1885,  p.  80  ;  Burke's  Landed 
Gentry,  1882,  i.  199-200  ;  Foster's  Peerage, 
1883,  s.n.  '  Charlemont ; '  Dictionary  of  Living 
Authors,  1816,  p.  174 :  Notes  and  Queries,  4th 
ser.  xi.  34 ;  Watt's  Bibl.  Brit. ;  Brit.  Mus.  Cat.] 

G.  F.  R.  B. 

IRWIN,  SIR  JOHN  (1728-1788),  general, 
born  in  Dublin  in  1728,  was  son  of  General 
1  Alexander  Irwin.  who  entered  the  army  in 
!  1689,  and  was  colonel  of  the  15th  foot  i'rom 
1737  until  his  death  in  1752,  holding  im- 
portant commands  on  the   Irish  establish- 
ment. While  still  very  young  John  attracted 
the  notice  of  Lionel,  duke  of  Dorset,  lord- 
lieutenant  of  Ireland,  who  appointed  him 
page  of  honour  about  1735  or  1736.     Owing 
to  his  patron's  interest  and  his  father's  rank 
in  the  army,  he  was  given  a  company  in  his 
father's  regiment  (the  5th  foot)  while  still  a 
schoolboy.     His  commission  as  ensign  bears 
the  date'8  July  1736,  and  on  14  Jan.  1737 
|  he  became  a  lieutenant.     At  the   close  of 
I  1748  his  father  granted  him  a  year's  fur- 
lough so  that  he  might  travel  on  the  conti- 




nent.  Lord  Chesterfield,  who,  while  lord- 
lieutenant  of  Ireland  in  1745-6,  seems  to 
have  taken  a  fancy  to  him  and  regularly 
corresponded  with  him  for  the  succeeding 
twenty  years,  gave  him  a  letter  of  introduc- 
tion to  Solomon  Dayrolles  at  the  Hague  (cf. 
CHESTERFIELD,  Letters,  iii.  307).  Chester- 
field describes  him  as  '  a  good  pretty  young 
fellow ;  and,  considering  that  he  has  never 
been  yet  out  of  his  native  country,  much 
more  presentable  than  one  could  expect.' 
From  the  Hague  Irwin  went  to  Paris,  and 
in  April  1749  Chesterfield  advised  him  (ib.  iii. 
337)  by  letter  to  visit  Rome  to  see  the  papal 
jubilee.  On  his  return  to  Dublin  at  the  close 
of  the  year,  Chesterfield  (ib.  iii.  363)  wrote  to 
him :  '  You  have  travelled  a  little  with  great 
profit ;  travel  again,  and  it  will  be  with  still 
greater.'  But  his  marriage  in  December  1749 
with  Elizabeth,  youngest  daughter  of  Hugh 
Henry  of  Straffan,  Kildare,  kept  him  at 
home.  His  wife  died  in  the  following  April, 
and  he  was  still  in  Dublin  in  1751,  when 
he  had  attained  the  rank  of  major.  In  the 
following  year  (1752)  he  was  gazetted  lieu- 
tenant-colonel of  the  5th  foot,  his  father's 
old  regiment,  and  in  1753  he  married  Anne, 
daughter  of  Sir  Edward  Barry  [q.  v.]  In 
1755  he  visited  Chesterfield  at  Bath,  and  it 
was  currently  reported  that  Irwin  at  this  time 
suggested  to  Chesterfield  his  paper  on  '  Good- 
Breeding  '  which  appeared  in  the  '  World ' 
(No.  148)  of  30  Oct.  1755.  Irwin  and  his 
wife  were  very  frequently  in  London  after 
1757,  when  his  regiment  left  Ireland  for 
Chatham.  In  1760  he  served  with  distinc- 
tion in  Germany  through  the  campaign  upder 
Prince  Ferdinand  of  Brunswick.  He  be- 
came a  full  colonel  on  1  March  1761,  and 
was  appointed  to  command  the  74th  foot .  On 
10  July  1762  he  attained  the  rank  of  major- 
general,  and  on  30  Nov.  entered  the  House 
of  Commons,  in  accordance  with  a  desire  he 
had  expressed  to  Chesterfield  eight  years 
earlier  (cf.  ib.  iv.  105),  as  member  for  East 
Grinstead,  a  borough  in  the  hands  of  the  Duke 
of  Dorset,  his  first  patron.  He  was  re-elected 
in  1760, 1774,  and  1780,  and  retired  in  1783, 
but  his  attendance  in  the  house  was  always 
irregular.  On  becoming  a  member  of  parlia- 
ment he  took  a  prominent  place  in  London 
society,  and  fixed  his  town  residence  in  Queen 
Anne  Street,  Cavendish  Square. 

From  1706  to  1768  he  held  the  post  of 
governor  of  Gibraltar,  where  his  second  wife 
died  in  1767.  While  abroad  he  was  gazetted 
colonel  of  the  57th  regiment  of  foot  on  the 
Irish  establishment  (17  Nov.  1767).  He  was 
in  Paris  on  26  June  1768,  when  Madame  du 
DefFand  wrote  to  Horace  Walpole  of  the 
favourable  impression  she  had  formed  of  him. 

Chesterfield  introduced  him  at  the  same  time 
to  Madame  de  Monconseil,  writing  of  him, 
'  pour  un  Anglais,  il  a  des  manieres '  (ib. 
iv.  473).  Chesterfield  afterwards  told  him 
that  he  believed  him  to  be  the  first  English 
traveller  that  could  bring  testimonials  from 
Paris  of  having  kept  good  company  there. 

In  May  1775  he  was  appointed  commander- 
in-chief  in  Ireland  and  a  privy  councillor 
there.  He  was  active  in  repressing  White- 
boy  outrages,  but  lived  chiefly  in  Dublin, 
where  he  maintained  a  lavish  establishment 
and  was  popular  with  all  classes.  In  1779 
he  was  made  a  knight  of  the  Bath,  and 
joined  the  other  new  knights  in  giving  a  ball 
at  the  Opera  House  in  the  Haymarket  to  all 
the  nobility  and  distinguished  persons  in 
London.  In  1780  he  became  colonel  of  the 
3rd  regiment  of  horse  or  carabineers  in  Ire- 
land (afterwards  the  6th  dragoon  guards). 
At  a  banquet  which  he  gave  at  Dublin  to 
the  lord-lieutenant  (the  Earl  of  Carlisle)  in 
1781  he  spent  nearly  1,500£.  on  a  centre-piece 
for  the  dinner-table,  consisting  of  a  model 
in  barley-sugar  of  the  siege  of  Gibraltar.  He 
retired  from  the  post  of  commander-in-chief 
in  Ireland  on  the  downfall  of  Lord  North's 
administration  in  1782 ;  took  up  his  residence 
in  his  house  in  Piccadilly,  overlooking  the 
Green  Park ;  resumed  his  place  in  parliament ; 
and  became  full  general  on  19  Feb.  1783. 

Irwin  delighted  in  the  pleasures  of  so- 
ciety, and  his  charm  of  manner  rendered  him 
a  general  favourite.  With  George  III  he 
was  on  especially  good  terms.  Wraxall  tells 
the  story  that  the  king  once  said  to  him : 
'  They  tell  me,  Sir  John,  that  you  love  a 

§lass  of  wine,'  to  which  Irwin  replied : '  Those, 
ir,  who  have  so  reported  of  me  to  your 
Majesty  have  done  me  great  injustice;  they 
should  have  said  a  bottle '  (WRAXALL,  Me- 
moirs, ed.  1 884,  iii.  93).  Wraxall  relates  that 
his  tall,  graceful  figure,  set  off  by  all  the 
ornaments  of  dress  and  by  the  insignia  of  the 
order  of  the  Bath,  which  he  constantly  wore, 
even  in  undress,  always  made  him  conspicu- 
ous when  he  attended  the  House  of  Com- 
mons. But  his  reckless  extravagance  both  at 
home  and  abroad  dissipated  his  resources. 
At  Paris  Madame  duDeffand  noted  his  'folles 
depenses.'  Owing  to  pecuniary  difficulties  he 
resigned  his  seat  in  parliament  on  3  May  1783 
and  retired  to  France,  where  he  rented  a 
chateau  in  Normandy.  Thence  he  removed 
into  Italy,  and  took  up  his  permanent  abode 
at  Parma,  where  he  enjoyed  the  friendship  of 
the  duke  and  his  consort,  the  Archduchess 
Amelia,  and  kept  open  house  for  all  English 
visitors  with  characteristic  hospitality.  He 
died  at  Parma  towards  the  close  of  May  1788, 
aged  60.  Wraxall  relates  that,  notwithstand- 



ing  the  intervention  of  the  duke,  his  remains 
were  denied  by  the  priesthood  the  rites  of 
Christian  burial,  and  the  funeral  service  was 
read  by  an  English  gentleman.  Sir  John 
was  survived  by  a  third  wife,  who  died  on 
27  Aug.  1805.  Her  maiden  name  and  the 
date  of  the  marriage  are  not  known. 

Portraits  of  Sir  John  and  his  second  wife 
were  painted  by  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds  in 
March  1761 ;  Mrs.  Irwin's  portrait  was  en- 
graved in  mezzotint  by  Watson. 

[Gent.  Mag.  1788,  p.  562;  Morning  Post  and 
Morning  Chronicle,  20  June  1788  ;  Memoirs  of 
Sir  James  Campbell  of  Ardkinglass,  1832,  i.  279 ; 
Earl  of  Chesterfield's  Letters,  1845-53,  iii.  307, 
310,  337,  363,  433,  iv.  17,  95,  105,  209,  348, 473, 
477,  479,  485,  v.  346 ;  Wraxall's  Memoirs,  ed. 
1884,  iii.  91-5  ;  Corresp.  de  Madame  du  Deffand, 
Paris,  1865,  i.  483,  490,544  ;  Grenville  Corresp.] 

A.  I.  D. 

ISAAC,  SAMUEL  (1815-1886),  projector 
of  the  Mersey  tunnel,  son  of  Lewis  Isaac  of 
Poole,  Dorsetshire,  by  Catherine,  daughter 
of  N.  Solomon  of  Margate,  was  born  at 
Chatham  in  1815.  Coming  to  London  as  a 
young  man,  he  established  a  large  business 
as  an  army  contractor  in  Jermyn  Street, 
trading  as  Isaac,  Campbell,  &  Company.  His 
brother,  Saul  Isaac,  J.P.,  afterwards  member 
for  Nottingham  1874-80,  was  associated  with 
him  in  partnership.  The  firm  during  the 
Confederate  war  in  America  were  the  largest 
European  supporters  of  the  southern  states. 
Their  ships,  outward  bound  with  military 
stores  and  freighted  home  with  cotton,  were 
the  most  enterprising  of  blockade-runners 
between  1861  and  1865.  Isaac's  eldest  son 
Henry,  who  died  at  Nassau,  West  Indies, 
during  the  war,  had  much  to  do  with  this 
branch  of  the  business.  Having  raised  a  regi- 
ment of  volunteers  from  among  the  workmen 
of  his  own  factory  at  Northampton,  Isaac  was 
rewarded  with  the  military  rank  of  major.  He 
and  his  firm  were  large  holders  of  Confederate 
funds,  and  were  consequently  ruined  on  the 
conclusion  of  the  American  war  in  1865.  In 
1880  he  acquired  the  rights  of  the  promoters 
of  the  Mersey  tunnel,  and  himself  undertook 
the  making  of  the  tunnel,  letting  the  works 
to  Messrs.  Waddell,  and  employing  as  en- 
gineers Mr.  James  Brunlees  and  Sir  Douglas 
Fox.  The  Right  Hon.  H.  C.  Raikes  became 
chairman,  with  the  Right  Hon.  E.  P.  Bouverie 
as  vice-chairman,  of  the  company  formed  to 
carry  through  the  undertaking.  Money  was 
raised,  and  the  boring  was  completed  under 
Isaac's  superintendence  on  17  Jan.  1884.  The 
tunnel  was  opened  on  13  Feb.  1885 ;  the 
first  passenger  train  ran  through  on  22  Dec., 
and  it  was  formally  opened  by  the  Prince  of 
Wales  on  20  Jan.  1686  (Illustrated  London 

News,  30  Jan.  1886,  pp.  Ill,  112).  The  queen 
accepted  from  Isaac  an  ingenious  jewelled 
representation  of  the  tunnel,  in  which  the 
speck  of  light  which  shines  at  the  end  of 
the  excavation  was  represented  by  a  brilliant. 
He  formed  a  collection  of  paintings  contain- 
ing some  of  the  best  works  of  Mr.  B.  W. 
Leader,  A.R.  A.  Isaac  died  at  29  Warrington 
Crescent,  Maida  Vale,  London,  on  22  Nov. 
1886,  and  left  203,084/.  17*.  9d. 

[Times,  24  Nov.  1886,  p.  6  ;  Jewish  Chronicle^ 
26  Nov.  1886,  p.  10.]  G-.  C.  B. 

ISAACSON,  HENRY  (1581-1 654),theo- 
logian  and  chronologer,  born  in  the  parish 
of  St.  Catherine,  Coleman  Street,  London, 
in  September  1581,  was  the  eldest  son  of 
Richard  Isaacson,  by  Susan,  daughter  of 
Thomas  Bryan  (  Visitation  of  London,  1633-5, 
Harl.  Soc.,  ii.  3-4).  He  appears  to  have 
been  educated  under  the  care  of  Bishop  Lance- 
lot Andrewes  [q.  v.],  by  whom  he  was  sent 
to  Pembroke  Hall,  Cambridge.  Upon  leaving- 
college  he  became  an  inmate  of  the  bishop's 
house,  and  remained  with  him  as  his  amanu- 
ensis and  intimate  friend  until  Andrewes's 
death  in  1626.  In  1645  he  held  the  office 
of  treasurer  of  Bridewell  and  Bedlam  (  Gent. 
Mag.  1831,  pt.  ii.  p.  502).  Besides  hand- 
somely providing  for  his  numerous  children, 
of  whom  several  settled  in  Cambridgeshire, 
Isaacson,  in  imitation  of  his  father,  was  a 
benefactor  to  the  poor  of  the  parish  of  St. 
Catherine,  Coleman  Street,  where  he  died1 
on  7  Dec.  1654,  and  was  buried  on  the  14th 
(SMYTH,  Obituary,  Camden  Soc.,  p.  39,  name 
misprinted  '  Jackson ').  In  his  will  he  de- 
scribed himself  as '  citizen  and  paint er-stainer 
of  London'  (P.  C.  C.  263,  Aylett),  and  be- 
queathed to  Dr.  Collins,  provost  of  King's 
College,  Cambridge,  a  portrait  of  Bishop 
Andrewes.  By  his  wife  Elizabeth,  daughter 
and  sole  heiress  of  John  Fan  of  London,  he 
had  nine  sons  and  eight  daughters.  He  was 
owner  of  the  advowson  of  Woodford,  Essex,  to 
which  he  presented  successively  his  younger 
brother  William  and  his  eldest  son  Richard 
(WooD,  Fasti  Oxon.  ed.  Bliss,  i.  377). 

In  1630  appeared  a  small  volume  called 
'  Institutiones  Piae,  or  Directions  to  Pray,' 
&c.,  12mo,  London,  collected  by  '  H.  I.,' 
which  passed  through  several  editions.  Some 
passages  are  borrowed  from  Andrewes's '  Pre- 
ces  Privatse,'  and  in  a  preface  to  the  fourth 
edition  (1655)  the  original  publisher,  Henry 
Seile,  claimed  the  whole  work  for  Andrewes, 
and  described  Isaacson's  relations  to  the  three 
former  editions  as  that  of  a  kind  foster-father 
then  lately  dead  (cf.  Hale's  Preface  to  In- 
stitutiones Pice,  ed.  1839). 

Isaacson's  principal  work  is  a  great  folio- 




entitled  '  Satvrni  Ephemerides,  sive  Tabvla 
Historico-Chronologica,  containing  a  Chrono- 
logical Series  ...  of  the  foure  Monarchyes. 
.  .  .  As  also  a  Succession  of  the  Kings  and 
Rulers  ouer  most  Kingdomes  and  Estates  of 
the  World  .  .  .  with  a  Compend  of  the  His- 
tory of  the  Chvrch  of  God  from  the  Creation 
.  .  .  lastly  an  Appendix  of  the  Plantation  and 
Encrease  of  Religion  in  ...  Britayne,'  &c., 
London,  1633.  It  was  probably  inspired  by 
Andrewes.  The  lists  of  authorities  fill  six 
pages,  and  the  citations  and  references  are 
remarkable  for  their  accuracy.  Richard  Cra- 
shaw  contributed  some  pleasing  verses  in 
explanation  of  the  curious  engraved  title- 
page  by  W.  Marshall  (CRASHAW,  Works,  ed. 
Grosart,  i.  246). 

Isaacson  wrote  also  '  An  Exact  Narrative 
of  the  Life  and  Death  of  ...  Lancelot  An- 
drewes,' 4to,  London,  1650,  which  was  in- 
corporated in  the  following  year  in  Fuller's 
'  Abel  Redivivus.'  The  work  treats  of  An- 
drewes's  mental  endowments  rather  than  of 
the  events  of  his  life.  An  edition  published 
in  1829  by  a  descendant,  Stephen  Isaacson 
{q.  v.],  contains  a  life  of  the  author. 

To  Isaacson  may  be  probably  ascribed  the 
devotional  manuals  issued  under  the  initials 
of  '  H.  I. : '  1.  '  Jacob's  Ladder,  consisting 
of  fifteene  degrees  or  ascents  to  the  know- 
ledge of  God  by  the  consideration  of  His 
creatures  and  attributes,'  12mo,  London, 
1637.  The  address  to  the  reader  is  signed 
<H.  I.'  2.  'A  Treaty  of  Pacification,  or 
Conditions  of  Peace  between  God  and  Man,' 
12mo,  London,  1642.  3. '  A  Spirituall  Duell 
between  a  Christian  and  Satan,'  &c.,  12mo, 
London,  1646.  4.  'The  Summe  and  Sub- 
stance of  Christian  Religion,  set  down  in  a 
Catechisticall  Way,'  12mo,  London,  1647. 
5.  'Divine  Contemplations  necessary  for  these 
Times,'  12mo,  London,  1648.  6. '  The  Scrip- 
ture Kalendar  in  use  by  the  Prophets  and 
Apostles  and  by  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ/  8vo, 
London,  1653.  Isaacson  may  likewise  have 
furnished  the  'Address  to  the  Reader  by 
H.  I.'  prefixed  to  R.  Sibbes's  'Breathing 
after  God,'  12mo,  1639. 

[Stephen  Isaacson's  Life  referred  to:  r,(nt.Mag. 
vol.  ci.  pt.  ii.  p.  194;  Notes  and  Queries,  2nd 
ser.  iv.  286.]  G.  G. 

ISAACSON,  STEPHEN  (1798-1849), 
miscellaneous  writer,  born  on  17  Feb.  1798, 
at  the  Oaks,  Cowlinge,  Suffolk,  was  son  of 
Robert  Isaacson,  auctioneer,  of  Cowlinge,  and 
afterwards  of  Moulton,  Suffolk,  by  his  second 
"wife,  Mary  Anne,  daughter  of  John  Isaacson, 
rector  of  Lydgate  and  Little  Bradley,  Suffolk, 
and  perpetual  curate  of  Cowlinge.  He  was 
educated  at  Christ's  College,  Cambridge,  and 

graduated  B.A.  in  1820.  Both  at  school  and 
college  he  obtained  some  reputation  as  a 
writer  of  humorous  verse,  and  was  even 
then  a  frequent  contributor  to  the  '  Gentle- 
man's Magazine '  and  other  periodicals.  In 
1822  he  projected  the  '  Brighton  Magazine,' 
which  had  a  very  brief  existence.  More  suc- 
cessful was  his  translation  of  Jewel's  '  Apo- 
logia '  (1825),  with  a  life  of  the  bishop  and 
a  preliminary  discourse  on  the  doctrine  and 
discipline  of  the  church  of  Rome  in  reply  to 
some  observations  which  Charles  Butler  had 
addressed  to  Southey  on  his  '  Book  of  the 
Church.'  Butler  answered  Isaacson  in  a 
'  Vindication  of  "  The  Book  of  the  Roman 
Catholic  Church'"  (1826).  Shortly  after- 
wards Isaacson  accepted  the  rectory  of  St. 
Paul,  Demerara.  In  1829  he  edited  Henry 
Isaacson's  '  Life '  of  Bishop  Andrewes,  and 
prefixed  a  brief  memoir  of  the  author.  By 
1832  he  had  returned  to  England,  and 
avowed  as  the  results  of  his  own  experience 
that  the  social  and  religious  condition  of  the 
negro  slaves  could  not  be  bettered.  On 
8  Aug.  of  that  year  he  delivered  a  clever 
speech  in  vindication  of  the  West  India  pro- 
prietors at  Mansion  House  Chapel,  Camber- 
well,  which  was  afterwards  published.  For 
the  next  year  or  two  he  served  as  curate  of 
St.  Margaret,  Lothbury.  In  1834  he  was  an 
unsuccessful  candidate  for  the  preachership 
of  the  Magdalen  Hospital.  He  soon  became 
curate  of  Dorking,  Surrey,  and  remained 
there  until  February  1837.  In  that  year  he 
published  two  popular  manuals,  entitled  '  The 
Altar  Service ;  for  the  use  of  Country  Con- 
gregations,' and  '  Select  Prayers  for  all  Sorts 
and  Conditions  of  Men.'  He  again  came 
forward  as  an  anti-abolitionist  in  1840  by 
issuing  part  i.  of '  An  Address  to  the  British 
Nation  on  the  Present  State  and  Prospects 
of  the  West  India  Colonies,'  in  which  he 
argued  in  favour  of  an  extensive  system  of 
immigration  as  the  only  means  of  extinguish- 
ing slavery  and  the  slave-trade.  From  1843 
to  1847  he  lived  at  Dymchurch,  near  Hythe 
in  Kent,  taking  duty  as  chaplain  of  theElham 

During  his  residence  there  Isaacson  became 
a  member  of  the  newly  established  British 
Archaeological  Association,  and  contributed 
some  papers  on  local  antiquities  to  its  'Jour- 
nal.' His  quaint  poem  of  the '  Barrow  Digger ' 
and  other  legends  (printed  in  1848)  were 
suggested  by  the  field  operations  of  the  as- 
sociation. He  subsequently  removed  to  Hod- 
desdon,  Hertfordshire ;  but  died  on  7  April 
1849  at  2  Tavistock  Street,  Bedford  Square, 

Isaacson  married  at  St.  George's  Church, 
Guiana,  in  November  1826,  Anna  Maria 

Isabella  e 

Miller,  youngest  daughter  of  Bryan  Bernard 
Killekelly  of  Barbadoes. 

[Gent.  Mag.  ne\r  ser.  xxxii.  101-2;  Archaeo- 
logia  Cantiana,  xv.  369,  372-3  ;  Clergy  Lists.] 

G.  G. 

ISABELLA  (1214-1241),  wife  of  the 
emperor  Frederic  II,  born  in  1214,  was  the 
second  daughter  and  fourth  child  of  John, 
king  of  England,  and  his  queen,  Isabella  of 
Angouleme  [q.  v.]  Her  nurse,  Margaret, 
had  an  allowance  of  one  penny  a  day  from 
the  royal  treasury  in  1219  (Rot.  Glaus,  i. 
393).  This  was  doubtless  Margaret  Biset, 
'her  nurse  and  governess,'  who  went  with 
Isabella  to  Germany  sixteen  years  later,  and 
who  during  all  those  years  had  the  care  of  the 
girl,  left  virtually  motherless  by  the  queen's 
re-marriage  early  in  1220.  When  in  the  fol- 
lowing June  Isabella's  sister  Joanna  [see 
JOANNA,  QUEEN  OF  SCOTLAND]  was  betrothed 
to  Alexander  II  of  Scotland,  it  was  stipu- 
lated that  if  Joanna  could  not  be  brought 
back  to  England  before  Michaelmas,  Alex- 
ander should  within  a  fortnight  after  marry 
Isabella  in  her  stead;  but  this  article  of 
the  treaty  was  not  enforced.  Twice  within 
the  next  ten  years  Henry  III  vainly  en- 
deavoured to  dispose  of  one  of  his  sisters — 
probably  Isabella — in  marriage ;  first  (1225) 
to  Henry,  king  of  the  Romans,  son  of  the 
man  whom  Isabella  eventually  married,  and 
afterwards  to  Louis  IX  of  France.  In  Novem- 
ber 1234  the  emperor  Frederic  H,  then  a 
widower  for  the  second  time,  sought  Isabella's 
hand  at  the  suggestion  of  Pope  Gregory  IX, 
and  (an  embassy,  headed  by  his  chancellor, 
Peter  de  Yinea,  was  sent  to  urge  his  suit  in 
February  1235.  After  three  days'  delibera- 
tion Henry  consented  to  the  match ;  Isabella 
was  brought  from  her  retirement  in  the  Tower 
for  the  inspection  of  the  ambassadors  at 
Westminster;  they  'pronounced  her  most 
worthy  of  the  imperial  nuptials,'  placed  the 
betrothal-ring  on  her  hand,  and  saluted  her 
as  empress.  The  marriage  contract  was 
signed  22  Feb.  1235.  Henry  gave  his  sister 
a  dowry  of  thirty  thousand  marks,  to  be  paid 
by  instalments  within  two  years,  besides 
plate,  jewels,  horses,  and  rich  wearing  ap- 
parel. The  marriage  of  a  daughter  of  Eng- 
land with  the  emperor  was  a  subject  of  ex- 
ultation to  both  king  and  people,  though  the 
latter  were  sorely  aggrieved  by  the  immense 
'  aid '  exacted  for  the  occasion.  Early  in  May 
the  Archbishop  of  Cologne  and  the  Duke  of 
Brabant  came  to  fetch  the  bride ;  she  set  out 
from  London  7  May,  under  their  care  and 
that  of  the  Bishop  of  Exeter,  William  Brewer. 
Her  brothers  accompanied  her  in  a  trium- 
phal progress  through  Canterbury  to  Sand- 

5  Isabella 

wich,  whence  she  and  her  escort  sailed 
11  May ;  four  days  later  they  landed  at 
Antwerp.  Some  of  the  emperor's  foes  were 
said  to  be  in  league  with  the  French  king  to 
seize  and  carry  her  off,  but  the  guard  pro- 
vided by  Frederic  was  strong  enough  to  pre- 
vent any  such  attempt,  and  on  Friday, 
24  May,  she  arrived  safe  at  Cologne.  Here 
she  dwelt  in  the  house  of  the  provost  of  St. 
Gereon  for  more  than  six  weeks,  the  emperor 
being  engaged  in  a  war  with  his  own  son. 
At  last  he  summoned  her  to  meet  him  at 
Worms,  where  they  were  married,  and  the 
empress  was  crowned  by  the  Archbishop  of 
Mainz  (Chron.  Tewkesb.  a.  1235)  on  Sunday, 

15  July  (HinLLABD-BBEHOLLES,Vol.  iv.  pt.  ii. 

p.  728).  The  wedding  festivities  lasted  four 
days,  and  are  said  to  have  been  attended  by 
four  kings,  eleven  dukes,  and  thirty  counts 
and  margraves,  besides  prelates  and  lesser 
nobles  out  of  number.  Isabella — or  Eliza- 
beth, as  some  of  her  husband's  subjects 
called  her — seems  to  have  been  a  very  win- 
ning as  well  as  beautiful  woman ;  Frederic 
was  delighted  with  her,  but  no  sooner  were 
theweddingguests  departed  than  he  dismissed 
all  her  English  attendants  except  Margaret 
Biset  and  one  maid,  and  placed  her  in  seclu- 
sion at  Hagenau,  where  he  spent  a  great  part 
of  the  winter  wit  h  her.  The  statement  of  later 
writers  that  Isabella's  first  child  was  a  son 
named  Jordan,  that  he  was  born  at  Ravenna 
in  1236,  and  that  he  died  an  infant,  rests  on 
no  contemporary  authority.  The  terms  in 
which  Frederic  announced  to  some  of  his 
Italian  subjects  the  birth  of  a  daughter 
(Margaret),  in  February  1237,  clearly  imply 
that  she  was  the  first  child  of  the  marriage 
(ib.  vol.  iv.  pt.  ii.  p.  926).  Twelve  months 
later  the  emperor  and  empress  were  in  Lom- 
bardy  together,  and  there,  18  Feb.  1238,  a 
son,  Henry,  was  born.  In  September  Frede- 
ric sent  his  wife  to  reside  at  Andria  in 
Apulia  till  December,  when  the  Archbishop 
of  Palermo  escorted  her  back  to  Lombardy. 
Early  in  1239  she  spent  sometime  at  Noenta 
while  her  husband  was  at  Padua;  in  Fe- 
bruary 1240  she  returned  to  Southern  Italy, 
whither  Frederic  soon  followed  her.  He  seems 
to  have  esteemed  and  loved  her  in  a  character- 
istically strange  fashion,  taking  the  greatest 
care  of  her  safety,  and  surrounding  her  with 
luxury  and  splendour,  but  keeping  her  in 
strict  retirement.  Henry  III  complained 
that  she  was  never  permitted  to  '  wear  her 
crown '  in  public,  or  appear  as  empress  on 
state  occasions,  and  in  1241,  when  her  second 
brother,  Richard  of  Cornwall,  went  to  visit 
Frederic,  it  was  only  '  after  several  days ' 
that,  '  by  the  emperor's  leave  and  good  will,' 
he  visited  his  sister's  apartments.  She  died 



at  Foggia,  1  Dec.  1241,  at  the  birth  of  a  child, 
which  did  not  survive  her.  Frederic  was 
then  besieging  Faenza ;  her  last  words  to  him 
when  they  parted  had  been  a  request  that  he 
would  continue  to  befriend  her  brother  the 
English  king.  She  was  buried  at  Andria, 
beside  Frederic's  second  wife,  Yolanda  of 
Jerusalem.  Matthew  Paris  lamented  her  as 
'  the  glory  and  hope  of  England.'  Her  son 
Henry,  titular  king  of  Jerusalem  after  his 
father's  death  (December  1250),  died  in  1254. 
Her  daughter  Margaret  became,  by  marriage 
with  Albert,  landgrave  of  Thuringia,  a  re- 
mote ancestress  of  the  house  of  Saxe-Coburg 
and  Gotha. 

[Eoger  of  Wendover,  vol.  iii. ;  Matt.  Paris's 
Chronica  Majora,  vols.  iii.  iv.  and  Historia 
Anglorum,  vol.  ii. ;  Eoyal  Letters,  vol.  i.  (all  in 
Rolls  Ser.) ;  Rymer's  Fcedera,  vol.  i.  pt.  i.  (Re- 
cord edition)  ;  Annales  Colonienses  and  Annales 
Marbacenses  (Pertz's  Mon.  Germ.  Hist.  vol. 
xvii.);  Ann.  S.  Justinae  Patavini  (ib.  vol.  xix. 
and  Muratori's  Ital.  Rer.  Script,  vol.  viii.); 
Richard  of  San  Germane  (Pertz,  vol.  xix.  and 
Muratori.vol.vii.) ;  Huillard-Breholles's  Historia 
Diplomatica  Friderici  II ;  Mrs.  Everett-Green's 
Princesses  of  England,  vol.  ii.]  K.  N. 

queen  of  John  [q.v.],  daughter  and  heiress 
of  Aymer,  count  of  Angouleme,  by  Alicia, 
daughter  of  Peter  of  Courtenay,  a  younger 
son  of  Louis  VI  of  France,  was  by  the  ad- 
vice of  Richard  of  England  solemnly  es- 
poused to  Hugh  of  Lusignan,  called  '  le 
Brun,'  eldest  son  of  Hugh  IX,  '  le  Brun,' 
count  of  La  Marche,  and  lived  under  the 
care  of  her  betrothed  husband's  family, 
though  the  marriage  was  not  completed  on 
account  of  her  youth.  When  John  was  in 
France  in  1200  he  agreed  to  marry  her,  and, 
her  father  having  obtained  the  custody  of 
her  by  craft,  she  was  married  to  the  king  at 
Angouleme  by  the  Archbishop  of  Bordeaux 
on  or  about  26  Aug.  John's  marriage  with 
her  led  to  the  loss  of  nearly  all  his  conti- 
nental possessions  [see  under  JOHN].  She 
accompanied  her  husband  to  England,  and 
was  crowned  with  him  by  Archbishop  Hubert 
at  Westminster  on  8  Oct.  The  crown  was 
again  placed  on  her  head  at  the  court  held 
at  Canterbury  at  Easter,  25  March  1201. 
In  May  she  went  with  her  husband  to  Nor- 
mandy, where  she  shared  his  idle,  luxurious 
life,  his  carelessness  about  the  loss  of  his  do- 
minions being  in  some  measure  ascribed  to 
his  fondness  for  her  (WENDOVEK,  iii.  171, 
181).  She  bore  her  first-born  son,  after- 
wards Henry  III  [q.  v.],  on  1  Oct.  1207.  In 
1213  she  inherited  Angoumois,  and  early  in 
the  next  year  sailed  with  her  husband  to  Ro- 
chelle  and  visited  her  city  of  Angouleme. 

John  was  an  extremely  unfaithful  husband, 
but  it  is  said  that  she  also  was  guilty  of  in- 
fidelities, and  that  the  king  put  her  lovers 
to  death.     In  December  1214  John  ordered 
that  she  should  be  kept  in  confinement  at 
Gloucester,  and  she  was  probably  there  at 
the  time  of  his  death.     In  1217  she  returned 
to  her  own  country,  and  wrote  several  let- 
ters asking  for  help  from  England  against 
the  French  king.     In  May  1220  she  married 
her  old  lover  Hugh,  who  had  succeeded  his 
father  as  count  of  La  Marche,  and  was  be- 
trothed to  her  daughter  Joanna.      She  de- 
manded her  dowry  and  especially  Niort,  the 
castles  of  Exeter  and  Rockingham,  and  3,50^ 
marks.      Her  demands  not  being  granted, 
she  stirred  up  her  husband  and  his  house  to 
acts  of  hostility  against  her  son's  subjects  in 
Poitou,  for  which  she  was  threatened  with 
excommunication  by  Honorius  III,  and  she 
seems  to  have  been  disposed  to  detain  Joanna, 
who  was  to  marry  Alexander  of  Scotland ; 
but  Honorius  wrote  decidedly  to  Hugh  on 
the  matter,  and  a  severe  illness  caused  him 
to  send  Joanna  back  to  her  brother  in  No- 
vember.     Relying  on  help  from  England, 
Isabella,  in  December  1241,  persuaded  her 
husband  to  refuse  to  do  homage  to  Alfonso, 
brother  of  Louis  IX,  as  count  of  Poitou ;  she 
was  present  at  the  count's  court  at  Christmas, 
when  Hugh  defied  Alfonso,  and  rode  off  with, 
her  husband  and  his  men-at-arms  through, 
the  midst  of  Alfonso's  troops.     Henry  made 
alliance  with  Hugh  and  his  mother  as  coun- 
tess of  Angouleme,  and  when  Louis  and  Al- 
fonso invaded  La  Marche  brought  an  army 
over  to  help  them.     Hugh  played  him  false 
at  Taillebourg,  and  declared  that  his  change 
of  conduct  was  entirely  due  to  his  wife's  in- 
trigues.    They  both  submitted  unreservedly 
to  Louis  and  were  pardoned.      Isabella  is 
said  to  have  sent  two  servants  to  poison  the 
French  king  and  his  brother,  and  when  the 
attempt  was  discovered  to  have  tried  to  stab 
herself  in  a  rage,  and  to  have  fallen  in  a  se- 
vere sickness  from  mortification  (WILLIAM 
DE  NANGIS  ;  Chron.  de  St.-Denys).     The  at- 
tempt probably  belongs  to  the  time  when 
the  king  and  his  brother  were  overrunning 
La  Marche,  and  its  discovery  may  be  con- 
nected with  the  charge  brought  against  Hugh 
in  1243  by  a  French  knight  who  challenged 
him  to  combat.     Alfonso  spoke  bitterly  of 
Hugh's  misdeeds,  and  on  hearing  this  Isabella 
fled  to  Fontevraud  and  dwelt  with  the  nuns 
there  (MATT.  PAKIS)  .  She  died  at  Fontevraud 
in  ]  246,  hated  both  by  English  and  Poitevins, 
and  was  buried  in  the  cemetery  of  the  house. 
In  1254  Henry  III  visited  her  grave,  caused 
her  body  to  be  moved  into  the  church,  and 
placed  a  tomb  over  it.    The  effigy  on  her 





tomb  is  still  to  be  seen  at  Foutevraud ;  an 
engraving  of  it  by  Stothard  has  been  partly 
reproduced  for  Miss  Strickland's  '  Queens  of 

Isabella  was  a  beautiful  and  mischievous 
•woman.  By  John  she  had  two  sons  and 
three  daughters  [see  under  JOHN],  and  by 
Hugh  le  Brun  five  sons  (Hugh  of  Lusig- 
nan,  who  succeeded  his  father ;  Guy,  lord  of 
Cognac  ;  William  of  Valence  ;  Geoffrey  of 
Lusignan,  lord  of  Chateauneuf;  and  Aymer  of 
Valence,  bishop  of  Winchester  [see  AYMER]  ; 
the  four  younger  were  of  note  in  England) 
and  probably  three  daughters,  of  whom 
Margaret  married  Raymond  VII,  count  of 
Toulouse,  and  Alicia  married  John,  earl  of 

[Hoveden,  iv.  119,  139,  140  (Rolls  Ser.) ; 
Wendover,  iii.  148,  165,  166,  171,  181  (Engl. 
Hist.  Soc.)l  Matt.  Paris,  ii.  563,  iv.  178,  211, 
253, 563,  v.  475  (Rolls  Ser.);  Coggeshall,  p.  168 
(Rolls  Ser.)  ;  Royal  Letters,  Hen.  Ill,  i.  10,  22, 
114,  302,  536,  ii.  25  (Rolls  Ser.) ;  Hardy's  Patent 
Rolls,  Introd.  pp.  46-50;  Rigord,  De  Gestis 
Philippi,  and  W.  of  Armorica,  De  Gestis  and 
Philippidos,  ap.  Recueil  des  Hist,  xv-ii.  55,  75, 
185.  The  editors  of  Recueil  xviii.  have  made 
a  perplexing  confusion  between  Hugh,  the  hus- 
band of  Isabella,  and  his  father,  see  p.  799  and 
references  p.  783.  Isabella  could  not  have  been 
betrothed  to  the  father  of  her  future  husband 
in  1200,  for  his  -wife  Matilda  was  then  alive, 
comp.  L'Art  de  Verifier,  x.  231 ;  W.  de  Nangis 
and  Chron.  de  St.-Denys,  Recueil,  xx.  337-9, 
xxi.  113;  Strickland's  Queens,  i.  328  sq.] 

W.  H. 

ISABELLA  OP  FRANCE  (1292-1358), 
•queen  of  Edward  II,  was  the  daughter  of 
Philip  the  Fair,  king  of  France,  and  of  his 
wife,  Joan  of  Champagne  and  Navarre.  She 
is  said  to  have  been  born  in  1292  (ANSELME, 
Histoire  Genealogique  de  la  Maison  de  France, 
i.  91 ;  Ann.  Wig.  in  Ann.  Monastici,  iv.!538). 
She  is,  however,  described  as  about  twelve 
years  old  in  1308  (Cont.  GTJILL.  DE  NANGIS, 
i.  364,  1'Histoire  de  France) .  In  June 
1298  Boniface  VIII,  as  mediator,  brought 
about  a  truce  between  her  father  and  Ed- 
ward I,  by  which  her  aunt  Margaret  became 
Edward's  second  wife  and  Isabella  was  pro- 
mised to  Edward,  the  king's  son.  The  renewal 
of  the  truce  in  1299  contained  a  similar  pro- 
vision, and  after  the  conclusion  of  the  perma- 
nent peace  in  May  1303  Isabella  was  formally 
betrothed  to  young  Edward  at  Paris  (Fce- 
dera,  i.  954).  In  January  1307  the  Cardinal 
Peter  of  Spain  was  sent  to  the  Carlisle  parlia- 
ment to  conclude  the  marriage  arrangements 
(Chron.  de  Lanercost, p. 206, Maitland  Club). 
Edward  soon  after  became  king  of  England, 
and,  crossing  over  to  France,  was  married 
to  Isabella  at  Boulogne  on  25  Jan.  1308, 

Philip  the  Fair  and  a  great  gathering  of 
French  nobles  attending  the  magnificent 
ceremonies.  Charles  of  Valois  and  Louis  of 
Evreux,  Isabella's  uncles,  accompanied  her 
to  England.  On  25  Feb.  she  was  crowned 
at  Westminster.  Edward  gave  all  her  pre- 
sents from  her  father  to  Piers  Gaveston,  and 
neglected  her  for  the  sake  of  his  favourite. 
Her  uncles  left  England,  disgusted  at  her 
treatment  (Ann.  Paulini  in  STUBBS,  Chron. 
Edward  I  and  II,  i.  262,  Rolls  Ser.)  Isabella 
complained  to  her  father  of  the  slights  she 
underwent  and  the  poverty  to  which  she  was 
reduced  (TROKELOWE,  p.  68).  In  May  1312 
she  was  with  Edward  and  Gaveston  at  Tyne- 
mouth.  She  implored  Edward  with  tears  in 
her  eyes  not  to  abandon  her,  but  Edward  left 
her  with  Gaveston  and  went  to  Scarborough. 
She  was  comforted  by  secret  messengers  from 
Thomas  of  Lancaster,  assuring  her  that  he 
would  not  rest  till  he  drove  Gaveston  from 
Edward's  society  (ib.  pp.  75-6).  This  is 
the  first  evidence  of  her  dealings  with  the 

Isabella's  first  child,  afterwards  Ed- 
ward III,  was  born  on  13  Nov.  1312  at 
Windsor.  On  29  Jan.  1313  she  removed 
from  Windsor  to  Westminster.  On  4  Feb. 
the  Fishmongers'  Company  gave  a  great  pa- 
geant in  her  honour,  accompanying  her  to 
Eltham,  where  she  now  took  up  her  abode 
(Ann.  London,  in  STTTBBS,  i.  221).  In  May 
she  accompanied  Edward  on  a  visit  to  her 
father  at  Paris,  where,  on  Whitsunday,  her 
brothers  were  dubbed  knights  with  great 
state.  She  returned  to  England  on  16  July. 
In  October  she  joined  Gilbert  Clare,  tenth 
earl  of  Gloucester  [q.  v.],  in  mediating  a 
peace  between  Edward  and  the  barons 
(TROKELOWE,  p.  80). 

On  15  July  1316  Isabella  gave  birth  to  her 
second  son,  John,  at  Eltham.  In  July  1318 
her  daughter  Isabella  was  born  at  Wood- 
stock. In  August  of  the  same  year  she 
joined  the  Earl  of  Hereford  in  procuring  for 
a  second  time  a  peace  between  Edward  and 
the  party  of  Lancaster  (MONK  OF  MALMES- 
BURY  in  STUBBS,  ii.  236).  In  1319  she  went 
northwards  with  Edward.  While  Edward 
and  Lancaster  besieged  Berwick,  Isabella 
remained  behind,  in  or  near  York.  The  Scots 
invaded  Yorkshire,  and  James  Douglas  formed 
a  plan  for  carrying  off  Isabella  by  surprise 
(ib.  p.  243;  TROKELOWE,  p.  103).  The  design 
was  frustrated  by  the  capture  of  a  spy,  and 
Isabella  was  sent  offby  water  to  Nottingham. 
The  expedition  which  had  sought  to  capture 
her  defeated  Archbishop  Melton  at  Myton, 
Yorkshire.  It  was  believed  in  France  on 
another  occasion  that  Robert  Bruce  purposely 
avoided  capturing  the  queen  on  account  of 



her  connection  with  his  friends  (Cont.  GTJILL. 
DE  NANGIS,  i.  410). 

In  June  1320  Isabella  went  with  Edward 
to  Amiens/where  she  met  her  brother  Philip  V, 
to  whom  Edward  did  homage  for  Ponthieu. 
In  June  1321  she  gave  birth  to  her  youngest 
daughter,  Joan,  at  the  Tower  of  London.  In 
August  she  again  joined  Pembroke  and  some 
of  the  bishops  in  procuring  a  new  peace 
between  the  king  and  his  lords,  '  begging  on 
her  knees  for  the  people's  sake '  (Ann.  Paul. 
p.  297).  But  on  13  Oct.  of  the  same  year 
she  was  travelling  to  Canterbury,  and  re- 
quested Lady  Badlesmere  to  give  her  ad- 
mission to  Leeds  Castle  to  pass  the  night. 
Though  the  castle  belonged  to  the  crown,  and 
Badlesmere  was  a  member  of  Pembroke's 
party,  with  whom  Isabella  had  generally 
acted,  her  marshals  were  told  that  no  one 
might  enter.  Six  of  her  followers  were  slain 
in  a  scuffle  that  ensued  (TROKELOWE,  pp.  110- 
111 ;  Ann.  Paul.  pp.  298-9).  Edward  took 
up  his  wife's  cause,  and  his  siege  of  Leeds 
brought  about  the  beginning  of  the  conflict 
which  ended  with  the  fall  of  Lancaster  and 
the  great  triumph  of  Edward's  reign  at  the 
parliament  of  York.  In  the  disastrous  cam- 
paign against  the  Scots  which  succeeded 
Isabella  was  again  exposed  to  great  per- 
sonal danger.  When  in  October  Edward 
was  nearly  captured  by  the  Scots  at  Byland 
Abbey,  Isabella  fled  with  difficulty  to  some 
castle  on  the  sea-coast,  whence  she  only  es- 
caped the  danger  of  a  siege  by  a  voyage  over 
a  stormy  sea,  during  which  she  suffered  great 
hardships  and  two  of  her  ladies  perished 
(Cont.  GTJILL.  DE  NANGIS,  ii.  44). 

The  influence  of  the  Despensers  over  Ed- 
ward in  the   years  following  his  triumph 
soon  proved  no  less  irksome  to  Isabella  than 
that  of  Gaveston.     By  their  advice  Edward 
resumed  possession  of  her  estates  on  18  Sept. 
1324  (Foedera,  ii.  569 ;  GALFRIDTJS  LE  BAKER, 
pp.  17-18,  ed.  Thompson),  and  put  her  on  an 
allowance  of  20s.  a  day.    Her  friends  and  ser- 
vants were  removed  from  her,  the  wife  of  the 
younger  Hugh  Despenser  was  appointed  to 
look  after  her,  and  she  could  not  even  write  a 
letter  without  that  lady's  knowledge  (Laner- 
cost,  p.  254).     The  motives  for  such  action, 
apart  from  economy,  were  that  Isabella  was 
in  close  relations  with  Adam  of  Orleton,  the 
disgraced  bishop  of  Hereford,  and  with  Bishop 
Burghersh  of  Lincoln,  who  was  anxious  to 
•evenge  his  uncle  Badlesmere.    She  was  also 
suspected  of  intrigues  with  the  French,  and 
•specially  with  her  uncle  Charles  of  Valois. 
t  was  rumoured  that  the  younger  Despenser 
lad  sent  a  friar,  named  Thomas  of  Dunheved, 
o  Home  to  ask  the  pope  to  divorce  Edward 
-om  Isabella  (ib.  p.  254 ;  Ann.  Paul.  p.  337). 


Isabella's  indignation  with  the  Despensers 
was  soon  transferred  to  her  husband.  But, 
guided  probably  by  the  crafty  Orleton,  she 
quietly  meditated  revenge.  She  found  her 
opportunity  in  the  unwillingness  of  the  De- 
spensers to  allow  Edward  to  visit  France  to 
perform  homage  to  her  youngest  brother,  the 
new  king,  Charles  IV.  She  used  all  her 
blandishments  to  persuade  Edward  to  allow 
her  to  visit  her  brother,  and  begged  him  to 
desist  from  his  attacks  on  Gascony.  Bishop 
Stratford  and  many  of  the  magnates  approved 
of  her  design.  The  Despensers  were  not  sorry 
to  get  rid  of  her.  Early  in  February  1325  the 
prudent  prior  Henry  of  Eastry  [q.  v.]  urged 
the  necessity  of  restoring  her  to  her  accus- 
tomed state  and  following  before  she  went 
abroad  (Lit.  Cantuar.  i.  137,  Eolls  Ser.)  But 
the  commonest  precautions  were  neglected, 
and  early  in  March  1325  she  crossed  over  to 
France  with  a  scanty  following.  Froissart 
gives  a  pretty  picture  of  her  reception  by 
her  brother  (ii.  29,  ed.  Kervyn  de  Letten- 
hove).  But  the  only  political  advantage  she 
obtained  for  England  was  a  prolongation  of 
the  truce  until  1  Aug.  (MALMESBXJRY  p.  279). 
All  through  the  summer  Charles  insisted  that 
Edward  should  perform  homage  in  person, 
but,  instigated  by  Isabella,  agreed  to  accept 
the  homage  of  their  eldest  son,  Edward,  if 
the  king  would  invest  him  for  that  purpose 
with  Guienne  and  Ponthieu.  On  12  Sept. 
the  boy  left  England ;  but  after  he  had  per- 
formed homage,  he  and  his  mother  lingered 
at  Paris.  About  Michaelmas  Edward  wrote 
asking  her  to  return.  She  sent  back  many 
of  her  retinue,  and  gave  specious  excuses  for 
remaining  at  her  brother's  court.  But  her 
acts  had  now  become  so  hostile  that  Bishop 
Stapleton,  who  had  accompanied  her  son  to 
France,  escaped  to  England  in  the  disguise 
of  a  pilgrim.  On  1  Dec.  Edward  peremptorily 
ordered  her  to  come  home  (Fcedera,  ii.  615). 
But  she  had  now  formed  a  close  political 
connection  with  the  escaped  traitor,  Roger 
Mortimer,  which  soon  ripened  into  criminal 
intimacy.  Before  Christmas  it  was  feared 
she  would  invade  England  (Lit.  Cantuar.  i. 
162).  Her  connection  with  Mortimer  was 
notorious  in  England  in  March  1326.  An  in- 
creasing band  of  exiles  and  fugitives  gathered 
round  her.  She  protested  that  she  would 
never  return  to  her  husband  as  long  as  the 
Despensers  remained  in  power.  Edward 
stopped  all  supplies,  but  Isabella  was  main- 
tained by  her  brother,  King  Charles  (Cont. 
GriLL.  DE  NANGIS,  ii.  61),  who  saw  in  her 
perfidy  prospects  of  recovering  Guienne. 

In  the  spring  of  1326  Isabella  left  Paris 
for  her  dower  lands  in  Ponthieu  (ib.  ii.  67). 
She  afterwards  removed  to  Hainault,  where 





she  obtained  a  valuable  ally  by  negotiating  the 
marriage  of  her  son  with  Philippa,  daughter 
of  Count  William  of  Hainault  (G.  LE  BAKER, 
p.  20).  Froissart,  who  (ii.  43-61)  gives  a  long 
romancing  account  of  her  wanderings  in  the 
Netherlands,  says  that  she  left  Paris  because 
her  brother  was  ashamed  to  support  her  any 
longer.  She  had  employed  her  daughter-in- 
law  s  marriage  portion  in  hiring  mercenaries 
in  Germany  and  the  Low  Countries.  Roger 
Mortimer  and  John,  brother  of  the  Count  of 
Hainault,  took  command  of  her  troops,  and 
she  and  the  Duke  of  Aquitaine  were  out- 
lawed as  traitors. 

On  23  Sept.  1326  Isabella  embarked  at 
Dort,  and  on  24  Sept.  landed  at  Harwich, 
accompanied  by  her  son,  Edmund,  earl  of 
Kent,  her  brother-in-law,  John  of  Hainault, 
Roger  Mortimer,  a  large  number  of  English 
exiles,  and  her  foreign  mercenaries.  She  took 
Colvasse,  four  leagues  from  Harwich,  about 
mid-day,  and  lodged  for  the  first  night  at 
Walton.  Her  other  brother-in-law,  Thomas, 
the  earl-marshal,  amid  whose  estates  she 
landed,  at  once  joined  her,  along  with  Henry 
of  Lancaster  and  most  of  the  gentry  of  the 
neighbourhood.  She  then  marched  on  Bury 
St.  Edmunds,  'as  if  on  a  pilgrimage,'  and 
seized  there  a  large  sum  of  the  king's  money. 
Thence  she  went  to  Cambridge,  stopping  some 
days  at  Barnwell  Priory  and  went  through 
Baldock  and  Dunstable,  in  pursuit  of  the 
king,  who  had  fled  to  Wales.  Bishops  Orleton 
and  Burghersh  hurried  to  her  standards,  and 
were  soon  joined  by  Bishop  Stratford,  after 
his  hollow  attempt  at  mediation  had  failed. 
Archbishop  Reynolds  sent  her  money.  She 
found  no  real  resistance.  At  Oxford  her 
spokesman,  Orleton,  explained  in  a  sermon 
that  she  had  come  to  put  an  end  to  mis- 
government.  At  Wallingford  she  issued  on 
15  Oct.  a  violent  proclamation  against  the 
Despensers  (Foedera,  ii.  645-6).  On  the  same 
day  London  rose  in  revolt  in  her  behalf,  the 
king's  minister,  Bishop  Stapleton,  was  mur- 
dered, and  a  revolutionary  government  was 
established  under  her  second  son,  John  of 
Eltham.  Isabella  now  advanced  to  Gloucester, 
where  she  was  joined  by  a  northern  army 
under  Lords  Percy  and  Wake,  and  a  strong 
force  from  the  Welsh  marches.  She  then 
marched  from  Gloucester  to  Berkeley,  re- 
storing the  castle,  which  the  younger  De- 
spenser  had  held,  to  Thomas  of  Berkeley,  the 
lawful  heir.  When  she  advanced  to  Bristol, 
the  town  surrendered  after  a  show  of  resist- 
ance. On  26  Oct.  she  proclaimed  the  Duke 
of  Aquitaine  guardian  of  the  realm  (tb.  ii. 
646).  Isabella  then  advanced  to  Hereford, 
where  she  stayed  a  month.  The  execution 
of  the  two  Despensers  and  the  capture  of  her 

husband  soon  completed  her  triumph.  Re- 
turning eastwards  with  Mortimer  and  her 
son,  she  kept  Christmas  at  Wallingford,  and 
reached  London  on  4  Jan.  1327.  A  parlia- 
ment assembled  there  on  7  Jan.,  deposed 
Edward  II,  and  recognised  the  Duke  of  Aqui- 
taine as  Edward  III.  Isabella's  agent,  Orle- 
ton, told  the  estates  that  if  she  rejoined  her 
husband  he  would  murder  her. 

The  new  king  was  only  fourteen  years  old, 
and  Isabella  and  Mortimer  governed  England 
in  his  name.  So  large  a  provision  was  made 
for  Isabella  that  hardly  a  third  of  the  re- 
venue remained  to  the  king  (MvKDnriH, 
p.  52).  The  forfeited  estates  of  the  De- 
spensers were  secured  for  herself  and  her 
lover.  She  now  sought  to  win  popularity  by 
carrying  on  the  war  against  Scotland,  and 
after  keeping  Easter  at  Peterborough  Abbey, 
held  a  great  council  on  19  April  at  Stamford, 
where  she  was  ordered  by  the  barons  never 
to  return  to  her  husband  (Orleton's  apology 
in  TwTSDEN",  c.  2766,  and  BAKER,  ed.  Thomp- 
son, p.  207).  She  went  north  for  the  rest  of 
the  year,  dwelling  mostly  at  York,  while  her 
son  Edward  led  an  inglorious  expedition  over 
the  border.  She  still  wrote  in  affectionate 
terms  to  her  husband  (MuRiMFTH,  p.  52),  but, 
conscious  that  he  was  a  danger  to  the  per- 
manency of  her  rule,  and  fearful,  perhaps,  of 
being  forced  to  return  to  him  (G.  LE  BAKEB, 
p.  29),  she  urged  on  his  gaolers  to  treat  him 
with  the  utmost  severity,  and  in  September 
1327  procured  his  murder  (tb.  p.  31).  To 
strengthen  her  position,  she  now  concluded 
a  permanent  peace  with  France  (September 
1327).  This  was  followed  by  the '  disgraceful 
peace'  (AVESBTJRY,  p.  283,  Rolls  Ser.)  of 
Northampton,  which  in  March  1328  gave  up 
the  overlordship  of  Scotland,  and  was  espe- 
cially regarded  as  the  work  of  Isabella  and 
Mortimer  (Lanercost,  p .  26 1 ) .  Isabella  seems 
to  ha ve  obtained  for  herself  a  large  share  of  the 
20,OOOZ.  paid  by  the  Scots.  Her  shameless  ra- 
pacity, no  less  than  her  pusillanimous  policy, 
provoked  the  strongest  disgust.  Already  in 
1327  Isabella's  old  enemy,  Thomas  of  Dun- 
heved,  formed  an  abortive  plot  against  her. 

After  Trinity  Sunday  1328  Isabella  went 
to  Hereford  and  Wigmore,  to  attend  the  mar- 
riage of  two  of  Mortimer's  daughters  and  the 
great  'round-table'  that  celebrated  the  event 
(BAKER,  p.  42;  AVESBTJRY,  p.  284).  On 
19  July  she  was  at  Berwick  for  the  marriage 
of  her  daughter  Joan  to  David  of  Scotland 
(Lanercost,  p.  261).  In  October  she  was  at 
Salisbury  to  meet  the  parliament.  Henry  of 
Lancaster  refused  to  attend  it,  and  Isabella 
and  Mortimer  ravaged  his  lands  and  took 
his  town  of  Leicester.  The  mediation  of 
the  new  archbishop,  Meopham,  secured  peace 




for  a  time,  but  in  March  1330  Isabella  and 
Mortimer  procured  the  death  of  Edmund  of 
Woodstock,  earl  of  Kent  [q.  v.]  This  led 
Lancaster  to  make  another  effort  against  the 
queen  and  her  favourite,  and  the  king,  tired 
of  his  mother's  disgraceful  tutelage,  readily 
joined  in  his  plans.  In  October  Isabella 
and  Mortimer,  who  now  lived  almost  openly 
together,  went  to  Nottingham  to  open  a 
parliament  (RNTGHTOsr,  c.  2553).  On  the 
night  of  18  Oct.  the  attack  was  made  on 
them.  Both  were  arrested,  despite  Isabella's 
despairing  cry,  '  Sweet  son,  have  pity  on  the 
gentle  Mortimer ! '  Mortimer  was  speedily 
executed  as  a  traitor  (G.  LE  BAKEB,  p.  46 ; 
French  Chron.  of  London,  p.  63;  KNTGHTON, 
c.  2556 ;  Ann.  Paul.  p.  352 ;  Gesta  Edwardi 
in  STTJBBS,  ii.  101). 

Isabella's  power  was  now  at  an  end,  but 
Edward  at  the  pope's  entreaty  hushed  up 
the  story  of1  his  mother's  shame,  and  showed 
her  every  deference  (STTJBBS,  Const.  Hist.  ii. 
357).  Numerous  as  were  the  articles  on  which 
Mortimer  was  condemned,  nothing  was  said 
in  the  legal  record  of  his  adultery  with  the 
queen.  The  only  charge  against  him  which 
involved  Isabella  was  one  of  causing  discord 
between  her  and  the  late  king  (Hot.  Parl. 
ii.  53).  Though  Isabella  was  forced  to  sur- 
render her  ill-gotten  riches,  the  adequate 
dower  of  3,000/.  a  year  was  assigned  for  her 
maintenance  (Fcedera,  ii.  835).  It  has  often 
been  said  that  Isabella  lived  the  rest  of  her  life 
in  a  sort  of  honourable  imprisonment  (  Cont. 
G.  DE  NASTGIS,  ii.  120 ;  FROISSAKT,  ii.  247),  and 
her  manor  of  Castle  Rising,  near  Lynn  in  Nor- 
folk, is  generally  regarded  as  the  place  of  her 
confinement.  But  Castle  Rising  was  only  one 
of  her  favourite  places  of  abode.  The  months 
immediately  succeeding  her  fall  were  spent  at 
Berkhampstead,  while  she  passed  her  Christ- 
inas in  1330  at  Windsor  (Norfolk  Archeology, 
iv.  61).  In  1332  she  received  permission  to 
dwell  at  Eltham  whenever  her  health  required 
a  change  of  air.  Her  income  was  increased 
by  the  restoration  of  Ponthieu  and  Montreuil 
and  other  manors  (Foedera,  ii.  893),  and  she 
was  permitted  to  dispose  of  her  goods  by  will. 
In  June  1338  she  was  at  Pontefract,  and 
in  1344  she  celebrated  the  king's  birthday 
with  him  at  Norwich  (MTTKIMTJTH,  pp.  155, 
231).  At  Castle  Rising  she  lived  a  com- 
fortable and  somewhat  luxurious  life,  as  the 
presents  of  meat,  wax,  wine,  swans,  turbot, 
lampreys,  and  other  delicacies  from  the  neigh- 
bouring corporation  of  Lynn  clearly  show 
(Hist,  MSS.  Comm.  llth  Rep.  App.  iii.  213- 
219).  She  amused  herself  with  hawking  and 
•-ollecting  relics,  and  went  on  pilgrimage  to 
>ur  Lady  of  Walsingham.  She  entertained 
ier  son  on  his  frequent  visits  to  her  with  no 

small  state.  Her  numerous  retinue  some- 
times quarrelled  with  the  Lynn  burgesses  (ib. 
p.  217).  In  1348  she  was  even  proposed  as 
a  mediator  for  peace  with  France.  She  de- 
voted herself  to  pious  works,  almsgiving,  and 
charity,  and  finally  took  the  habit  of  the 
sisters  of  Santa  Clara  (Chron.  Lanercost,  p. 
266).  She  died  on  23  Aug.  1358  at  her  castle 
of  Hertford,  and  was  buried  in  November  in 
the  Franciscan  church  at  Newgate  in  London. 
There  is  a  statue  of  her  among  the  figures 
which  adorn  the  tomb  of  her  son,  John  of 
Eltham,  at  Westminster. 

[Stubbs's  Chron.  of  Edward  I  and  Edward  II, 
Thompson's  Murimuth  and  Avesbury,  Literse 
Cantuarienses,  Annales  Monastic!,  Trokelowe 
(all  the  above  in  Eolls  Ser.) ;  Chron.  Lanercost 
(Maitland  Club) ;  Galfridus  le  Baker,  ed.  E.  M. 
Thompson ;  Cont.  Guillaume  de  Nangis  and 
Froissart,  ed.  Luce  (both  inSoc.  de  1'Histoirede 
France) ;  Kymer's  Fcedera,  vols.  ii.  and  iii. ; 
Kolls  of  Parliament,  vol.  ii.  (Record  ed.)  ;  Hist. 
MSS.  Comm.  llth  Rep.;  Harrod  in  Norfolk 
Archaeology,  iv.  59-68, 1855;  Strickland's  Queens 
of  England,  i.  326-76,  6  vol.  ed.]  T.  F.  T. 

ISABELLA  (1332-1379),  eldest  daughter 
of  Edward  III  and  his  queen  Philippa,  was 
born  at  Woodstock  on  16  June  1332.  In  June 
1335  her  father  made  an  unsuccessful  attempt 
to  arrange  a  marriage  between  her  and  Peter, 
son  of  Alfonso  XI  of  Castile,  who  was  after- 
wards betrothed  to  her  younger  sister  Joanna 
(Fcedera,  ii.  910).  Negotiations  were  opened 
in  November  1338  for  a  marriage  between 
Isabella  and  Louis,  son  of  Louis,  count  of 
Flanders,  in  place  of  her  sister  Joanna,  whose 
name  had  been  submitted  in  1337  (ib.  pp.  967, 
998, 1063).  This  marriage  was  pressed  by  Ed- 
ward through  1339  and  1340,  but  as  the  count 
was  allied  with  France,  while  Edward  was  on 
friendly  terms  with  the  count's  rebellious  sub- 
jects, the  proposals  came  to  nothing.  Anew 
match  with  the  son  of  John  III,  duke  of  Bra- 
bant, was  planned  for  Isabella  in  1344,  and 
application  was  made  to  the  pope  for  a  dis- 
pensation, for  the  parties  were  within  the 
prohibited  degrees  (ib.  iii.  25).  But  after  the 
murder  of  Edward's  ally,  Van  Arteveld,  the 
hief  towns  of  Flanders  sent  deputies  to  the 
English  king  to  suggest,  along  with  other 
matters,  that  the  scheme  for  a  marriage  be- 
tween their  count's  son  and  Isabella  should 
be  renewed  (FROISSART,  i.  207).  The  count 
fell  at  Crecy,  and  neither  Edward's  ambassa- 
dors nor  the  Flemings  could  induce  the  young 
count  Louis,  who  was  under  the  influence  of 
Philip  of  France,  to  consent  to  marry  Isabella. 
He  defended  his  refusal  by  alleging  that  Isa- 
bella's father  Edward  had  slain  his  father.  His 
Flemish  subjects  punished  his  resistance  to 
the  match  by  placing  him  under  restraint,  and 




he  soon  thought  it  politic  to  appear  to  yield. 
Isabella's  wedding  clothes  were  provided 
(GREEN),  and  she  was  taken  by  her  father  and 
mother  to  Bergues,  near  Dunkerque,  where  on 
1  March  1347  they  were  met  by  Louis  and  the 
Flemishburgomasters ;  Ed  ward  protested  that 
he  had  had  no  hand  in  the  last  count's  death, 
and  Louis  solemnly  promised  to  marrylsabella 
within  the  fortnight  after  the  coming  Easter, 
agreeing  to  assign  her  as  dower  Ponthieu  and 
Montreuil,  or  a  certain  compensation  until 
such  time  as  he  should  have  peaceable  pos- 
session of  them,  and  ten  thousand  livres  a 
year,  while  the  king  settled  a  sum  of  money 
on  his  daughter  (FROISSART,  i.  258 ;  Fosdera, 
iii.  Ill,  112).  On  the  28th,  however,  Louis 
escaped  from  his  keepers,  took  refuge  in 
France,  and  soon  afterwards  married  Mar- 
garet of  Brabant. 

Isabella  had  been  reared  in  luxury,  and 
after  her  father's  return  to  England  in  the 
autumn  of  1347  shared  in  all  the  gaieties  and 
splendours  of  the  court  (GREEN).  In  Febru- 
ary 1349  Edward  proposed  her  in  marriage  to 
Charles  IV,  the  king  of  the  Romans,  then  a 
widower.  The  scheme  failed,  and  in  May 
1351  Edward  published  his  consent  to  her 
marriage  with  Bernard,  eldest  son  of  the  lord 
of  Albret,  promising  to  settle  on  her  a  revenue 
of  one  thousand  marks  and  to  give  her  four 
thousand  marks  as  her  portion  (Fcedera,  iii. 
218).  On  15  Nov.  five  ships  were  ordered 
to  take  her  to  Gascony.  The  marriage  never 
took  place,  and  Edward  satisfied  certain 
claims  of  the  lord  of  Albret  by  other  means. 
In  March  1355  Edward  assigned  Isabella 
the  custody  of  the  alien  priory  of  Burstall  in 
Yorkshire,  and  gave  her  other  grants.  She 
seems  to  have  been  extravagant,  like  the  rest 
of  the  court,  and  incurred  heavy  debts.  On 
29  Sept.  1358  the  king  settled  on  her  an 
income  of  one  thousand  marks  a  year,  and 
gave  her  the  revenues  proceeding  from  the 
lands  in  England  belonging  to  the  abbey  of 
Fontevraud  (GREEN). 

On  27  July  1365,  when  Isabella  had  just 
completed  her  thirty-third  year,  she  married 
at  Windsor  Ingelram  or  Enguerraud  VII, 
lord  of  Coucy,son  of  Enguerraud  VI  (d.  1347) 
and  Catharine,  daughter  of  Leopold  I,  duke 
of  Austria  (d.  1327),  by  his  wife  Catharine, 
daughter  of  Amadeus  V,  count  of  Savoy. 
Enguerraud,  who  was  then  twenty-seven, 
was  residing  at  the  court  of  Edward  III  as  j 
a  hostage;  his  grace  and  valour  had  made 
him  a  favourite  with  the  king,  who  had  j 
granted  him  lands  in  the  north  of  England,  \ 
which  he  claimed  in  virtue  of  the  marriage  of 
Enguerraud  V  with  Christina,  niece  of  John  de 
Baliol  (1249-1315)  [q.  v.]  He  was  released  at 
his  marriage  from  his  pledges  as  a  hostage,  and 

in  November  Isabella  accompanied  her  hus- 
band to  Coucy.  In  April  1366  she  bore  a  daugh- 
ter named  Mary,  and  soon  afterwards  visited 
England  with  her  husband,  who  was  created 
earl  of  Bedford  in  May.  In  1367  she  bore 
another  daughter  named  Philippa,  at  Elthamr 
and  in  July  returned  to  France.  On  the  eve 
of  the  renewal  of  the  war  between  England 
and  France  in  1368,  Enguerraud,  unwilling 
either  to  break  with  his  father-in-law  or  to 
fight  against  his  lord  the  French  king,  went 
to  Italy  and  served  in  the  wars  of  Urban  V 
and  Gregory  XI  against  the  Viscouti.  Dur- 
ing his  absence  Isabella  resided  in  Eng- 
land. She  met  her  husband  at  Saint-Gobain 
on  his  return  after  about  six  years'  absence, 
but  came  back  to  England  while  he  made 
his  campaign  in  Aargau  and  Alsace  in  1375 
against  Leopold  II  of  Austria.  She  met 
him  on  his  return  in  January  1376,  and  ac- 
companied him  to  England.  He  had,  how- 
ever, promised  to  uphold  the  cause  of  the 
French  king,  and  after  staying  for  a  while  at 
the  English  court,  where  he  and  his  wife  were 
received  joyfully,  he  left  her  and  returned  to- 
France,  allowing  her  younger  daughter  to 
remain  with  her,  and  keeping  the  elder  with 
him  in  France,  where  she  had  been  brought 
up.  Subsequently  Enguerraud  renounced  his 
homage  to  the  English  king,  and  his  lands- 
in  England  were  forfeited.  In  March  1379- 
Richard  II  provided  out  of  those  lands  for 
the  maintenance  of  his  aunt,  Isabella  (Fce- 
dera,  iv.  60).  She  died  a  few  months  laterr 
and  was  buried  in  the  church  of  the  Grey 
Friars  in  London.  Her  effigy  is  on  her 
father's  tomb  in  Westminster  Abbey.  Her 
elder  daughter,  Mary,  married  Henry,  son  of 
Robert,  duke  of  Bar ;  her  younger,  Philippa, 
married  Robert  de  Vere,  earl  of  Oxford. 

[Mrs.  Green,  in  Lives  of  the  Princesses,  iii. 
164-221,  gires  a  full  account,  of  Isabella's  life, 
drawn  mainly  from  manuscript  records ;  Rymer's- 
Foedera,  iii.  passim,  iv.  60  (Record  edit.)  ;  Frois- 
sart,  i.  257-9,  603,  703,  706,  ed.  Buchon ; 
Duchesne's  Histoire  des  Maisons  de  Guisnes  .  .  . 
Coucy,  &c.,  pp.  26.5,  415 ;  L'Art  de  Verifier  les 
Dates,  xii.  357  ;  Chron.  Angliae,  pp.4,  56  (Rolls 
Ser.);  Dugdale's  Baronage,  i.  61.]  W.  II. 

ISABELLA  or  FRANCE  (1389-1409), 
second  queen  of  Richard  II,  was  the  second 
daughter,  and  the  first  that  survived  infancy, 
of  Charles  VI,  king  of  France,  and  his  queen 
Isabella  of  Bavaria.  She  was  born  at  the 
Louvre  in  Paris  on  9  Nov.  1389  (ANSELME, 
Histoire  Genealogique  de  la  Maison  de  France, 
i.  114;  Bibliotheque  de  VEcole  des  Chartes,  4e 
serie,iv.477;  GODEFROY,  Charles  VI, 
p.  731).  On  15  Dec.  1391  she  was  contracted 
in  marriage  to  John,  eldest  son  of  Peter  II, 
count  of  Alencon  (WALLON,  Richard  II,  ii. 




440).  Froissart's  statement  (xv.  164,  ed.  Ker- 
vyn  de  Lettenhove)  that  she  was  affianced  to 
the  son  of  the  Duke  of  Brittany  is  an  error. 

Richard  II  had  become  a  widower  in  1394, 
and  was  very  anxious  for  a  permanent  good 
understanding  with  France,  and  had  already 
concluded  a  short  truce  with  that  country. 
He  therefore  proposed  to  marry  Isabella,  then 
a  child  of  six.  The  first  commissions  to  treat 
of  the  marriage  \vere  issued  by  Richard  in 
July  1395  (Fcedera,  vii.  802).  But  there 
•were  difficulties  on  both  sides  which  pro- 
tracted the  negotiations.  In  France  Louis 
of  Orleans  and  in  England  Thomas  of  Glou- 
cester disliked  the  match,  and  the  French 
•council  urged  that  a  settled  peace  or  a  long 
truce  was  an  indispensable  preliminary  of 
the  alliance.  But  the  general  desire  of  both 
countries  to  secure  a  peace  triumphed  over 
•every  obstacle. 

Young  as  she  was,  Isabella,  when  visited 
by  Mowbray,  the  earl-marshal,  who  was  at 
the  head  of  the  English  embassy,  replied,  '  of 
her  own  accord,  and  without  the  advice  of 
any  one,'  that  she  would  willingly  be  queen 
of  England, '  for  they  tell  me  that  then  I  shall 
"be  a  great  lady'  (FROISSART,  xv.  186).  The 
ambassadors  brought  back  to  Richard  glow- 
ing accounts  of  the  precocity,  intelligence, 
and  beauty  of  the  child.  After  a  second 
-embassy  had  been  despatched  the  marriage 
contract  was  signed  on  9  March  1396  at 
Paris  (Fcedera,  vii.  820).  By  it  Isabella  re- 
ceived a  marriage  portion  of  eight  hundred 
thousand  francs  of  gold,  of  which  three  hun- 
dred thousand  were  to  be  paid  down  at  once, 
and  the  rest  in  annual  instalments  of  one 
hundred  thousand.  It  was  provided,  how- 
ever, that  if  Richard  died  before  she  attained 
the  age  of  twelve,  all  that  had  been  actu- 
ally paid  of  this  sum  should  be  refunded, 
•except  the  original  payment  of  three  hun- 
dred thousand.  In  the  same  case  Isabella 
was  to  be  allowed  to  return  freely  to  France 
with  all  her  property.  She  was  also  to  re- 
nounce all  her  rights  to  the  French  throne. 
A  truce  for  twenty-eight  years,  carefully  kept 
separate  from  the  marriage  treaty,  was  signed 
at  the  same  time  (CosNEAU,  Les  grandes 
Traites  de  laguerre  de  Cent  Ans,  pp.  71-99). 
On  12  March  the  betrothal  took  place  in  the 
Sainte  Chapelle,  before  the  patriarch  of  Alex- 
andria, the  earl-marshal  acting  as  Richard's 
proxy  (Religieux  de  Saint-Deny s,  ii.  412). 
There  were  great  rejoicings.  The  new  queen 
Isabella  would  end  the  wars  which  the  former 
queen  Isabella  had  begun  (ib.  ii.  414).  Dis- 
pensations were  obtained  from  both  popes 
(Fcedera,  vii.  836 ;  Report  on  Faedera,  App.  D, 
p.  63),  and  the  chief  English  lords,  including 
Henry  of  Derby,  bound  themselves  to  allow 

Isabella  to  return  freely  to  France  if  Richard 
died  before  her  (ib.  pp.  63-4). 

Isabella,  provided  with  an  equipment  of 
unheard-of  splendour,  and  followed  by  her 
father,  was  taken  through  St.-Denis  to  Pi- 
cardy  (Religieux  de  Saint-Denys,  ii.  450,  452- 
462,  466 ;  DOTJET-D'ARCQ,  Pieces  inedites  sur 
le  regne  de  Charles  VI,  i.  130,  Soc.  de  1'Histoire 
de  France  ;  FROISSART,  xv.  304-6 ;  J.  JTJVE- 


Coll.  de  Memoires,  le  s6rie,  ii.  404-7  ;  WALS- 
INGHAM,  Hist.  Anglic,  ii.  221-2  ;  OTTER- 
BOURNE,  pp.  186-7).  Richard  was  waiting 
for  her  at  Calais.  At  the  second  interview  of 
the  kings  on  28  Oct.  Isabella  was  handed  over 
by  her  father  as  a  pledge  of  peace,  Richard 
loudly  proclaiming  his  entire  satisfaction  at 
the  marriage.  She  was  entrusted  to  the 
Duchesses  of  Lancaster  and  Gloucester,  who 
had  brought  her  to  Calais  in  a  magnificent 
litter.  The  lady  of  Coucy  was  the  chief  of 
her  French  attendants.  Isabella  was  married 
to  Richard  at  St.  Nicholas  Church,  Calais,  by 
Archbishop  Arundel.  The  date  is  variously 
given  (1  Nov.  FROISSART,  xv.  306 ;  4  Nov. 
Religieux  de  Saint-Denys,  ii.  470,  which  is 
probably  right ;  10  Nov.  MONK  OP  EVESHAM, 
p.  129,  which  is  plainly  too  late).  On  4  Nov., 
after  the  ceremony,  the  first  three  hundred 
thousand  francs  of  her  portion  were  paid 
(Fcedera,  vii.  846).  After  a  short  stay  at 
Calais, Isabella  was  taken  to  Eltham  through 
Dover  and  Canterbury.  On  23  Nov.  she  made 
her  solemn  entry  into  London  (MoNK  OF 
EVESHAM,  p.  129).  On  5  Jan.  she  was  crowned 
at  Westminster  by  Arundel.  Enormous  sums 
were  lavished  on  her  reception,  and  she  re- 
ceived many  costly  presents  (Chronique  de  la 
Traison,  pp.  108-13). 

Richard  showed  a  remarkable  attachment 
to  Isabella.  He  learnt  from  her  French 
friends  a  strong  love  of  display  and  a  keen 
desire  to  make  himself  absolute.  Isabella's 
marriage  was  the  prelude  to  his  successful 
attempt  at  despotism  in  1397. 

Isabella  resided  at  Eltham,  Leeds  Castle  in 
Kent, Windsor,  and  other  places  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  London.  Just  before  his  depar- 
ture for  Ireland  (May  1399)  Richard  got  tired 
of  the  extravagance  of  the  lady  of  Coucy,  and 
left  orders  behind  him  that  she  should  be 
dismissed  (ib.  p.  163).  He  parted  with  Isa- 
bella after  a  very  affecting  interview  at  Wind- 
sor, where  great  jousts  had  been  given  in  her 
honour  (FROISSART,  xvi.  151).  Richard  pro- 
mised that  she  should  follow  him  (Chronique 
de  la  Traison,  pp.  163-8).  They  never  met 

Isabella  was  ill  of  grief  for  a  fortnight  or 
more,  and  was  then  removed  to  Wallingford 
Castle,  while  her  French  attendants  were  dis- 


missed,  as  Richard  had  ordered.  Great  in- 
dignation was  expressed  in  France  (Reli- 
gieux  de  Saint-Denys,  ii.  702-5 ;  JUVENAL 
DBS  URSINS,  p.  417).  Froissart  is  wrong  in 
making  the  Londoners  expel  the  French  ladies 
in  the  interests  of  Henry  of  Lancaster  (xvi. 
189).  Henceforward  Isabella  was  left  with 
English-speaking  attendants,  except  one  lady 
and  her  confessor.  On  Henry's  invasion  in 
July  the  regent  York  entrusted  her  to  the 
care  of  "Wiltshire  and  Richard's  other  chief 
favourites  (Focdera,  viii.  83).  But  she  soon 
fell  into  Henry's  hands,  and  was  placed  at 
Sonning,  near  Reading.  A  letter  she  wrote 
to  her  father  never  reached  him  (Religieux 
de  Saint-Denys,  ii.  720).  Richard  asked  in 
vain  to  see  her  (CRETOX,  p.  117). 

The  French  court  would  not  recognise 
Henry  IV  as  king,  and  demanded  the  resti- 
tution of  Isabella  and  the  two  hundred 
thousand  francs  of  her  portion  paid  since  her 
marriage.  Henry  was  unable  to  pay  so  large 
a  sum,  and  commissioned  ambassadors  to 
treat  for  a  marriage  between  the  Prince  of 
Wales  and  a  daughter  or  cousin  of  Charles  VI 
(Fcedera,  viii.  108).  Isabella  was  evidently 
intended  (FROISSART,  xvi.  237 ;  Chronigue  de 
la  Tra'ison,  p.  106),  and  it  would  not  have 
been  hard  to  arrange  the  union,  as  her  mar- 
riage with  Richard  had  never  been  consum- 
mated. But  the  French  would  not  listen 
to  the  proposal,  even  after  Richard's  death. 
They  demanded  the  fulfilment  of  the  treaty 
of  1396,  and  Henry,  though  putting  things 
off  as  long  as  he  could,  did  not  venture  to 
openly  repudiate  it.  But  he  set  up,  as  a 
counterclaim  to  the  demand  for  Isabella's 
portion,  a  request  for  the  unpaid  arrears  of 
King  John's  ransom. 

Isabella  was  still  at  Sonning  when  the 
rebellion  of  January  1400  broke  out.  The 
insurgents,  headed  by  Kent,  captured  Son- 
ning, and  comforted  her  with  hopes  of  greater 
success,  tearing  away  Henry  IVs  badges 
from  her  sen-ants  (WALSINGHAM,  ii.  243-4), 
but  they  do  not  seem  to  have  attempted  to 
take  her  away  with  them.  After  this  she 
was  guarded  more  carefully,  and  removed  to 
Havering-atte-Bower  in  Essex.  The  death  of 
Richard  was  for  a  time  carefully  concealed 
from  her.  In  November  1400  she  was  visited 
by  the  French  ambassadors,  who  pledged 
themselves  to  make  no  mention  of  Richard 
(FROISSART,  xvi.  220).  They  had  been  se- 
cretly instructed  to  urge  her  not  to  involve 
herself  in  any  matrimonial  or  other  engage- 
ment (DoUET-D'ARCQ,  Pieces  Inedites,  i.  171- 
173).  It  was  feared  that  Henry  would  keep 
her  until  after  her  twelfth  birthday,  when 
she  could  contract  a  legal  marriage. 
The  threat  of  an  invasion  of  Guienne  facili- 

tated Isabella's  restoration.  On  27  May  1401 
a  treaty  was  signed  at  Leulinghen  that  she 
should  be  sent  back  with  her  jewels  and  be- 
longings in  July,  on  her  pledging  herself  to 
abstain  from  all  intrigues  in  England.  The 
question  of  her  portion  was  to  be  considered 
later  on.  Great  preparations  were  now  made 
for  her  restoration  with  a  pomp  not  unworthy 
of  her  reception.  On  27  June  the  Earl  of 
Worcester  conducted  her  to  Westminster. 
She  was  taken  before  Henry,  but  in  his  pre- 
sence she  hardly  spoke,  remaining  sullen  and 
morose,  and  clad  in  deep  black  (ADAM  OP 
USK,  p.  61).  Next  day  she  was  taken  through 
the  silent  crowds  of  Londoners  on  her  way 
to  the  coast.  She  was  kept  nearly  a  month 
at  Dover,  and  crossed  the  Straits  on  28  July. 
On  31  July  she  was  handed  over  by  Worcester 
to  the  Count  of  Saint-Pol  at  Leulinghen,  and 
Isabella  took  leave  of  her  English  ladies  amid 
much  weeping  and  lamenting.  She  signed 
at  Boulogne  the  required  bond,  and  was 
taken  to  Paris,  being  received  with  great  re- 
joicings in  every  town.  On  her  arrival  at 
Paris  she  was  made  to  issue  a  declaration 
that  she  had  never  acknowledged  Henry 
as  her  husband's  successor.  Her  mother 
now  took  charge  of  her.  Henceforth  she 
lived  in  less  state,  but  was  still  attended  by 
ladies  of  high  rank  (Reliyieux  de  Saint-Denys, 
iii.  4).  Common  fame  said  that  she  was 
never  happy  after  her  return  from  England 
(Chron.  Anonyme  in  MOITSTRELET,  vi.  192). 
Partisans  of  Richard  II  in  England  still 
looked  to  Isabella  or  her  friends  for  help.  In 
1403  it  was  believed  she  was  about  to  land 
in  Essex,  and  in  1404  the  French  invaders 
of  the  Isle  of  Wight  demanded  tribute  in 
her  name  and  that  of  the  false  Richard, 
hidden  away  in  Scotland.  But  Isabella's 
friends  never  recognised  the  impostor  in  any 
way,  though  repeated  applications  had  failed 
to  extract  any  of  her  marriage  portion  from 
Henry  IV,  and  Louis  of  Orleans,  Henry's 
special  foe,  was  predominant  in  her  father's 
counsels.  In  June  1404  she  was  contracted 
in  marriage  to  her  cousin  Charles,  count  of 
Angouleme,  afterwards  famous  as  a  poet,  and 
the  eldest  son  of  Louis  of  Orleans  (DOUBT- 
S' ARCQ,  Pieces  Inedites,  i.  260),  who  gave 
her  as  dower  six  thousand  livres  a  year,  and 
all  the  profits  of  the  chatellenie  of  Crecy- 
en-Brie  (Report  on  Fcedera,  App.  D,  p.  146). 
In  1406  another  proposal  to  marry  her  to- 
Henry,  prince  of  Wales,  was  rejected  (Mox- 
STRELET,  i.  126),  and  she  was  married  to- 
Angouleme  at  Compiegne  on  29  June  140& 
(Religieux  de  Saint-Denys,  iii.  394 ;  Mox- 
STRELET,  i.  129 ;  ANSELME,  i.  208).  Isabella 
wept  bitterly  during  the  ceremony  which 
united  her  to  a  boy  two  years  her  junior 



(JUVENAL  DBS  UESINS,  p.  438,  who  says  the 
marriage  was  at  Senlis).  Isabella  became 
Duchess  of  Orleans,  on  the  murder  of  her 
father-in-law,  on  23 Nov.  1407.  With  Valen- 
tina  Visconti,  her  husband's  mother,  she  went 
to  Paris,  and  throwing  herself  at  Charles  VI's 
feet,  demanded  justice  on  the  murderers. 

On  13  Sept.  1409  Isabella  gave  birth  at 
Blois  to  her  only  child,  Joan,  and  died  a  few 
hours  after.  She  was  buried  at  Blois,  in  the 
chapel  of  Notre  Dame  des  Bonnes  Nouvelles, 
in  the  abbey  of  Saint-Laumer.  Charles  of 
Orleans  gave  her  rich  robes  to  the  monks  of 
St.-Denys,  to  be  made  up  into  chasubles  and 
dalmatics  (Religieux  de  Saint-Denys,  iv.  252). 
In  1624  her  body  was  transferred  to  the 
Orleans  burying-place  in  the  church  of  the 
Celestines  in  Paris  (ANSELME,  Hist.  Geneal. 
i.  208).  Her  daughter  Joan  married  in  1424 
John  II  of  Alenfon,  and  died  without  chil- 
dren in  1432.  A  portrait  of  Isabella  as  the 
bride  of  Charles  of  Orleans  is  engraved  in 
Miss  Strickland's  'Lives  of  the  Queens  of 

[Most  of  the  facts  of  Isabella's  life  are  col- 
lected, in  a  readable,  if  not  very  critical  "way,  in 
Strickland's  Lives  of  the  Queens  of  England, 
i.  428-54,  ed.  1889.  Anselme's  Histoire  Gene- 
alogique  de  la  Maison  Eoyale  de  France,  vol.  i., 
corrected  by^  M.  Vallet  de  Viriville  in  Biblio- 
theque  de  1'Ecole  des  Chartes,  4C  serie,  iv.  473- 
482.  Wallon's  Kichard  II  and  Wylie's  Henry  IV 
best  summarise  the  political  aspects  of  Isabella's 
life.  The  chief  original  sources  include  Froissart, 
ed.  Kervyn  de  Lettenhove ;  Chroniques  du  Ee- 
ligieux  de  Saint-Denys  (Doc.  Inedits) ;  Monstrelet 
(Soc.  de  1'Histoire  de  France) ;  Jean  Juvenal  des 
Ursins  in  Michaud  andPoujoulat's  Collection  des 
Memoires,  le  serie,  t.  ii. ;  Walsingham's  Hist. 
Angl.  (Eolls  Ser.) ;  Monk  of  Evesham  and  Otter- 
bourne,  both  ed.  Hearne ;  Chronique  de  la  Tra'ison 
et  la  Mort  de  Eichart  Deux  (Engl.  Hist.  Soc.) ; 
Creton's  Metrical  Chronicle  in  Archseologia,  vol'. 
xx. ;  Eymer's  Fcedera,  vols.  vii.  and  viii.,  and 
Eeport  on  Fcedera,  App.  D  ;  Nicolas's  Proc.  and 
Ord.  of  Privy  Council,  vol.  i. ;  Godefroy's  Hist, 
de  Charles  VI.]  T.  F.  T. 


(1822-1883),  educational  writer,  eldest  son 
of  Thomas  Isbister,  an  officer  of  the  Hudson 
Bay  Company,  was  born  at  Fort  Cumberland, 
Canada,  in  1822,  and  was  sent  to  Scotland, 
the  original  home  of  his  family,  to  be  edu- 
cated. In  his  fifteenth  year  he  returned  to 
Canada,  and  after  serving  for  a  short  time  as 
a  pupil-teacher,  he  entered  the  service  of  the 
Hudson  Bay  Company.  Seeing  little  prospect 
of  advancement  he  threw  up  his  appointment 
and,  returning  to  Scotland,  studied  at  the 
universities  of  Aberdeen  and  Edinburgh.  At 
the  latter  he  graduated  M.  A.  on  3  March  1858. 
During  part  of  this  period  he  supported  him- 

self by  contributing  to  the  '  Encyclopaedia 
Britannica '  and  to  Chambers's  '  Educational 

In  1849  he  became  second  master  in  the 
East  Islington  proprietary  school,  and  a  year 
afterwards  the  head-master.  Five  years  later 
he  was  appointed  the  head-master  of  the 
Jews'  College  in  Finsbury  Square,  and  from 
1858  to  1882  was  master  of  the  Stationers' 
Company's  school.  His  connection  with  the 
College  of  Preceptors,  42  Queen  Square, 
Bloomsbury  (now  located  in  its  own  building 
in  Bloomsbury  Square),  began  in  1851.  In 
1862  he  was  appointed  editor  of  the  'Educa- 
tional Times,'  the  official  organ  of  the  college, 
and  in  1872  he  succeeded  the  Rev.  G.A.Jacob, 
D.D.,as  dean  of  the  college.  His  services  were 
very  great,  and  to  him  the  present  position  of 
the  college  is  largely  due.  On  17  Nov.  1864 
he  was  admitted  to  the  bar  at  the  Middle 
Temple,  and  took  the  degree  of  LL.B.  at 
the  university  of  London  in  I860.  He  died 
at  20  Milner  Square,  Islington,  London,  on 
28  May  1883.  He  was  the  author  of  nu- 
merous works,  chiefly  school  books,  among 
which  were:  1.  '  Elements  of  Bookkeeping,' 
1850,  with  forms  of  a  set  of  books,  1854. 
2.  'A  Proposal  for  a  New  Penal  Settlement  in 
the  Uninhabited  Districts  of  British  North 
America,'  1850.  3.  'Euclid,'  1860,  1862, 
1863,  and  1865.  4.  'Csesaris  Commentarii  de 
Bello  Gallico,'  1863,  1864,  1865,  and  1866. 

5.  'The  Elements  of  English  Grammar,'  1865. 

6.  '  Arithmetic,'  1865.     7.  '  Outlines  of  the 
English  Language,'  1865.     8.  '  Xenophon's 
Anabasis,'  1866.     9.  'First  Steps  in  Read- 
ing and  Learning,'  1867.     10.  '  The  Word- 
builder,'  1869.     11.  '  The  Illustrated  Public 
School   Speaker,'   1870.      12.    '  Lessons  on 
Elocution,'  1870. 

[Times,  30  May  1883,  p.  11 ;  Journal  of  Edu- 
cation, July  1883,  p.  247;  Solicitors'  Journal, 
9  June  1883,  p.  537;  Law  Times,  9  June  1883, 
p.  119.]  G.  C.  B. 



ISHAM  or  ISUM,  JOHN  (1680  P-1726), 
composer,  was  born  about  1680  and  educated 
at  Merton  College,  Oxford,  whence  he  pro- 
ceeded to  London  and  served  as  deputy  or- 
ganist of  St.  Anne's,  Westminster,  under 
Dr.  William  Croft  [q.  v.]  Croft  resigned  in 
Isham's  favour  in  1711,  and  in  1713  Isham 
went  from  London  to  Oxford  to  assist  Croft 
in  the  performance  of  the  exercise  for  his 
doctor's  degree,  being  himself  admitted  at 
the  same  time  to  the  degree  of  Mus.  Bac. 
Appointed  organist  of  St.  Andrew's,  IIol- 
born,  in  April  1718,  and  of  St.  Margaret's, 
Westminster,  in  the  following  year,  Isham 

I  sham 


held  the  two  last-mentioned  posts  in  conjunc- 
tion until  his  death  in  June  172G,  when  he 
was  buried  in  St.  Margaret's  Church.  Two 
anthems  composed  by  Isham,  '  Unto  Thee, 
O  Lord,'  and  '  O  sing  unto  the  Lord  a  new 
song,'  are  included  in  Croft's  'Divine  Har- 
mony, or  a  New  Collection  of  Select  Anthems ' 
(1712).  With  William  Morley  he  published, 
about  1710,  a  collection  of  songs,  from  which 
Sir  John  Hawkins  reprinted  in  his  'History' 
a  duet  by  Isham,  '  Bury  delights  my  roving 
eye.'  Three  other  songs  and  a  catch  are 
catalogued  under  the  name  of  Isum  in  the 
British  Museum  Library. 

[Hawkins's  Hist,  of  Music,  ii.  799;  Burney, 
iii.  303  ;  Georgian  Era,  iv.  513  ;  Hueffer's  Pur- 
cell,  pp.  103,  105;  Add.  MS.  31464;  Notes  and 
Queries,  6th  ser.  xii.  288.]  T.  S. 

baronet  (1610-1674),  royalist,  was  only  son 
of  Sir  John  Isham  (1582-1651),  by  his  wife 
Judith,  daughter  of  William  Lewin,  D.C.L., 
of  Otterden,  Kent,  and  was  baptised  on 
3  Feb.  1610,  taking  his  Christian  name  from 
his  mother's  brother,  Sir  Justinian  Lewin, 
knt.  He  was  admitted  a  fellow-commoner  at 
Christ's  College,  Cambridge,  on  18  April  1627, 
and  subsequently  contributed  20/.  towards  the 
new  buildings  of  his  college  ( May  1640).  He 
was  married  on  10  Nov.  1634  to  Jane,  eldest 
daughter  of  Sir  John  Garrard,  bart.,  of  Lamer, 
Hertfordshire ;  but  his  wife  died  in  childbirth 
on  4  March  1638,  and  Isham  became  one  of 
the  suitors  of  Dorothy  Osborne.  The  earnest- 
ness and  persistency  of  his  suit  did  not  make 
a  favourable  impression  upon  the  lady,  who 
nicknamed  him  '  The  Emperor,'  laughed  at 
his  vanity  and  pompousness,  and  finally  de- 
clared that  she  would  rather  'chose  a  chain 
to  lead  her  apes  in'  than  marry  him.  On  the 
other  hand,  however,  Miss  Osborne  frequently 
mentions  '  Sir  Jus's '  learning.  She  describes 
him  to  Sir  William  Temple  as  '  that  one  of 
her  servants '  whom  Temple  liked  the  best, 
and  she  showed  herself  by  no  means  best 
pleased  on  the  occasion  of  his  second  mar- 
riage (Dorothy  Osbome's  Letters,  ed.  Parry, 
passim).  Isham  appears  in  fact  to  have  been 
a  man  of  culture,  and  seems  to  have  laid  the 
foundation  of  the  present  library  at  Lamport 
Hall,  Northamptonshire.  BrianDuppa[q.v.], 
bishop  of  Salisbury,  was  a  frequent  correspon- 
dent of  his,  and  answered  in  a  letter,  still 
extant,  some  inquiries  which  Isham  made  re- 
spectingthedisposition  of  Selden's  books  after 
his  death  (Hist.  MSS.  Comm.  3rd  Rep.  App. 
p.  255).  Loans  to  the  king  as  well  as  fines  to 
the  parliament  had  greatly  injured  the  Isham 
estates  when  in  1651  Sir  Justinian  succeeded 
to  the  baronetcy.  He  had  been  detained  in 

prison  for  a  short  time  during  1649  as  a  de- 
linquent, and  he  was  now  forced  to  compound 
for  the  estate  of  Shangton  in  Leicestershire, 
which  had  been  bought  by  his  father  in  1637 
by  a  payment  of  1,106/.  (C'a/.  of  Advance  of 
Money,  ed.  Green,i.  485).  After  the  Restora- 
tion he  was  elected  M.P.  for  Northamptonshire 
in  the  parliament  which  met  in  1661.  He  died 
at  Oxford,  whither  he  had  gone  to  place  his 
two  sons  at  Christ  Church,  on  2  March  1674, 
and  was  buried  in  the  family  burial  place  on  the 
north  side  of  the  chancel  in  Lamport  Church, 
where  there  is  a  long  Latin  inscription  to  his 
memory  (see  LE  NEVE,  Monumenta  Anyli- 
cana,  ii.  163).  There  is  a  portrait  of  the 
baronet  at  Lamport  Hall  by  John  Baptista. 

Isham's  second  wife,  whom  he  married  in 
1653,  was  Vere,  daughter  of  Thomas,  lord 
Leigh  of  Stoneleigh,  by  Mary,  daughter  of 
Sir  Thomas  Egerton.  Four  children  by  her 
survived  him :  Sir  Thomas,  noticed  below, 
third  baronet ;  Sir  Justinian,  fourth  baronet 
(d.  1730) ;  Mary  (d.  1679),  who  married  Sir 
Marmaduke  Dayrell  of  Castle  Camps,  Cam- 
bridgeshire ;  and  Vere,  an  erudite  young  lady, 
'  learned  beyond  her  sex  and  years  in  mathema- 
ticks  and  algebra,'  who  died  in  1674,  aged  19. 
There  also  survived  him  three  daughters  by 
his  first  wife:  Elizabeth  (d.  1734),  who  mar- 
ried Sir  Nicholas  L'Estrange  of  Hunstanton, 
Norfolk,  second  baronet,  and  nephew  of  Sir 
Roger  L'Estrange  [q.  v.] ;  Judith,  who  died 
unmarried,  and  was  buried  in  Westminster 
Abbey  22  May  1679 ;  and  Susanna,  who 
was  married  on  4  May  1656  to  Sir  Nicholas 
Carew,  kt. 

ISHAM,  SIB  THOMAS  (1657-1681),  third 
baronet,  eldest  son  of  the  above,  was  born  at 
Lamport  on  15  March  1657.  When  still  a 
boy  he  wrote  a  diary  in  Latin  by  the  command 
of  his  father.  This  diary,  which  gives  a  vivid 
picture  of  the  everyday  doings  of  a  family 
of  the  period,  was  translated  and  privately 
printed  (1875)  by  the  Rev.  Robert  Isham, 
rector  of  Lamport,  where  the  original  is  still 
preserved.  Isham  succeeded  to  the  baronetcy 
upon  the  death  of  his  father  in  1674,  and 
shortly  afterwards  proceeded  with  his  tutor, 
the  Rev.  Zacheus  Isham  [q.  v.],  upon  an  ex- 
tended tour  on  the  continent,  especially  in 
Italy,  whence  he  brought  numerous  art  trea- 
sures to  Lamport.  He  died  unmarried  in  Lon- 
don, and  was  buried  at  Lamport  on  9  Aug. 
1681.  There  are  several  portraits  of  Sir 
Thomas  Isham  at  Lamport  Hall,  including 
one  by  Lely,  which  was  engraved  by  Loggan, 
and  is  noticed  in  Granger's  'Biographical 
History,'  iii.  393,  where  Isham  is  described 
as  'a  young  gentleman  of  great  expectations.' 

[Bridges's  Northamptonshire,  ed.  Whalley,  ii. 
1 12  ;  Collins's  English  Baronetage,  1741,  ii.  40 ; 




Foster's  Peerage ;  Burke's  Eoyal  Descents ;  in- 
formation kindly  supplied  by  the  Eev.  H.  Isham 
Longden.  There  are  some  interesting  memoranda 
of  the  Isham  family,  transcribed  from  a  note- 
book of  Sir  John,  first  baronet,  in  the  Genealogist, 
ii.  241,  iii.  274 ;  and  a  full  pedigree  of  the  family 
is  given  in  Hill's  History  of  Langton,  p.  216;  see 
also  Addit.  MS.  29603.]  '  T.  S. 

ISHAM,  Z  ACIIEUS  (1651-1705),  divine, 
was  the  son  of  Thomas  Isham,  rector  of 
Barby,  Northamptonshire  (d.  1676),  by  his 
wife  Mary  Isham  (d.  1694).  He  was  grand- 
son of  another  Zacheus,  who  was  first  cousin 
once  removed  of  Sir  John  Isham  of  Lamport, 
Northamptonshire,  first  baronet  (d.  1651). 
He  matriculated  from  Christ  Church,  Oxford, 
in  1666,  and  was  successively  student,  B.A. 
(1671),  M.A.  (1674),  B.D.  (1682),  and  D.D. 
(1689).  After  taking  his  degree  in  1671  he 
acted  for  some  time  as  tutor  to  Sir  Thomas 
Isham,  third  baronet  [see  under  ISHAM,  SIR 
JUSTINIAN],  and  accompanied  him  on  his 
travels  in  Italy  and  elsewhere.  In  1679  he 
was  an  interlocutor  in  the  divinity  school  at 
Oxford  (TASWELL,  'Autobiography '  in  Cam- 
den's  Miscellany,  iii.  28),  and  was  speaker  of 
theMorrisian  oration  in  honour  of  Sir  Thomas 
Bodley  in  1683  (MACKAT,  Annals  of  the  Bod- 
leian Library,  p.  151).  He  was  appointed 
chaplain  to  Dr.  Compton  [q.  v.],  bishop  of 
London,  about  1685,  obtained  a  prebend  at 
St.  Paul's  in  1685-6,  and  was  in  1691  installed 
a  canon  at  Canterbury  Cathedral.  He  became 
rector  of  St.  Botolph's,  Bishopsgate,  in  1694, 
represented  the  clergy  of  the  diocese  of  Lon- 
don in  the  convocation  of  1696  (LTJTTRELL, 
Brief  Relation,  iii.  552,  v.  572),  and  was  in 
1701  appointed  rector  of  Solihull,  Warwick- 
shire, where  he  died  on  5  July  1705.  He  was 
buried  in  Solihull  Church,  and  there  is  a  monu- 
ment to  him  on  the  chancel  floor  in  which  he 
is  described  as  '  Vir  singular!  eruditione  et 
gravitate  preeditus,  in  concionando  celeber- 
rime  foecundus'  (DUGDALE,  Warwickshire, 
ed.  Thomas,  ii.  944).  Isham  was  married  to 
Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Thomas  Pittis,  chap- 
lain to  Charles  II;  he  had  four  sons  and  four 
daughters,  the  second  of  whom,  Mary  (d. 
1750),  married  Arthur  Brooke,  grandfather  of 
Sir  Richard  de  Capell  Brooke,  first  baronet. 

Besides  sermons,  including  one  on  the 
death  of  Dr.  John  Scott  (1694),  which  is  in- 
corporated in  Wilford's  '  Memorials,'  Isham 
published :  1.  '  The  Catechism  of  the  Church, 
with  Proofs  from  the  New  Testament,'  1695, 
8vo.  2.  'Philosophy  containing  the  Book 
of  Job,  Proverbs,  and  Wisdom,  with  explana- 
tory notes,'  1706, 8vo.  There  is  a  small  work 
of  his  among  the  Rawlinson  MSS.  in  the 
Bodleian  Library  entitled  '  The  Catechism  of 
the  Church,  with  Proofs  from  the  New  Testa- 

ment, and  some  additional  questions  and 
answers,'  1694.  An  attestation  by  Isham  and 
others  is  prefixed  to  '  George  Keith's  Fourth 
Narrative  .  .  .  detecting  the  Quakers'  Gross 
Errors  in  Quotations  .  .  . ,'  1706,  4to. 

[Wood's  Athenae,iv.  654;  Fasti,  ii.  407;  Cole's 
Athense  Cantabr.  i.  f.  77 ;  Dart's  History  and  An- 
tiquities of  Canterbury  Cathedral,  1726,  p.  202; 
Colvile's  Warwickshire  Worthies,  p.  456 ;  Bridges's 
Northamptonshire,  i.  26, ii.  112;  Hearne's  Collec- 
tions, ed.  Doble,  i.  322  ;  Hasted's  Kent,  iii.  188, 
iv.  615;  Ellis  Orig.  Lett.  2nd  ser.  iv.  65,  where 
Isham  is  wrongly  described  as  dean  of  Christ 
Church;  information  from  the  Eev.  H.  Isham 
Longden.]  T.  S. 

DONALD,J#.  1420;  MACDONALD,  JOHN,  d.  1388 ; 
Ross,  JOHN,  eleventh  EARL  OF  Ross,  d.  1498.] 

ISLIP,  JOHN  (d.  1532),  abbot  of  West- 
minster, was  doubtless  a  member  of  the 
family  which  rose  to  ecclesiastical  impor- 
tance in  the  person  of  Archbishop  Simon  Islip 
[q.  v.]  John  entered  the  monastery  of  West- 
minster about  1480,  and  showed  his  admin- 
istrative capacity  in  minor  offices,  till  in  1498 
he  was  elected  prior,  and  on  27  Oct.  1500 
abbot  of  Westminster.  The  first  business 
which  he  undertook  was  to  claim  for  the 
abbey  of  Westminster  the  possession  of  the 
body  of  Henry  VI,  for  whose  canonisation 
Henry  VII  was  pressing  at  Rome.  The  claim 
was  disputed  by  Windsor  and  Chertsey,  and 
the  question  was  argued  before  the  privy 
council,  which  decided  in  favour  of  West- 
minster. Henry  VI's  remains  were  removed 
from  Windsor  at  a  cost  of  500/.  Islip  had 
next  to  advise  Henry  VII  in  his  plan  for  re- 
moving the  old  lady  chapel  of  the  abbey 
church  and  the  erection  instead  of  the  chapel 
which  still  bears  Henry  VII's  name.  The 
old  building  was  pulled  down,  and  on  24  Jan. 
1503  Islip  laid  the  foundation-stone  of  the 
new  structure  (HOLINSHED,  Chronicle,  ed. 
1577,  ii.  1457).  The  indentures  between  the 
king  and  Abbot  Islip  relating  to  the  foun- 
dation of  Henry  VII's  chantry  and  the  re- 
gulation of  its  services  are  in  the  Harleian 
MS.  1498.  They  are  splendidly  engrossed, 
and  have  two  initial  letters  which  represent 
the  king  giving  the  document  to  Islip  and 
the  monks  Avho  kneel  before  him.  The  face 
of  Islip  is  so  strongly  marked  that  it  seems 
to  be  a  real  portrait  (see  NEALE  and  BRAY- 
LET,  Westminster  Abbey,  ii.  188-92). 

Islip  seems  to  have  discharged  carefully 
the  duties  of  his  office.  In  1511  he  held  a 
visitation  of  the  dependent  priory  of  Mai  vern, 
and  repeated  it  in  1516,  when  he  suspended 
the  prior.  His  capacity  for  business  led 
Henry  VIII  to  appoint  him  a  member  of  the 




privy  council,  probably  on  his  departure  to 
France  in  1513,  as  Islip's  name  first  appears 
attached  to  a  letter  in  September  of  that 
year  (BREWER,  Calendar  of  State  Papers,  i. 
5762).  Islip  was  further  one  of  the  triers  of 
petitions  to  parliament,  and  was  on  the  com- 
mission of  the  peace  for  Middlesex.  Still 
Islip's  dignified  position  did  not  protect  him 
from  Wolsey's  authority,  who  showed  his 
determination  to  use  his  legatine  power  by 
a  severe  visitation  of  Westminster  in  1518 
(POLYDORE  VERGIL,  Hist.  Angl.  ed.  1570,  p. 
657)  ;  and  again  in  1525,  when  the  monas- 
tery had  to  pay  a  hundred  marks  for  the  ex- 
penses of  the  visitation.  In  the  same  year  we 
find  Islip  acting  as  Wolsey's  commissioner  in 
the  affairs  of  the  monastery  of  Glastonbury 
(BREWER,  Calendar,  iv.  1244).  In  1527  Islip, 
as  president  of  the  English  Benedictines, 
issued  a  commission  to  the  Abbot  of  Glou- 
cester for  the  visitation  of  the  abbey  of 
Malmesbury, where  there  had  been  a  rebellion 
of  the  monks  against  their  abbot  (ib.  3678). 

This  peaceful  discharge  of  ordinary  duties 
was  disturbed  for  Islip,  as  for  most  other 
Englishmen  of  high  position,  by  the  pro- 
ceedings for  the  king's  divorce.  In  July 
1529  Islip  was  joined  with  Burbank  and 
others  for  the  purpose  of  searching  among 
the  royal  papers  for  documents  to  present  to 
the  legatine  court  of  Wolsey  and  Campeggio 
(ib.  5783,  5791).  In  1530  Islip  was  one 
of  those  who  signed  a  letter  to  the  pope  in 
favour  of  the  king's  divorce  (RxMER,  Fcedera, 
xiv.  405),  and  in  July  1531  Henry  VIII 
suggested  to  the  pope  that  Islip,  whom  he 
calls  '  a  good  old  father,'  should  be  joined 
as  an  assessor  to  Archbishop  Warham  for 
the  purpose  of  trying  the  cause  in  England 
(State  Papers  of  Henry  VIII,\'u.  312).  But 
though  Henry  was  bent  upon  his  divorce, 
he  could  attend  to  minor  matters;  for  in 
September  1531  he  negotiated  an  exchange 
with  the  abbey  of  Westminster  of  sundry 
tenements  reaching  as  far  as  Charing  Cross, 
for  which  he  gave  them  the  site  of  the  con- 
vent of  Poghley,  Berkshire,  one  of  the  lesser 
monasteries,  dissolved  by  Wolsey,  which  had 
become  forfeited  to  the  crown  (BREWER, 
Calendar,  v.  404).  Islip  died  peaceably  on 
12  May  1532.  and  was  buried  in  the  abbey 
with  extraordinary  splendour.  An  account 
of  his  funeral  is  in  the  Brit  ish  Museum  Addit. 
MS.  5829,  f.  61 ;  extracts  are  given  in  Dug- 
dale's  'Monasticon,'  i.  278. 

Islip's  career  was  entirely  representative 
of  the  life  of  a  great  churchman  of  the  time 
in  other  points  than  those  already  men- 
tioned. In  1526  he  was  one  of  those  com- 
missioned by  Wolsey  to  search  for  heretics 
among  the  Hanseatic  merchants  in  London 

(ib.  iv.  1962),  and  often  sat  in  the  consistory 
court  of  London  to  judge  English  heretics 
(FoXE,  Acts  and  Monuments,  ed.  Townsend, 
iv.  689,  v.  417).  But  the  chief  reason  why 
Islip's  name  is  remembered  is  his  buildings  at 
Westminster  Abbey.  He  raised  the  western 
tower  as  far  as  the  level  of  the  roof,  repaired 
much  of  the  church,  especially  the  buttresses, 
filled  the  niches  with  statues,  and  designed  a 
central  tower,  which  he  did  not  proceed  with 
because  he  found  the  pillars  too  weak  to  bear 
the  weight.  He  built  many  apartments  in  the 
abbot's  house,  and  a  gallery  overlooking  the 
nave  on  the  south  side.  Moreover,  he  built 
for  himself  the  little  mortuary  chapel  which 
still  bears  his  name,  and  is  adorned  by  his 
rebus,  a  boy  falling  from  a  tree,  with  the  le- 
gend '  I  slip.'  The  paintings  in  the  chapel 
have  disappeared,  and  only  the  table  of  his 
tomb  remains.  The  original  work  is  described 
by  Weever  in  '  Funerall  Monuments,'  p.  488. 
Islip's  fame  as  a  custodian  of  the  fabric  of 
the  abbey  long  remained,  and  his  example 
was  held  as  a  model  by  Williams  when  he 
was  dean  of  Westminster  (HACKET,  Life  of 
Williams,  p.  45). 

[Dugdale's  Monasticon,  i.  277-8  ;  Widmore's 
Hist,  of  Westminster  Abbey,  pp.  119-26;  Stevens's 
Additions  to  Dugdale,  i.  285-6 ;  Dart's  West- 
monasterium,  i.  40,  ii.  34;  Newcourt's  Reper- 
torium  Ecclesiasticum,  i.  717;  Neale  and  Bray- 
ley's  History  and  Antiquities  of  Westminster 
Abbey,  i.  11-16,  ii.  188-92;  Historical  Manu- 
scripts Commission,  i.  95  ;  Stanley's  Memorials 
of  Westminster  Abbey,  ed.  1882,  p.  335.] 

M.  C. 

ISLIP,  SIMON  (d.  1366),  archbishop  of 
Canterbury,  derived  his  name  from  the  vil- 
lage of  Islip  on  the  Cherwell,  about  six  miles 
north  of  Oxford,  where  he  was  probably  born. 
Of  his  namesakes  or  kinsfolk,  Walter  Islip 
was  a  baron  of  the  Irish  exchequer  between 
1307  and  1338,  and  in  1314  treasurer  (Cal. 
Hot.  Pat.  68  b,  77, 121  b,  128).  John  Islip  was 
until  1332  archdeacon  of  Stow,  in  the  diocese 
of  Lincoln.  William  Islip,  Simon's  nephew, 
held  the  manor  of  Woodford  in  south  North- 
amptonshire, and  William  Whittlesey,  subse- 
quently archbishop,  was  another  kinsman. 

In  1307  Simon  was  a  fellow  of  Merton 
College  (WooD,  Colleges  and  Halls,  p.  15 ; 
BRODRICK,  Memorials  of  Merton,  p.  199,  Ox- 
ford Hist.  Soc.)  He  proceeded  doctor  in 
canon  and  civil  law  at  Oxford.  He  soon 
made  his  way  as  an  ecclesiastical  lawyer, 
and  apparently  enjoyed  the  patronage,  first 
of  Bishop  Burghersh  of  Lincoln,  and  after- 
wards of  Archbishop  Stratford  of  Canter- 
bury. His  early  preferments  include  the 
rectories  of  Easton,  near  Stamford,  and  Horn- 
castle,  the  first  of  which  he  exchanged  in 




1332  for  a  brief  tenure  of  the  archdeaconry 
of  Stow  (1332-3),  and  the  last  he  vacated  by 
cession  in  1357  (LsNEVE,  Fasti  Heel.  Anglic. 
ii.  78,  ed.  Hardy).  He  held  the  prebend  of 
Welton  Brinkhall,  in  the  cathedral  of  Lin- 
coln, from  1327  tiU  1331  (ib.  ii.  228).  In 
1329  he  was  collated  to  the  prebend  of  Ayles- 
bury  in  the  same  cathedral,  which  he  ex- 
changed in  1340  for  that  of  Welton  Beckhall 
(ib.  ii.  96,  but  cf.  ii.  225).  In  1337  he  was 
vicar-general  to  the  Bishop  of  Lincoln.  In 
1343  he  was  made  archdeacon  of  Canterbury, 
but  in  1346  he  surrendered  that  post  to  Peter 
Rogier,  afterwards  Pope  Gregory  XI  (ib.  i. 
40).  He  also  became  dean  of  arches,  and 
in  1348  prebendary  of  Mora  in  St.  Paul's 
Cathedral  on  the  presentation  of  the  king 
(ib.  ii.  410).  In  March  1348  he  wae  also 
collated  to  the  prebend  of  Sandiacre  in  Lich- 
field  (ib.  i.  624). 

Islip  attached  himself  to  the  king's  service, 
becoming  in  turn  chaplain,  secretary,  coun- 
cillor, and  keeper  of  the  privy  seal  to  Ed- 
ward III.  On  4  Jan.  1342  he  was  one  of  the 
ambassadors  sent  to  treat  for  a  truce  with 
France  at  Antoing,  near  Tournay,  on  3  Feb. 
(Fcedera,  ii.  1185,  Record  ed.)  On  1  July 
1345  he  was  appointed,  with  other  members 
of  the  council,  to  assist  the  king's  son  Lionel, 
while  acting  as  regent  during  the  king's  ab- 
sence abroad  (ib.  iii.  50).  In  1346  he  was 
authorised  to  open  royal  letters  and  treat 
with  foreign  ambassadors  during  Edward  Ill's 
residence  beyond  sea  (ib.  iii.  85). 

Archbishop  Stratford  had  died  on  23  Aug. 
1348.  His  successor,  John  Ufford,  died  of 
the  Black  Death  on  20  May  1349,  before  he 
was  consecrated.  On  26  Aug.  the  famous 
scholastic  Bradwardine  [q.  v.]  died  of  the 
same  pestilence,  only  a  week  after  he  had 
received  the  temporalities  of  the  see.  On 
20  Sept.  the  monks  of  Christ  Church  elected 
Islip,  at  the  king's  request,  to  the  vacant 
archbishopric  (WiiAETON',  Anglia  Sacra,  i. 
119) ;  but  on  7  Oct.  Pope  Clement  VI,  also 
in  obedience  to  a  royal  request,  conferred  the 

Srimacy  upon  him  by  provision  (ib.  i.  376). 
n  20  Dec.  1349  Islip  was  consecrated  at  St. 
Paul's.  He  received  the  pallium  on  25  March 
1350  at  Esher  from  Bishop  Edington.  As  the 
Black  Death  had  not  yet  ceased  its  ravages, 
he  caused  himself  to  be  enthroned  privately 
at  Canterbury  (ib.  i.  377),  and  without  the 
usual  lavish  festivities.  The  Christ  Church 
monks,  who  already  resented  his  consecra- 
tion out  of  Canterbury,  unfairly  attributed 
the  absence  of  the  customary  entertainments 
to  his  parsimony,  and  a  reputation  for  nig- 
gardliness remained  to  him  for  the  rest  of 
his  life.  On  23  April  1350  Islip  assisted  at 
the  gorgeous  pageant  at  "Windsor  in  which 

Edward  III  inaugurated  the  order  of  the 
Garter  (G.  LB  BAKEE,  pp.  109,  278-9,  ed. 
Thompson).  He  long  remained  very  poor, 
and  he  incurred  much  reproach  for  cutting 
down  and  selling  the  timber  on  his  estates ; 
for  exacting  larger  sums  from  his  clergy  than 
he  had  received  papal  authority  to  exact ; 
for  dealing  hardly  with  the  executors  of 
Ufford  in  the  matter  of  dilapidations  ;  and 
for  alienating  for  ready  money  the  perpetual 
right  of  the  archbishops  to  receive  from  the 
Earls  of  Arundel  a  yearly  grant  of  twenty- 
six  deer. 

Islip's  diocese  had  been  demoralised  by  the 
ravages  of  the  Black  Death,  and  in  an  early 
visitation  he  sought  energetically  to  remedy 
the  evils.  He  afterwards  visited '  perfunc- 
torily' the  dioceses  of  Rochester  and  Chi- 
chester,  but  subsequently  remained  mostly  in 
his  manors,  of  which  Mayfield  in  Sussex  soon 
became  his  favourite  residence.  In  1356  he 
was  specially  exhorted  by  Innocent  VI  to 
resume  his  visitations  (WiLKiNS,  Concilia,  iii. 
35-6).  Islip  was  never  lacking  in  vigilance, 
and  strove  earnestly  to  restore  discipline  (cf. 
his  constitutions  and  canons  in  WILKINS, 
vol.  iii.)  He  deprived  criminous  clerks  of 
their  benefices ;  took  care  that  clerks  incar- 
cerated in  ecclesiastical  prisons  should  not 
fare  too  well ;  and  enforced  a  stricter  keeping 
of  Sunday,  especially  by  putting  down  mar- 
kets and  riotous  gatherings  on  that  day.  He 
directed,  however,  that  work  should  not  be 
suspended  on  minor  saints'  days  (WALSING- 
HAM,  Hist.  Angl.  i.  297,  Rolls  Ser.)  The 
plague  had  thinned  the  ranks  of  the  beneficed 
clergy,  and  unbeneficed  priests  now  refused 
to  undertake  pastoral  work  for  the  stipends 
customary  before  the  Black  Death.  Many 
parishes  were  thus  wholly  or  in  part  deprived 
of  spiritual  direction.  Islip  therefore  issued 
in  1350  a  canon  which  is  a  sort  of  spiritual 
counterpart  of  the  Statute  of  Labourers,  or- 
dering chaplains  to  remain  content  with  the 
salaries  they  had  received  before  the  Black 
Death  ("WILKINS,  iii.  1-2).  In  1362,  the  year 
after  the  second  visitation  of  the  Black  Death 
had  intensified  existing  evils,  Islip  drew  up 
other  constitutions  defining  more  strictly  the 
priests'  remuneration,  and  ordering  the  de- 
privation of  those  who  refused  to  undertake 
pastoral  functions  when  called  upon  by  the 
bishop  (ib.  iii.  50).  Islip's  measures  drove 
many  priests  to  theft  (WALSINGHAM,  i.  297). 
In  1353  Islip  also  drew  up  regulations  for  the 
apparel  and  salaries  of  priests  (WlLKlNS,  iii. 
29).  His  care  for  the  secular  clergy  led  him 
to  limit  the  rights  of  the  friars  to  hear  con- 
fessions or  discharge  pastoral  functions  (ib. 
iii.  64). 

In  1353  Islip  arranged  with  Archbishop 




Thoresby  of  York  to  end  the  long  strife  be- 
tween the  rival  archbishops  as  to  the  right  of 
the  northern  primate  to  carry  his  cross  erect 
in  the  southern  province.  They  submitted 
their  respective  claims  to  the  arbitration  of 
Edward  III,  whose  decision,  uttered  on 
20  April  at  Westminster,  was  confirmed  by 
Pope  Clement  VI.  The  chief  feature  in  the 
agreement  was  that  the  archbishops  of  York 
were  allowed  to  bear  their  cross  erect  within 
the  province  of  Canterbury  on  condition  that 
every  archbishop  of  York,  within  two  months 
of  his  confirmation,  presented  to  the  shrine  of 
St.  Thomas  a  golden  image  of  an  archbishop 
or  jewels  to  the  value  of  40£.  (Anglia  Sacra, 
i.  43,  75 ;  T.  STFBBS  in  RAIXE,  Historians  of 
York,  ii.  419,  Rolls  Ser. ;  RAINE,  Fasti  Ebo- 
racenses,  pp.  456-7;  WILKIXS,  Concilia,  iii. 

Islip  was  involved  in  several  grave  dis- 
putes with  Bishop  Gynwell  of  Lincoln,  who 
had  procured  a  bull  from  Clement  VI  ab- 
solving him  from  his  obedience  to  Canter- 
bury. Islip  obtained  another  bull  from 
Innocent  VI  which  practically  revoked  the 
preceding  grant.  When,  in  1350,  Gynwell 
refused  to  confirm  the  election  of  William  of 
Palmorva  to  the  chancellorship  of  Oxford 
University,  Islip,  in  answer  to  the  univer- 
sity's appeal,  summoned  Gynwell  to  appear 
before  him,  and  appointed  a  commission  to 
admit  William  to  his  office.  The  Bishop  of 
Lincoln  then  appealed  to  Pope  Clement  VI, 
who  finally  decided  in  Islip's  favour  (WTIL- 
KJNS,  Concilia,  iii.  3-8 ;  Mun.  Acad.  pp.  168- 
172 ;  LYTE,  Hist .  Univ.  Oxf.  pp.  169-70 ;  WOOD, 
Annals  of  Oxford,  i.  452-3,  ed.  Gutch).  A 
third  triumph  over  his  unruly  diocesan  was 
obtained  by  Islip  in  1354,  when  he  removed 
the  interdict  under  which  Gynwell  had  placed 
Oxford,  after  a  great  riot  between  town  and 
gown.  Gynwell,  however,  had  previously  sus- 
pended the  interdict.  The  final  arrangement 
between  the  university  and  the  townsmen  was 
made  by  the  king  on  the  mediation  of  Islip. 

Islip  was  generally  on  good  terms  with  his 
old  master,  Edward  III.  It  was  during  his 
primacy  that  the  first  Statutes  of  Provisors 
and  Prsemunire  were  passed.  In  1359,  how- 
ever, when  Islip  refused  to  confirm  the  elec- 
tion of  Robert  Stretton  to  the  bishopric  of 
Lichfield,  on  the  ground  of  his  age,  blindness, 
and  incompetency,  Edward,  prince  of  Wales, 
and  his  father  the  king  obtained  his  appoint- 
ment by  appealing  to  Avignon  against  the 
primate's  action  (  Anglia  Sacra,  i.  44, 449).  He 
Lad  another  difference  with  the  Prince  of 
Wales  in  1357,  when  the  prince  demanded 
certain  crown  dues  on  the  death  of  Bishop 
Trevor  of  St.  Asaph,  and  Islip  successfully 
maintained  against  him  that  these  dues  be- 

longed in  the  north  AVelsh  dioceses  and  in 
Rochester  to  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury 
(Archaeological  Journal,  xi.  275).  Yet  in 
1358,  when  Bishop  de  Lisle  of  Ely  was  found 
guilty  by  a  secular  court  of  burning  a  farm- 
house belonging  to  Lady  Wake,  and  insti- 
gating the  murder  of  one  of  her  servants, 
Islip  declined  to  shelter  the  guilty  prelate  by 
the  authority  of  the  ecclesiastical  courts. 

Islip  bitterly  resented  the  extravagance  of 
Edward  III.  In  1356  he  presided  over  a 
synod  which  rejected  the  king's  demand  for 
a  clerical  tenth  for  six  years,  and  only  allowed 
him  a  tenth  for  one  year  (AvESBURY,  p.  459, 
Rolls  Ser.)  Disgusted  at  the  exactions  of  the 
king's  servants  and  courtiers,  he  addressed  to 
Edward  a  long  and  spirited  remonstrance  on 
the  evils  of  purveyance,  and  the  scandal  and 
odium  produced  by  the  king's  greedy  insist- 
ence on  his  prerogative.  The  action  of  the 
archbishop  combined  with  the  strong  peti- 
tion of  the  commons  to  procure  the  statute  of 
1362,  which  seems  to  have  removed  the  worst 
abuses  of  purveyance.  Copies  of  Islip's  remon- 
strance, which  is  entitled  '  Speculum  regis 
Edwardi,'  are  in  Bodleian  MS.  624,  Harleian 
MS.  2399,  Cotton.  MSS.  Cleopatra  D.  ix.,  and 
Faustina,  B.  i.  Extracts  are  given  in  Stubbs's 
'  Constitutional  History,'ii.  375, 404, 536,  and 
a  summary  is  in  '  Archseologia,'  viii.  341-4. 

In  January  1363  a  stroke  of  paralysis  de- 
prived Islip  of  the  power  of  articulate  speech. 
He  partially  recovered,  but  died  at  May- 
field  on  26  April  1366.  On  2  May  he  was 
buried  in  his  cathedral.  At  his  own  request 
all  expense  and  pomp  were  avoided,  and  only 
six  wax  candles  were  lighted  round  his  corpse 
(Eulogium  Hist.  iii.  239).  Over  his  grave  in 
Canterbury  Cathedral  was  erected  a  '  fine 
tomb  of  marble  inlaid  with  brass  in  the 
middle,'  in  the  nave  of  the  church  (SOMNER, 
Canterbury,  ed.  Battely,  i.  134).  His  epitaph 
is  preserved  by  Weever  (Ancient  Funerall 
Monuments,  pp.  223-4).  Parts  of  his  will, 
dated  in  1361,  are  printed  in  'Anglia  Sacra,'  i. 
60-1  (cf.  Hist.  MSS.  Comm.  5th  Rep.  p.  436). 
He  left  a  large  amount  of  plate  and  vestments 
to  the  monks  of  Canterbury,  together  with  a 
thousand  of  his  best  ewes  to  improve  the  breed 
of  their  sheep.  According  to  Bale  (Script. 
Brit.  Cat.  cent.  vi.  xx.  ed.  Basel),  Islip  wrote 
sermons  on  Lent,  on  the  saints,  and  on  time. 

Despite  his  poverty  Islip  increased  the  en- 
dowments of  the  Canterbury  hospitals  (Hist. 
MSS.  Comm.  5th  Rep.  p.  443)  ;  gave  Buck- 
land  parsonage  to  Dover  priory,  and  Bilsing- 
ton  parsonage  to  the  monks  of  that  place ; 
restored  his  palace  at  Canterbury,  and  pulled 
down  WTrotham  manor  to  complete  the  build- 
ing of  the  manor-house  at  Maidstone,  which 
had  been  begun  by  Archbishop  Ufford  (Son- 




NER,  Canterbury,  ed.  Battely,  i.  62,  73,  134 ; 
cf.  HASTED,  Kent, '  Canterbury,'  ii.  118, 392). 
In  1350  he  released  the  monks  of  St.  Martin's, 
Dover,  from  their  old  dependence  on  Christ 
Church  (Hist.  MSS.  Comm.  5th  Rep.  p.  441). 
In  1365  he  restored  to  the  monks  of  his  cathe- 
dral the  churches  of  Monkton  and  Eastry, 
though  taking  care  that  perpetual  vicars 
should  be  appointed  (ib.  p.  442  ;  SOMNER,  i. 
134).  He  was,  however,  often  on  bad  terms 
with  Christ  Church.  In  1362  he  had  listened 
to  '  sinister  reports '  against  the  prior  and 
monks  (Literce  Cantuar.  ii.  308).  In  1353 
the  prior  '  with  his  own  hand '  wrote  what 
amounted  to  a  practical  refusal  to  entertain 
the  archbishop  during  a  proposed  visit  of 
twelve  days  (ib.  ii.  314-16). 

Islip  always  took  a  keen  interest  in  Oxford, 
and  since  1356  was  commemorated  by  the 
university  among  its  benefactors  (  Munimenta 
Academica,  i.  186).  He  was  also  a  benefactor 
of  Cambridge  (Anglia  Sacra,  i.  794).  He 
was  most  anxious  to  increase  the  number  of 
'  exhibitions '  at  the  universities  for  poor  stu- 
dents, and  desired  that  the  regular  clergy 
should  receive  more  generally  an  academic 
training.  The  Black  Death  had  greatly  di- 
minished the  numbers  of  the  learned  clergy.  In 
1355  Islip  strongly  urged  the  prior  of  Christ 
Church  to  send  more  of  his  monks  to  the  uni- 
versities (Literce  Cantuar.  ii.  332).  Finally, 
he  elaborated  a  plan  for  a  new  college,  in 
which  he  made  the  bold  experiment  of  mix- 
ing together  in  the  same  society  monks  and 
secular  clergy.  He  bought  for  this  purpose 
some  houses,  whose  situation  is  still  marked 
by  the  Canterbury  quadrangle  of  the  modern 
Christ  Church,  Oxford.  On  20  Oct.  1361  he 
obtained  the  royal  license  to  found  his  col- 
lege for  '  a  certain  number  of  clerks  both  re- 
ligious and  secular,'  and  secured  the  king's 
consent  to  appropriate  the  advowson  of  Pag- 
ham  in  Sussex  for  its  endowment  (ib.  ii. 
409-10 ;  LEWIS,  Life  of  Wycliffe,  pp.  285- 
290).  He  closely  connected  his  college  with 
his  cathedral,  and  directed  the  monks  of 
Christ  Church  to  appoint  the  first  warden 
by  nominating  three  persons  to  the  arch- 
bishop, of  whom  he  chose  one  (Literce  Can- 
tuar. ii.  417).  Islip  in  March  1362  nominated 
one  of  the  monks'  three  nominees,  Dr.  Henry 
Woodhall,  as  first  warden  (ib.  ii.  416).  On 
13  April  1363  Islip  issued  his  charter  of  foun- 
dation (ib.  ii.  442-3).  Provision  was  made 
for  eleven  fellows,  besides  the  warden,  and  a 
chaplain.  Four  of  these  seem  to  have  been 
Christ  Church  monks,  the  rest  seculars.  On 
4  June  1363  Islip  obtained  from  his  nephew, 
"William  Islip,  the  manor  of  Woodford,  North- 
amptonshire, as  an  additional  endowment  (ib. 
ii.  443,  447-8).  Quarrels  at  once  arose  be- 

tween the  regular  and  secular  members  on. 
the  foundation.  The  seculars,  who  were  in  a 
majority,  seem  to  have  driven  out  Woodhall 
and  the  monks,  and  to  have  chosen  as  their 
head  John  Wycliffe,  a  secular  priest,  who  is 
variously  identified  with  the  reformer  [see 
WYCLIFFE,  JOHN]  and  with  another  John 
Wycliffe,  whom  Islip  had,  in  1361,  appointed 
to  be  vicar  of  Mayfield  (LECHLER,  John  Wy- 
clif,  i.  160-84,  translated  by  Lorimer;  but  cf. 
SHIRLEY,  Fasciculi  Zizaniorum,  pp.  513-28, 
Rolls  Ser.,  and  POOLE,  Wycliffe  and  Move- 
ments for  Reform ;  cf.  also  WYCLIFFE,  De 
Ecclesia,  pp.  370-1,  ed.  Loserth,  Wyclif  So- 
ciety). Islip  practically  sided  with  the  secu- 
lars. The  elaborate  statutes  for  the  college 
(printed  in  WILKINS,  iii.  52-8),  which  were- 
probably  drawn  up  by  him  at  this  time  as  a 
new  constitution,  substantially  contemplate 
a  secular  foundation,  based  on  the  rule  of 
Merton,  Islip's  old  college.  Wycliffe  only  re- 
tained office  for  the  rest  of  Islip's  life.  Arch- 
bishop Langham  [q.  v.]  restored  Woodhall, 
and  in  1370,  after  a  famous  suit,  the  pope's 
decision  converted  Islip's  foundation  into  a 
mere  appendage  at  Oxford  of  Christ  Church, 
Canterbury,  and  a  place  for  the  education  of 
the  Canterbury  monks.  It  was  finally  ab- 
sorbed byWolsey  and  Henry  VIII,  in  Cardinal 
College,  afterwards  Christ  Church,  Oxford. 

[Hook's  Archbishops  of  Canterbury,  iv.  111- 
162  ;  Wharton's  Anglia  Sacra,  vol.  i.,  especially 
Birchington's  Life,  pp.  43-6,  and  Dies  obituales, 
pp.  60-1  and  p.  119;  Sheppard's  Literse  Can- 
tuarienses,  Walsingham's  Hist.  Angl.,  both  in 
Rolls  Ser.;  Wilkins's  Concilia,  vol.  iii.;  Bymer's 
Fcedera, Record  ed. ;  Hist.  MSS.  Comm.,  5th Rep. ; 
Lewis's  Life  of  Wycliffe ;  Lechler's  John  Wyclif 
and  his  English  Precursors,  translated  by  Lo- 
rimer ;  Wood's  Hist,  and  Antiquities  of  Oxford, 
ed.  Gutch;  Lyte's  Hist,  of  the  University  of  Ox- 
ford ;  Le  Neve's  Fasti  Ecclesise  Anglicanse,  ed. 
Hardy;  Somner's  Canterbury,  ed.  Battely.] 

T.  F.  T. 

1657),  founder  of  the  modern  Jewish  com- 
munity in  England.  [See  MANASSEH  BEN 

ITE  (d.  569),  Irish  saint,  whose  name  also 
occurs  as  Ita,  Ida,  Ide,  Ytha,  Idea,  and  with 
the  prefix  mo,  mine,  as  Mide,  Mida,  Medea, 
is  the  patroness  of  Munster,  and  is  sometimes 
spoken  of  by  Irish  writers  as  the  Mary  of 
Munster.  Her  father,  Cennfoeladh,  and  her 
mother,  Necta,  were  both  of  the  tribe  of  the 
Deisi,  descendants  of  Feidhlimidh  Recht- 
mhuir,king  of  Ireland, who  had  marched  south 
from  Tara  and  conquered  for  themselves  a 
territory  in  the  south  of  Munster,  part  of  the 
present  county  of  Waterford.  When  grown 
up,  Ite  left  her  own  country  with  the  inten- 




tion  of  founding  a  religious  community, 
settled  at  Cluaincreadhail,  at  the  foot  of 
Sliabh  Luachra  (co.  Limerick),  and  she  be- 
came abbess  of  the  society  which  she  instituted 
there.  Her  abbey  has  disappeared,  and  the 
only  indication  of  its  site  is  her  name  in  the 
parochial  designation,  Killeedy  (Gill  Ite),  Ite's 
church.  The  baronies  of  Costello,  in  which 
this  parish  is  situated,  were  then  called 
Ua  Conaill  Gabhra,  and  the  O'Cuileans,  who 
then  ruled  it,  and  are  still  numerous  in  the 
district  under  the  Anglicised  name  Collins, 
gave  land  and  protection  to  the  saint.  She 
was  no  recluse,  but  took  part  in  the  public 
affairs  of  the  clan,  travelled  to  Clonmacnois 
(King's  County),  visited  St.  Comgan  when 
he  was  dying,  and  received  St.  Luchtighern 
and  St.  Laisrean.  The  Ua  Conaill  believed 
that  they  obtained  victory  by  her  prayers,  and 
many  legends  are  preserved  of  the  wonders 
performed  by  her  in  the  improvement  of  the 
wicked,  the  cure  of  the  sick,  and  the  breed- 
ing of  horses.  She  died  on  15  Jan.  569,  ap- 
parently of  hydatid  of  the  liver. 

[Colgan's  Acta  Sanct.  Hibernise,  1645,  p.  66  ; 
Martyrology  of  Donegal,  p.  17;  Reeves's  On  a 
MS.  Volume  of  Lives  of  Saints,  1877;  Annala 
Rioghachta  Eireann,  i.  207.]  N.  M. 

IVE,  PAUL  (fl.  1602),  writer  on  fortifi- 
cation, appears  to  have  been  a  member  of 
Corpus  Christi  College,  Cambridge,  in  1560, 
though  he  was  never  matriculated.  In  1597 
he  received  money  from  the  crown  for  the 
fortification  of  Falmouth  and  for  the  trans- 
portation of  prisoners  into  Spain.  In  January 
1601-2  he  was  employed  in  fortifying  the  isle 
of  Haulbowline,  near  Cork,  and  Castle  Ny 
Park,  to  command  the  haven  of  Kinsale. 

He  is  the  author  of:  1.  'Instructions  for 
the  warres,  Amply,  learnedly,  &  politiquely, 
discoursing  of  the  method  of  Militarie  Disci- 
pline,' from  the  French  of '  Generall,  Monsieur 
William  de  Bellay,  Lord  of  Langey,'  London, 
1589,  4to,  dedicated  to  Secretary  William 
Davison  [q.  v.]  2.  '  The  Practise  of  Fortifi- 
cation, in  all  sorts  of  scituations  ;  with  the 
considerations  to  be  used  in  declining  and 
making  of  Royal  Frontiers,  Skonces,  and 
renforcing  of  ould  walled  Townes,'  London, 
1589, 1599, 4to,  dedicated  to  William  Brooke, 
lord  Cobham,  and  Sir  Francis  Walsing- 
ham,  kt. 

[Masters's  Corpus  Christi  Coll.  ed.  Lamb; 
Pacata  Hiberniae,  p.  252;  Cooper's  Athense  Can- 
tabr.  ii.  241,  550;  Ames's  Typogr.  Antiq.  (Her- 
bert), p.  1243;  Dep.-Keeper's  Eecords,  4th  Rep., 
App.  ii.  172  ;  Addit.  MS.  5873,  f.  19.]  T.  C. 

IVE,  STMOX  (1600-1662),  musician, bap- 
tised at  Ware  in  Hertfordshire  20  July  1600, 
was  lay  vicar  of  St.  Paul's  Cathedral  until 

about  1653,  after  which  he  gave  lessons  in 
singing.  Wood  wrote :  '  He  was  excellent  at 
the  lyra-viol,  and  improved  it  by  excellent 
inventions.'  Upon  the  Restoration  Ive  was 
installed  as  eighth  minor  prebendary  of  St. 
Paul's  (1661).  He  died^at  Newgate^Street,  in 
the  parish  of  Christchurch,  London,"  on  1  July 
1662,  and  bequeathed  his  freehold  and  other 
property  in  Southwark  and  Moorfields  to  his 
daughter  Mary,  wife  of  Joseph  Body,  citizen 
and  joiner.  He  also  left  legacies  to  his  son 
Andrew,  and  to  relatives  in  Hertfordshire 
and  Essex.  A  son,  Simon,  also  a  musical  com- 
poser, was  student  of  Clare  Hall,  Cambridge, 
about  1644,  and  probably  died  early. 

Ive  was  chosen  by  Whitelock  to  co-operate 
with  Henry  Lawes  [q.  v.]  and  William  Lawes 
[q.  v.]  insetting  to  music  Shirley's  masque  the 
'  Triumph  of  Peace,'  which  was  performed  at 
Whitehall  in  February  1633-4  (ARBER,  Sta- 
tioners' Registers,  iv.  287).  Ive  was  paid  1001. 
for  his  share  of  the  work.  He  also  assisted 
Whitelock  in  the  composition  of  a  popular 
corante.  Among  his  vocal  compositions  are : 
'Si  Deus  nobiscum,' canon  a  3  (in  Warren's 
' Collection'  and  Hullah's  'Vocal  Scores,'  p. 
154) ;  '  Lament  and  Mourn,'  a  3 ;  an  '  Elegy 
on  the  Death  of  William  Lawes '  (in  Lawes's 
'  Choice  Psalms,'  1638) :  several  numbers  in 
Playford's '  Select  Ayres  and  Dialogues,'  1669 ; 
catches  (in  Hilton's  '  Catch  that  catch  can,' 
1652 ;  Playford's '  Musical  Companion,'  1672; 
and  Additional  MS.  11608,  fol.  74  b).  His 
instrumental  works  include  twelve  pieces  in 
'  Musick's  Recreation  on  the  Lyra-viol,'  1652, 
'  Court  Ayres,'  1655,  and  '  Musick's  Recrea- 
tion on  the  Viol,  Lyra-way,'  1661 ;  seventeen 
fantasias  for  two  basses  (in  the  handwriting 
of  J.  Jenkins  [q.  v.],  Addit.  MS.  31424),  and 
fantasias,  almain,  pavan  (Addit.  MSS.  17792 
and  31423).  He  also  set  the  collect  of  the 
Feast  of  the  Purification  to  music  (CLIFFORD, 
Divine  Services).  Ive  bequeathed  a  '  set  of 
fancies  and  In  Nomines  of  (his)  own  com- 
position of  four,  five,  and  six  parts'  to  the 
petty  canons  of  St.  Paul's,  in  addition  to 
'one  chest  of  violls,  of  Thomas  Aired  his 
making,  wherein  are  three  tenors,  one  base, 
and  two  trebles ;  also  another  base  that  one 
Muskett  his  man  made.' 

[Hawkins's  Hist,  of  Music,  iii.  770;  Burney's 
Hist,  of  Music,  iii.  369-79,  quoting  Whitelock ; 
Diet,  of  Musicians,  1827.  p.  401 ;  Grove's  Diet, 
of  Music,  ii.  26  ;  Anthony  a  Wood's  manuscript 
notes  (Bodleian) ;  P.  C.  C.  Registers  of  Wills, 
Laud,  fol.  97;  Malcolm's  Londinium  Redivivum, 
iii.  27.]  L.  M.  M. 

IVE  or  IVY,  WILLIAM  (d.  1485), 
theologian,  studied  at  Magdalen  College, 
Oxford,  and  was  afterwards  a  fellow  and  lec- 
turer in  theology  there.  He  was  head-master 




at  Winchester  College  from  1444  to  1454 
{Hist. of  the  Colleges  of  Winchester,  #c.,p.  51). 
In  1461-2,  before  which  date  he  had  gradu- 
ated D.D.,Ivewas  commissary  or  vice-chan- 
cellor for  George  Neville,  the  chancellor  of  the 
university.  A  number  of  documents  relating 
to  his  tenure  of  this  office  are  printed  in  the 
'  Munimenta  Academica '  (ii.  683-4,  693, 
697, 757,  Rolls  Ser.)  On  29  Jan.  1463  he  was 
appointed  rector  of  Appleby,  Lincolnshire, 
and  on  21  July  1464  master  of  Whitting- 
ton's  College  at  St.  Michael  Royal,  London, 
which  post  he  resigned  before  1470  (NEW- 
COURT,  Repertorium,  i.  493).  He  was  a  canon 
residentiary  of  Salisbury,  and  on  21  Aug.  1470 
was  made  chancellor  of  the  diocese.  Tanner 
says  he  was  also  canon  of  St.  Paul's,  and  for 
some  time  held  the  church  of  Brikkelworth. 
He  was  dead  by  8  Feb.  1485. 

Ive  wrote :  1.  '  Praelectiones  contra  hsere- 
sim  fratris  Johannis  Mylverton.'  These  lec- 
tures, four  in  number,  were  delivered  at  St. 
Paul's,  apparently  at  the  end  of  1465.  Myl- 
verton was  a  Carmelite  who  had  defended 
the  Mendicant  Friars.  The  first  two  lectures 
had  for  their  subject '  quod  Christ  us  in  per- 
sona sua  nunquam  proprie  mendicavit '  (styled 
by  Bale '  De  Mendicitate  Christ! ').  The  third 
is '  De  Sacerdotio  Christi,'  and  the  fourth '  De 
Excellentia  Christi.'  The  manuscript  was  in 
Bernard's  time  in  the  royal  library  at  West- 
minster (Cut.  MSS.  AnffL,  'MSS.  in  ^Edibus 
Jacobaeis,'  No.  8033).  The  manuscript  does 
not,  however,  appear  in  Casley's  '  Catalogue 
of  the  Royal  MSS.'  thirty  years  later,  and  it 
seems  to  have  now  disappeared .  Tanner  gives 
a  description  of  the  manuscript.  2.  '  Lec- 
tura  Oxonii  habita  9  Feb.  contra  mendicita- 
tem  Christi.'  This  appears  to  have  been  in 
the  same  manuscript.  Bale  also  gives,  3.  '  In 
Minores  Prophetas.'  4.  'De  Christi Dominio.' 
6.  '  Sermones  ad  Clerum.'  6.  '  Determina- 
tiones.'  New  College,  Oxford,  MS.  32  was  pre- 
sented by  Ive.  It  contains  the  commentary 
of  Peter  Lombard  on  the  Psalms.  Ive  was 
also  the  owner  of  Magd.  Coll.  Oxford  MS.  98. 

[Bale,  viii.  31 ;  Pits,  p.  654  ;  Tanner's  Bibl, 
Brit.-Hib.  p.  447 ;  Wood's  Hist,  and  Antiq.  Univ 
Qxon.  i.  622,  626.  The  writer  has  also  to  thank 
Mr.  "Ward,  of  the  British  Museum,  for  an  endea- 
vour to  trace  Ive's  manuscript.]  C.  L.  K. 

IVES,  EDWARD  (d.  1786),  surgeon  anc 
traveller,  served  in  the  navy  as  surgeon  o: 
the  Namur  in  the  Mediterranean  from  1744 
to  1746,  and  returned  to  England  in  the 
Yarmouth.  He  was  afterwards  for  some  time 
employed  by  the  commissioners  for  sick  anc 
wounded,  and  from  1753  to  1757  was  surgeon 
of  the  Kent,  bearing  the  flag  of  Vice-admira 
Charles  Wat  son  [q.v.]  as  commander- in-chie 

n  the  East  Indies.  On  the  admiral's  death 
n  August  1757,  his  own  health  being  some- 
what impaired,  he  resigned  his  appointment, 
ind  travelled  home  overland  from  Bassorah, 
;hrough  Baghdad,  Mosul,  and  Aleppo,  thence 
>y  Cyprus,  to  Leghorn  and  Venice,  and  so 
lome  through  Germany  and  Holland,  arriving 
nEngland  in  March  1759.  He  had  no  further 
service  in  the  navy,  but  continued  on  the  half- 
mylist  till  1777,  when  he  was  superannuated. 
During  his  later  years  he  resided  at  Titch- 
leld  in  Hampshire,  dividing  his  time,  appa- 
rently, between  literature  and  farming.  He 
died  at  Bath  on  25  Sept.  1786  (Gent.  Mag. 
1786,  vol.  Ivi.  pt.  ii.  p.  908).  In  1773  he  pub- 
.ished  '  A  Voyage  from  England  to  India  in 
she  year  1754,  and  an  Historical  Narrative 
of  the  Operations  of  the  Squadron  and  Army 
in  India,  under  the  command  of  Vice-admiral 
Watson  and  Colonel  Clive,  in  the  years  1755- 
1756-7 ;  .  .  .  also  a  Journey  from  Persia  to 
England  by  an  unusual  Route.'  Ives's  pre- 
sence at  many  of  the  transactions  which  he 
describes  and  his  personal  intimacy  with 
Watson  give  his  historical  narrative  an  un- 
usual importance,  and  his  accounts  of  the 
manners  and  customs  of  the  inhabitants,  and 
of  the  products  of  the  countries  he  visited, 
are  those  of  an  enlightened  and  acute  ob- 
server. Ives  married  about  1751  Ann,  daugh- 
ter of  Richard  Roy  of  Titchfield,  by  whom 
he  had  issue  a  daughter,  Eliza,  and  three 
sons,  the  eldest  of  whom,  Edward  Otto,  was 
in  Bengal  at  the  time  of  his  father's  death ; 
the  second,  Robert  Thomas,  had  just  been 
appointed  to  a  writership ;  the  third,  John 
Richard,  seems  to  have  been  still  a  child  (will 
in  Somerset  House,  29  March  1780,  proved 
in  London,  1787).  Mention  is  also  made  of  a 
sister,  Gatty  Ives. 

[Beyond  his  own  narrative,  nothing  is  known 
of  his  life,  except  the  bare  mention  of  his  ap- 
pointments in  the  official  books  preserved  in  the 
Public  Eecord  Office.]  J.  K.  L. 

IVES,  JEREMIAH  (^.  1653-1674), 
general  baptist,  came  of  a  family  afterwards 
connected  with  Norwich,  but  originally  of 
Bourn,  Lincolnshire.  Probably  he  is  the 
'  brother  Ives '  whom  Henry  Denne  [q.  v.] 
and  Christopher  Marriat  sought  in  vain  at 
Littlebury,  Essex,  on  8  Nov.  1653,  in  order 
'  to  require  satisfaction  of  him  concerning 
his  preaching  at  that  place.'  He  was  at 
this  time,  if  Crosby's  vague  statement  may 
be  trusted,  '  pastor  of  a  baptised  congre- 
gation '  which  met  somewhere  in  the  Old 
Jewry.  Crosby  says  he  held  this  office  '  be- 
tween thirty  and  forty  years.'  A  self-taught 
scholar,  he  exercised  his  remarkable  contro- 
versial powers  in  defence  of  adult  baptism. 



and  against  quakers  and  Sabbatarians.  For 
a  time  he  shared  the  quaker  objection  to  oath- 
taking.  For  refusing  in  January  1661  the 
oath  of  allegiance  he  was  thrown  into  prison 
in  London,  whence  he  wrote  a  letter  to  two 
of  his  friends  reproaching  them  for  taking  the 
oath.  After  five  days'  incarceration  he  took 
the  oath  himself,  and  published  a  book  to 

Erove  some  oaths  lawful,  though  not  all. 
ater  he  held  a  disputation  with  a  '  Komish 
priest'  at  the  bidding  and  in  presence  of 
Charles  II.  Ives  was  habited  as  an  anglican 
clergyman,  but  his  opponent,  finding  at 
length  that  he  had  to  deal  with  '  an  ana- 
baptist preacher,'  refused  to  continue  the 
argument.  Among  his  own  people  he  was 
highly  esteemed.  His  latest  known  publi- 
cation is  an  appendix  to  a  report  of  dis- 
cussions held  on  9  and  16  Oct.  1674,  and  he 
is  supposed  to  have  died  in  the  following 

He  published:  1.  'Infants-baptism  Dis- 
proved,' &c.,  1655,  4to  (in  answer  to  Alex- 
ander Kellie).  2.  '  The  Quakers  Quaking,' 
&c.,  1656  ?  (answered  by  James  Nayler  [q.v.] 
in  '  Weaknes  above  Wickednes,'  &c.,  1656, 
4to).  3.  '  Innocency  above  Impudency,'  &c., 
1656,  4to  (reply  to  Nayler).  4.  '  Confidence 
Questioned,'  &c.,  1658,  4to  (against  Thomas 
Willes).  5.  '  Confidence  Encountred  ;  or, 
a  Vindication  of  the  Lawfulness  of  Preaching 
without  Ordination,'  &c.,  1658,  4to  (answer 
to  Willes).  6.  '  Saturday  no  Sabbath,'  &c., 
1659,  12mo  (account  of  his  discussions  with 
Peter  Chamberlen,  M.D.  [q.  v.],  Thomas 
Tillam,  and  Coppinger).  7.  '  Eighteen  Ques- 
tions,' &c.,  1659,  4to  (on  government). 

8.  '  The  Great  Case  of  Conscience   opened 
.  .  .  about  .  .  .  Swearing,'  &c.,  1660,  4to. 

9.  '  A  Contention  for  Truth,'  &c.,  1672,  4to 
(two  discussions  with  Thomas  Danson  [q.v.]). 

10.  'A  Sober  Request,'  &c.,  1674  (broadside; 
answered  by  William  Penn).     11.  'William 
Penn's  Confutation  of  a  Quaker,'  &c.,  1674  ? 
(answered  in  William   Shewen's  '  William 
Penn  and  the  Quaker  in  Unity,'  &c.,  1674, 
4to).    12.  '  Some  Reflections,'  &c.,  appended 
to  Thomas  Plant's  'A  Contest  for  Chris- 
tianity,' &c.,  1674,  8vo.     The  British  Mu- 
seum Catalogue    suggests  that  Ives  wrote 
'  Strength-weakness ;  or,  the  Burning  Bush 
not  consumed  ...  by  J.  J.,'  &c.,  1655,  4to. 

[Sewel's  Hist,  of  the  Quakers,  1725,  pp.  504 
sq. ;  Crosby's  Hist,  of  the  Baptists,  1739  ii. 
308,  1740  iv.  247  sq.;  Wilson's  Diss.  Churches 
of  London,  1808,  ii.  302, 444  sq.;  Ivimey's  Hist, 
of  Engl.  Baptists,  1814,  ii.  603  sq. ;  Wood's  Hist, 
of  Gen.  Baptists,  1847,  p.  140  ;  Records  of  Fen- 
stanton  (Hanserd  Knollys  Society),  1854,  xxvi. 
77  ;  Smith's  Bibliotheca  Anti-Quakeriana,  1873, 
pp.  243  sq.,  362.J  A.  G. 

IVES,  JOHN  (1751-1776),  Suffolk  herald 
extraordinary,  born  at  Great  Yarmouth  in 
1751,  was  the  only  son  of  John  Ives,  an  opu- 
lent merchant  of  that  town,  by  Mary,  daugh- 
ter of  John  Hannot.  He  was  educated  in. 
the  free  school  of  Norwich,  and  was  subse- 
quently entered  at  Caius  College,  Cambridge, 
where  he  did  not  long  reside.  Returning 
to  Yarmouth,  he  became  acquainted  with 
'  honest  Tom  Martin'  of  Palgrave,  from  whom 
he  derived  a  taste  for  antiquarian  studies. 
He  was  elected  F.S.A.  in  1771,  and  F.R.S. 
in  1772.  His  first  attempt  at  antiquarian 
publication  was  by  the  issuing  of  proposals, 
anonymously,  in  1771,  for  printing '  The  His- 
tory and  Antiquities  of  the  Hundred  of 
Lothingland  in  the  County  of  Suffolk,'  for 
which  several  arms  and  monuments  were  en- 
graved from  his  own  drawings.  The  work 
never  appeared,  but  a  manuscript  copy  of  it 
is  preserved  in  the  British  Museum  (Addit. 
MS.  19098).  His  next  performance  was  'A 
True  Copy  of  the  Register  of  Baptisms  and 
Burials  in  ...  Yarmouth,  for  seven  year* 
past,'  printed  at  his  private  press  5  Sept. 
1772.  He  contributed  the  preface  to  Henry 
Swinden's  '  History  and  Antiquities  of  Great 
Yarmouth,'  1772."  Swinden,  who  was  a 
schoolmaster,  was  an  intimate  friend  of  Ivesr 
who  not  only  rendered  him  pecuniary  as- 
sistance when  living,  but  superintended  the 
publication  of  the  history  for  the  benefit  of 
the  author's  widow. 

In  1772  he  had  nine  wooden  plates  cut  of 
old  Norfolk  seals,  entitled  '  Sigilla  antiqua 
Norfolciensia ; '  and  a  copper-plate  portrait  of 
Thomas  Martin,  afterwards  prefixed  to  that 
antiquary's  '  History  of  Thetford,'  was  en- 
graved at  his  expense.  By  favour  of  the  Earl 
of  Suffolk,  he  was  in  October  1774  appointed 
an  honorary  member  of  the  College  of  Arms, 
and  created  Suffolk  herald  extraordinary, 
which  title  was  expressly  revived  for  him 
(NOBLE,  Hist,  of  the  College  of  Arms,  p.  445). 

In  imitation  of  Horace  Walpole  (to  whom, 
the  first  number  was  inscribed),  Ives  began 
in  1773  to  publish  'Select  Papers  chiefly 
relating  to  English  Antiquities,'  from  his 
own  collection,  of  which  the  second  number 
was  printed  in  1774  and  a  third  in  1775. 
Among  these  are  'Remarks  upon  our  English 
Coins,  from  the  Norman  Invasion  down  to 
the  end  of  the  Reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth,' 
by  Archbishop  Sharp;  Sir  William  Dug- 
dale's  '  Directions  for  the  Search  of  Records, 
and  making  use  of  them,  in  order  to  an  His- 
torical Discourse  of  the  Antiquities  of  Staf- 
fordshire;' with  'Annals  of  Gonville  and 
Caius  College,  Cambridge,'  and  the  '  Coro- 
nation of  Henry  VII  and  of  Queen  Elizabeth.' 
In  1774  he  published  'Remarks  upon  the 




Garianonum  of  the  Romans ;  the  Scite  and 
Remains  fixed  and  described,'  London,  8vo, 
with  map  and  plates  ;  2nd  edit.,  Yarmouth, 

1803.  He  died  of  consumption,  9  June  1776, 
having  just  entered  on  his  twenty-fifth  year, 
and  was  buried  with  his  father  and  grand- 
father at  Belton,  Suffolk,  where  a  monument 
was  erected  to  his  memory  with  a  Latin  in- 
scription which  has  been  printed  by  Dawson 
Turner  (Sepulchral  Reminiscences  of  a  Market 
Town,  p.   128).     His  library  was  sold  by 
auction  3-6   March   1777,  including  some 
curious  manuscripts,  chiefly  relating  to  Suf- 
folk and  Norfolk,  that  had  belonged  to  Peter 
Le  Neve,  Thomas  Martin,  and  Francis  Blome- 
field.     His  coins,  medals,  ancient  paintings, 
and  antiquities  were  sold  in  February  1777. 
Two  portraits  of  him  have  been  engraved. 
One  of  them,  engraved  by  P.  Audinet  from 
a  drawing  by  Perry,  is  in  Nichols's '  Illustra- 
tions of  Literature.' 

In  August  1773  Ives  eloped  with  Sarah, 
daughter  of  Wade  Kett  of  Lopham,  Norfolk, 
and  married  her  at  Lambeth  Church,  16  Aug. 
1773.  A  temporary  estrangement  from  his 
father  followed.  His  wife  survived  him,  and 
married,  on  7  June  1796,  the  Rev.  D.  Davies, 
B.D.,  prebendary  of  Chichester. 

[Memoir  by  the  Eev.  Sir  John  Cullum,  bart., 
prefixed  to  2nd  edit,  of  Remarks  upon  the  Ga- 
rianonum of  the  Komans  ;  Gent.  Mag.  Ivii.  275,  j 
hriii.  575;  Granger's  Letters  (Malcolm),  pp.  101, 
296;  Lowndes's  Bibl.  Man.  (Bohn),  p.  1174; 
Nichols's  Illustr.  of  Lit.  iii.  608,  609;  Nichols's 
Lit.  Anecd.  iii.  198,  199,  200,  622,  756,  v.  386- 
389,  vi.  93  ;  Thorpe's  Cat.  of  Ancient  MSS. 
<1835),No.  869.]  T.C. 

IVIE,  EDWARD  (1678-1745),  Latin 
poet,  born  in  1678,  was  admitted  a  founda- 
tion scholar  of  Westminster  School  in  1692, 
and  was  elected  in  1696  to  a  scholarship  at 
Christ  Church,  Oxford,  where  he  graduated 
B.A.  in  1700  and  M.A.  in  1702.  After 
taking  orders  he  was  appointed  chaplain  to 
Dr.  Smalridge,  bishop  of  Bristol.  He  was 
instituted  on  27  March  1717  to  the  vicarage 
of  Floore,  Northamptonshire,  where  he  died 
on  11  June  1745,  aged  67. 

He  was  well  known  to  scholars  by  his 
*  Epicteti  Enchiridion,  Latinisversibus  adum- 
bratum,'  Oxford,  1715,  8vo;  1723,  8vo;  re- 
printed, with  Simpson's  '  Epictetus,'  Oxford, 

1804,  8vo,  which  was  undertaken  on  the 
idvice  of  Bishop  Smalridge,  to  whom  it  is 
ledicated.  Ivie  also  contributed  'Articuli 

5acis,'  a  poem,  to  the  '  Examen  Poeticum,' 


[Gent.  Mag.  xv.  332  ;  Baker's  Northampton- 
lire,  i.  157;  Welch's  Alumni  Westmon.  (Philli- 
ore),  pp.  222,  231;  Cat.  of  Oxford  Graduates; 
owndes's  Bibl.  Man.  (Bohn),  p.  745.]  T.  C. 


IVIMEY,  JOSEPH  (1773-1834),  baptist 
minister  and  historian,  eldest  of  eight  chil- 
dren of  Charles  Ivimey  (d.  24  Oct.  1820)  by 
his  wife  Sarah  Tilly  (d.  1830),  was  born  at 
Ringwood,  Hampshire,  on  22  May  1773. 
His  father  was  a  tailor,  of  spendthrift  habits. 
Ivimey  was  brought  up  under  Arian  influ- 
ences, but  his  convictions  led  him  towards 
the  Calvinistic  baptists,  and  on  16  Sept. 
1790  he  received  adult  baptism  from  John 
Saffery  at  Wimborne,  Dorsetshire.  He  fol- 
lowed his  father's  trade  at  Lymington, 
Hampshire,  whither  he  removed  on  4  June 
1791.  In  April  1793  he  sought  employment 
in  London  ;  he  finally  left  Lymington  in 
1794  for  Portsea,  Hampshire.  Here  he  be- 
came an  itinerant  preacher,  visiting  in  this 
capacity  many  towns  in  the  district.  Early 
in  1803  he  was  recognised  as  a  minister,  and 
settled  as  assistant  to  one  Lovegrove  at 
Wallingford,  Berkshire.  He  was  chosen 
pastor  of  the  particular  baptist  church,  Eagle 
Street,  Holborn,  on  21  Oct.  1804,  and  was  or- 
dained on  16  Jan.  1805.  From  1812  he  acted 
on  the  committee  of  the  Baptist  Missionary 
Society.  On  19  April  1814  the  Baptist  So- 
ciety for  Promoting  the  Gospel  in  Ireland 
was  formed.  Ivimey  was  the  first  secretary 
(an  honorary  office) ;  he  visited  Ireland  in 
May  1814,  and  retained  the  secretaryship  till 
3  Oct.  1833.  In  181 7,  and  again  in  1819,  he 
made  missionary  journeys  to  the  Channel 
islands.  At  Portsea,  on  18  Aug.  1820,  his 
father  and  mother  received  adult  baptism  at 
his  hands.  He  was  a  conscientious  minister, 
but  his  strictness  caused  in  1827  a  secession 
of  some  fifty  or  sixty  members  from  his 
church.  His  views  on  religious  liberty  were 
not  equal  to  the  strain  of  Roman  catholic 
emancipation ;  on  this  ground  he  had  opposed 
the  repeal  of  the  Test  and  Corporation  Acts, 
and  at  length  separated  himself  from  the 
'  three  denominations,'  after  their  meeting  at 
Dr.  Williams's  Library  on  20  Jan.  1829,  to 
promote  the  emancipation  of  Roman  catho- 
lics. He  warmly  advocated  the  abolition 
of  colonial  slavery ;  and,  to  commemorate 
the  abolition,  foundation-stones  of  Sunday- 
school  premises  and  almshouses,  in  connec- 
tion with  Eagle  Street  Church,  were  laid  on 
12  Nov.  1833.  Ivimey  died  on  8  Feb.  1834, 
and  was  buried  on  15  Feb.  at  Bunhill  Fields. 
A  tablet  to  his  memory  was  placed  in  the 
boys'  schoolroom  at  Eagle  Street.  He  mar- 
ried, first,  on  7  July  1795,  Sarah  Bramble 
(d.  1806),  by  whom  he  had  two  sons  and 
four  daughters :  a  son  and  daughter  survived 
him ;  secondly,  on  7  Jan.  1808,  Anne  Price 
(d.  22  Jan.  1820),  a  widow  (whose  maiden 
name  was  Spence)  with  three  children :  by 
her  he  had  no  issue. 


Ivo  82 


Ivitney  was  a  rapid  -writer,  and  from  1808, 
when  he  began  to  publish,  a  very  prolific 
one.  His  historical  account  of  English  bap- 
tists was  projected  in  1809,  primarily  with  a 
biographical  aim.  The  work  swelled  to  four 
volumes  8vo  (1811-30),  and  contains  a  great 
deal  of  information,  to  be  used  with  caution. 
George  Gould  [q.  v.]  has  severely  criticised 
its  '  blunders  and  contradictions,'  asserting 
that  Ivimey  is  apt  to  get  into  '  a  maze  of 
mistakes '  except  when  he  follows  Crosby. 

Other  of  his  publications  are:  1.  'The 
History  of  Hannah,'  £c.,  1808, 12mo.  2.  '  A 
Brief  Sketch  of  the  History  of  Dissenters,' 
&c.,  1810, 12mo.  3.  'A  Plea  for  the  Protestant 
Canon  of  Scripture,'  &c.,  1825, 8vo.  4.  'The 
Life  of  Mr.  John  Bunyan,'  &c.,  1825,  12mo. 
5.  '  Communion  at  the  Lord's  Table,'  &c., 
1826,  8vo  (against  open  communion,  in  reply 
to  Robert  Hall).  6.  '  Pilgrims  of  the  Nine- 
teenth Century,'  &c.,  1827,  12mo  (intended 
as  a  continuation  of  Bunyan's  '  Pilgrim's 
Progress ').  7.  '  Letters  on  the  Serampore 
Controversy,'  &c.,  1831,  8vo.  8.  'The 
Triumph  of  the  Bible  in  Ireland,'  &c.,  1832, 
8vo.  9.  '  The  utter  Extinction  of  Slavery,' 
&c.,  1832,  8vo.  10.  'John  Milton ;  his  Life 
and  Times,'  &c.,  1833,  8vo ;  republished  in 
America.  Also  many  single  sermons  and 
tracts,  including  funeral  sermons  for  Wil- 
liam Button  and  Daniel  Humphrey  (both 
1821) ;  memoirs  of  Caleb  Vernon  (1811), 
"William  Fox  of  the  Sunday  School  Society 
(1831),  and  William  Kiffin  (1833) ;  and  anti- 
papal  pamphlets  (1819,  1828,  1829).  He 
contributed  to  the  '  Baptist  Magazine '  from 
1809,  using  generally  the  signature  '  Iota ; ' 
from  1812  he  was  one  of  the  editors.  He 
edited,  among  other  works,  the  4th  edition, 
1827, 12mo,  of  'Persecution  for  Religion,'  by 
Thomas  Helwys  [q.  v.],  originally  published 
1615;  Bunyan's 'Pilgrim's  Progress  .  .  .  with 
.  .  .  Notes,'  &c.,  1821,  12mo,  and  the  1692 
'Life  of  ...  John  Bunyan,'  &c.,  1832,  12mo. 

[Memoir,  by  George  Pritchard,  1835;  Monthly 
Repository,  1829,  pp.  426  sq. ;]  Gould's  Open  Com- 
munion, 1860,  pp.  xcvii  sq.]  A.  G. 

IVO  OP  GBANTMEsifiL  (fl.  1101),  crusader. 
[See  under  HUGH,  d.  1094,  called  of  Grant- 

IVOR  HAEL,  or  the  GENEROUS  (d.  1361), 
patron  of  Welsh  literature,  and  particularly 
of  his  nephew,  the  poet  Dafydd  ap  Gwilym 
[q.  v.],  was  lord  of  Maesaleg  (Bassaleg),  Y 
Wenallt,  and  Gwernycleppa  in  Monmouth- 
shire, being  the  second  son  of  Llewelyn  ab 
Ivor  of  Tredegar,  by  Angharad,  daughter  of 
Sir  Morgan  ab  Meredith.  He  married  Nest, 
daughter  of  Rhys  ab  Grono  ab  Llywarch  (his 
elder  brother,  Morgan,  marrying  her  sister), 

and  founded  the  cadet  branch  of  Gwerny- 
cleppa. He  died  in  1361,  and  it  is  often  er- 
roneously stated  that  he  left  no  issue  behind 
him  (Sarddoniaeth,  ed.  Jones,  p.  vi),  but 
he  had  a  long  line  of  descendants,  in  whose 
possession  Gwernycleppa  remained  until  it 
was  sold,  15  Oct.  1733,  to  a  descendant  of 
Ivor's  elder  brother,  from  whom  Lord  Tre- 
degar claims  descent. 

Ivor  is  the  hero  of  much  absurd  fiction. 
Dafydd  ap  Gwilym  is  said  to  have  fallen  in 
love  with  his  daughter,  who  was  sent  to  a 
nunnery  in  Anglesey  in  order  to  prevent  an 
alliance,  while  Dafydd  was  still  retained  in 
Ivor's  household  as  family  bard  and  land 
steward.  This  story  is,  however,  probably 
based  upon  a  mistaken  interpretation  of  some 
of  Dafydd's  poems.  Under  Ivor's  patronage 
was  held,  about  1328,  at  Gwernycleppa  the 
first  of  the  '  three  Eisteddfods  of  the  Renas- 
cence'of  Welsh  poetry  (Tair  Eisteddfod  Da- 

At  least  nine  poems  were  addressed  by 
Dafydd  ap  Gwilym  to  Ivor  and  members  of 
his  family,  and  the  same  poet  wrote  elegies 
on  the  death  of  Ivor  and  Nest,  his  wife. 

[Clark's  Genealogies  of  Glamorgan,  pp.  310, 
329 ;  Barddoniaeth  Dafydd  ap  Gwilym,  ed.  Jones, 
Introduction;  Llenddiaeth  y  Cymry,  byGweirydd. 
ab  Khys.]  D.  LL.  T. 

IVORY,  SAETC  (d.  500?).  [See  IBHAK. 
or  IBEBIUS.] 

IVORY,  SIK  JAMES  (1765-1842),  mathe- 
matician, born  in  Dundee  in  1765,  was  the 
eldest  son  of  James  Ivory,  a  watchmaker  there. 
At  the  age  of  fourteen  he  matriculated  at  St. 
Andrews  University,  and  after  six  years'  study 
with  a  view  to  becoming  a  minister  of  the 
Scottish  Church,  went  to  Edinburgh  to  com- 
plete his  theological  course,  accompanied  by 
John  (afterwards  Sir  John)  Leslie  (1766- 
1832)  [q.  T.],  a  fellow-student  at  Aberdeen, 
who  like  himself  had  already  evinced  a  strong 
mathematical  bias.  Ivory  returned  to  Dundee 
in  1786,  and  for  three  years  taught  in  the 
principal  school,  introducing  the  study  of 
algebra,  and  raising  the  standard  of  general 
instruction.  He  afterwards  joined  in  starting 
a  flax-spinning  mill  at  Douglastown,  on  the 
Carbet,  near  Forfar,  and  acted  as  managing 
partner.  Ivory  devoted  all  his  leisure  to  ma- 
thematical work,  especially  to  analysis  as  it 
was  then  taught  on  the  continent,  and  Henry 
Brougham,  at  the  time  a  young  advocate,  cul- 
tivated his  acquaintance,  and  visited  him  at 
Brigton,  near  the  flax-factory,  when  on  his 
way  to  the  Aberdeen  circuit.  Four  mathe- 
matical papers  of  his,  the  first  dated  7  Nov. 
1796,  were  read  to  the  Royal  Society  of  Edin- 


burgh  at  this  time,  on  rectifying  the  ellipse, 
solution  of  a  cubic,  and  of  Kepler's  problem, 
&c.  (Edinb.  Roy.  Soc.  Trans,  iv.  177-90,  v. 
20-2,  99-118,  203-46). 

The  flax-spinning  partnership  was  dissolved 
in  1804,  and  soon  afterwards  Ivory  was  ap- 
pointed professor  of  mathematics  in  the  Royal 
Military  College,  then  at  Marlow,  Bucking- 
hamshire, and  subsequently  removed  to  Sand- 
hurst. His  work  at  the  Royal  Military  Col- 
lege was  thorough  and  successful,  though  the 
higher  parts  of  the  science  were  considered  by 
some  to  absorb  too  much  of  his  attention.  He 
prepared  an  edition  of  Euclid's  '  Elements '  for 
military  students,  which  simplified  the  geo- 
metrical treatment  of  proportion  and  solids. 
Resigning  his  professorship  in  1819,  he  was 
allowed  the  full  retiring  pension,  although 
his  period  of  office  was  shorter  than  the  rule 

Ivory's  skill  in  applying  the  infinitesimal 
calculus  to  physical  investigations  gave  him 
a  place  beside  Laplace,  Lagrange,  and  Le- 
gendre.  In  1809  Ivory  read  his  first  paper 
to  the  Royal  Society,  enouncing  a  theorem 
which  has  since  borne  his  name,  and  which 
completely  resolves  the  problem  of  attractions 
for  all  classes  of  ellipsoids.  Ivory's  theorem 
was  received  on  the  continent  '  with  respect 
and  admiration.'  He  received  three  gold 
medals  from  the  Royal  Society,  of  which  he 
was  elected  fellow  in  1815:  viz.  the  Copley, 
in  1814,  after  showing  a  new  method  of  deter- 
mining a  comet's  orbit ;  the  royal  medal,  in 
1826,  for  a  paper  on  refractions,  which  was 
acknowledged  by  Laplace  to  evince  masterly 
skill  in  analysis ;  and  the  royal  medal  a 
second  time  in  1839,  for  his  '  Theory  of  As- 
tronomical Refractions,'  which  formed  the 
Bakerian  lecture  of  1838.  Fifteen  papers 
by  Ivory  are  printed  in  the  'Philosophical 
Transactions.'  All  are  characterised  by  clear- 
ness and  elegance  in  the  methods  employed 
(Phil.  Trans.  1812,  1814,  1822,  1824,  1831, 
1832, 1833, 1838, 1842;  TILLOCH,  Phil.  Mag. 
1821,  &c. ;  Quarterly  Journal  of  Science,  1822, 

In  1831,  on  the  recommendation  of  Lord 
Brougham,  then  lord  chancellor,  Ivory  re- 
ceived the  honour  of  knighthood,  in  company 
with  Herschel  and  Brewster,  and  his  civil 
list  pension  was  at  the  same  time  raised  to 
300J.  a  year.  Ivory  was  elected  member  of 
the  Royal  Academy  of  Sciences  of  France, 
the  Royal  Academy  of  Berlin,  and  the  Royal 
Society  of  Gottingen. 

In  1829  he  made  an  offer  of  his  scientific 
library  to  the  corporation  of  Dundee,  his 
native  town,  and  as  there  was  then  no  public 
building  suitable  for  the  purpose,  James,  lord 
Ivory  [q.  v.],  his  nephew  and  heir,  kept  the 

3  Ivory 

books  in  his  own  collection,  until  his  death 
in  1866,  when  they  became  part  of  the  Dun- 
dee public  library  in  the  Albert  Institute. 
Ivory  died  unmarried  at  Hampstead,  London, 
on  21  Sept.  1842. 

[Nome's  Dundee  Celebrities,  p.  70 ;  Weld's 
Hist.  Koy.  Soc.  pp.  570,  573 ;  private  informa- 
tion.] K.  E.  A. 

1866),  Scottish  judge,  son  of  Thomas  Ivory, 
watchmaker  and  engraver,  was  born  in  Dun- 
dee in  1792.  Sir  James  Ivory  [q.  v.]  the 
mathematician  was  his  uncle.  After  at- 
tending the  Dundee  academy  he  studied  for 
the  legal  profession  at  Edinburgh  University, 
was  admitted  a  member  of  the  Faculty  of 
Advocates  in  1816,  and  in  that  year  was  en- 
rolled as  a  burgess  of  his  native  town.  When, 
in  1819,  the  select  committee  of  the  House  of 
Commons  was  engaged  in  making  inquiries 
into  the  state  of  the  Scottish  burghs,  Ivory 
was  examined  with  reference  to  the  municipal 
condition  of  Dundee,  and  strongly  advocated 
the  abolition  of  self-election,  which  was  then 
prevalent  in  the  town  councils  of  Scotland, 
and  continued  in  force  till  1833.  Ivory  was 
chosen  advocate-depute  by  Francis  Jeffrey, 
lord  advocate,  in  1830;  two  years  afterwards 
he  was  appointed  sheriff  of  Caithness,  and 
in  1833  was  transferred  to  a  similar  office  in 
Buteshire.  He  was  solicitor-general  of  Scot- 
land under  Lord  Melbourne's  ministry  in 
1839,  was  made  a  lord-ordinary  of  session  in 
the  following  year,  and  sat  as  j  udge  in  the 
court  of  exchequer.  In  1 849  he  was  appointed 
a  lord  of  justiciary  (taking  the  title  of  Lord 
Ivory),  and  served  both  in  the  court  of  ses- 
sion and  the  high  court  of  justiciary  until  his 
retirement  in  October  1862.  For  several  years 
before  that  date  he  was  the  senior  judge  of 
both  courts.  Ivory  died  at  Edinburgh  on 
18  Oct.  1866.  He  married,  in  1817,  a  daugh- 
ter of  Alexander  Lawrie,  deputy  gazette 
writer  for  Scotland.  His  eldest  son,  William 
Ivory,  has  long  been  sheriff  of  Inverness-shire. 

As  a  lawyer  Ivory  was  distinguished  by 
the  subtlety  of  his  reasoning,  his  minute- 
ness of  detail,  and  profound  erudition.  He 
was  not  a  fluent  orator,  but  in  the  early  part 
of  his  career,  when  legal  argument  was  con- 
ducted in  writing,  he  obtained  a  high  repu- 

[Millar's  Eoll  of  Eminent  Burgesses  of  Dun- 
dee, p.  249  ;  Norrie's  Dundee  Celebrities,  p.  273  ; 
Dundee  Advertiser,  19  Oct.  1866.]  A.  H.  M. 

IVORY,  THOMAS  (1709-1779),  archi- 
tect, practised  his  profession  in  Norwich.  He 
was  admitted  a  freeman  of  the  town  as  a  car- 
penter 21  Sept.  1745.  He  lived  in  the  parish 




of  St.  Helen.  At  Norwich  he  designed  the 
assembly  house  (1754),  afterwards  used  as 
the  Freemasons'  Hall  (lithograph  by  James 
Sillett  of  Norwich ;  view  on  King's  map  of 
Norwich,  1766 ;  on  reduced  scale  in  BOOTH, 
Norwich,  1768,  frontispiece);  the  Octagon 
Chapel  in  Colegate  Street  (1754-6),  a  hand- 
some building  in  the  Corinthian  style  (views, 
Sillett,  King,  and  Booth,  as  above)  ;  and  the 
theatre  (1757),  called  Concert  Hall  before 
1764,  of  which  he  is  said  to  have  been  the 
proprietor.  The  interior  of  the  last  was  a 
copy  of  the  old  Drury  Lane  Theatre,  and 
Ivory  is  said  to  have  been  assisted  in  his 
design  by  Sir  James  Burrough  (1691-1764) 
[q.  v.]  (view  on  King's  map  of  Norwich; 
BOOTH,  ii.  13).  He  obtained  a  license  for  his 
company  of  players  to  perform  in  Norwich 
in  1768,  and  in  the  same  year  '  Mr.  Ivory 
of  Northwitch'  sent  competition  drawings 
for  the  erection  of  the  Royal  Exchange  in 
Dublin  (MTTLVAXY,  Life  of  Gandon,  p.  30). 
Ivory  is  also  said  to  have  designed  the  Nor- 
folk and  Norwich  Hospital.  He  died  at 
Norwich  on  28  Aug.  1779.  His  widow  died 
on  18  June  1787,  aged  80.  A  handsome 
monument  to  their  memory  is  in  the  cathedral. 
In  his  will  Ivory  is  described  as  '  builder  and 
timber  merchant.'  Of  his  two  sons,  Thomas 
was  in  the  revenue  office,  Fort  William,  j 
Bengal,  and  William,  architect  and  builder  j 
in  Norwich,  erected  a  pew  in  St.  Helen's  | 
Church  in  1780,  and  died  in  King  Edward  VI 
Almsliouses,  Saffron  Walden,  on  11  Dec.  1837, 
aged  90. 

[Redgrave's  Diet,  of  Artists ;  Diet,  of  Architec- 
ture ;  Browne's  Norwich,  1814,  pp.  47,  49,  124, 
149 ;  Woodward's  Norfolk  Topographer's  Manual, 
pp.  110,  113,  114;  Booth's  Norwich,  ii.  602; 
Stacy's  Norwich,  p.  94  ;  Gough's  Brit.  Topogr.  ii. 
13;  Architectural  Mag.  1837,  p.  96;  Probate 
Eegistry,  Norwich ;  information  from  the  Eev. 
Albert  J.  Porter,  T.  E.  Tallack,  esq.,  and  Lionel 
Cust,  esq.]  B.  P. 

IVORY,  THOMAS  (d.  1786),  architect, 
is  said  to  have  been  self-educated.  He  prac- 
tised in  Dublin,  and  was  appointed  master 
of  architectural  drawing  in  the  schools  of  the 
Royal  Dublin  Society  in  1759.  He  held  the 
post  till  his  death,  and  among  his  pupils  was 
Sir  Martin  Archer  Shee  [q.  v.]  In  1765  he 
prepared  designs  (plate  in  Gent.  Mag.  1786, 
fig.  i.  p.  217)  and  an  estimate  for  additional 
buildings  to  the  society's  premises  in  Shaw's 
Court,  but  these  were  not  executed.  Ivory's 
principal  work  was  the  King's  Hospital  in 
Blackball  Place  (commonly  known  as  the 
Blue  Coat  Hospital),  a  handsome  building  in 
the  classic  style.  The  first  stone  was  laid  on 
16  June  1773,  but  from  want  of  funds  the 
central  cupola  has  never  been  finished.  The 

chapel  and  board-room  are  especially  beauti- 
ful ;  in  the  latter  some  of  Ivory's  drawings  of 
the  design  hung  for  many  years,  but  are  now 
in  a  dilapidated  condition  (cf.  in  AVARBTTRTOX, 
Dublin,  i.  564-71 ;  thirteen  neatly  prepared 
drawings,  signed  Thomas  Ivory,  1776,  in  the 
King's  Library;  plate,  with  cupola  and  steeple 
as  intended,  in  MALTOST ,  Dublin ;  elevation  of 
east  front  in  POOL  and  CASH,  Dublin,  p.  67). 
He  designed  Lord  Newcomen's  bank,  built 
in  1781,  at  the  corner  of  Castle  Street  and 
Cork  Street  (Gent.  Mag.  1788,  fig.  iii.  p. 
1069).  The  building  is  now  the  public  health 
office.  The  Hibernian  Marine  School,  usually 
attributed  to  him,  was  probably  the  work  of 
T.  Cooley  [q.  v.]  He  made  a  drawing  of 
Lord  Charlemont's  Casino  at  Marino,  near 
Dublin  (designed by  Sir  W.  Chambers),  which 
was  engraved  by  E.  Rooker.  Ivory  died  in 
Dublin  in  December  1786.  In  the  board- 
room of  the  King's  Hospital  is  a  picture  (as- 
signed to  1775)  representing  Ivory  and  eight 
others  sitting  at  or  standing  round  a  table 
on  which  a^ e  spread  plans  of  the  new  build- 

[Redgrave's  Diet,  of  Artists  (in  which  Ivory 
is  erroneously  called  James) ;  Diet,  of  Architec- 
ture ;  Bye-Laws  and  Ordinances  of  the  Dublin 
Society,  p.  12;  Gilbert's  Hist,  of  Dublin,  i.  26, 
ii.  301-2,  iii.  222  ;  Warburton,  Whitelaw,  and 
Walsh's  Hist,  of  Dublin,  i.  566-7;  Pasqnin's 
Artists  of  Ireland;  Hibernian  Mag.  1786, p.  672; 
Herbert's  Irish  Varieties,  pp.  57,  63 ;  informa- 
tion from  G.  E.  Armstrong,  esq.,  King's  Hospital, 
Dublin.]  B.  P. 

IZACKE,  RICHARD  (1624  P-1700  ?), 
antiquary,  born  about  1624,  was  the  eldest 
son  of  Samuel  Izacke  of  Exeter,  and  appa- 
rently a  member  of  the  Inner  Temple  (1617). 
On  20  April  1641  he  was  admitted  a  com- 
moner of  Exeter  College,  Oxford,  but  left 
the  university  at  the  end  of  the  following 
year  on  account  of  the  civil  war.  He  had 
in  the  meantime  entered  himself  at  the  Inner 
Temple  (November  1641),  and  was  called  to 
the  bar  in  1650  (CooKE,  Inner  Temple  Stu- 
dents, 1547-1660,  pp.  218,  310).  In  1653 
he  became  chamberlain  of  Exeter,  and  town- 
clerk  about  1682  (WooD,  Athenee  Oxon.  ed. 
Bliss,  iv.  489).  His  father,  to  whom  he  had 
behaved  badly,  left  him  at  his  death  in  1681 
or  1682  a  house  in  Trinity  parish,  Exeter, 
and  leasehold  property  in  Tipton,  Ottery  St. 
Mary,  on  condition  of  his  future  good  con- 
duct towards  his  stepmother,  brothers,  and 
sisters  (will  registered  in  P.  C.  C.  34,  Cottle). 
Izacke  is  stated  to  have  died  'about  1700.' 
By  his  wife  Katherine  he  had,  with  other 
issue,  a  son,  Samuel,  who  also  became  cham- 
berlain of  Exeter.  He  wrote:  1.  'Anti- 


quities  of  the  City  of  Exeter,'  8vo,  London, 
1677  (with  different  title-page,  1681).  Other 
editions,  'improved  and  continued'  by  his 
son,  Samuel  Izacke,  were  issued  in  1723, 
1724,  1731,  1734,  and  1741.  The  book  is  a 
careless  compilation.  2.  'An  Alphabetical 
Register  of  divers  Persons,  who  by  their  last 
Wills,  Grants,  .  .  .  and  other  Deeds,  &c., 
have  given  Tenements,  Rents,  Annuities,  and 
Monies  towards  the  Relief  of  the  Poor  of  the 

;  Jack 

County  of  Devon  and  City  and  County  of 
Exon,'  8vo,  London,  1736,  printed  from  the 
original  manuscript  by  Samuel  Izacke,  the 
author's  grandson.  It  was  reprinted  with 
another  title,  '  Rights  and  Priviledges  of  the 
Freemen  of  Exeter,'  &c.,  8vo,  London,  1751 
and  1757  ;  and  enlarged  editions  were  pub- 
lished at  Exeter,  1785,  4to,  and  1820,  8vo. 

[Cough's  British  Topography,  i.  305;  David- 
sou's  Bibl.  Devon.]  G.  G. 

JACK,  ALEXANDER  (1805-1857), 
brigadier,  a  victim  of  the  Cawnpore  massacre, 
was  grandson  of  William  Jack,  minister  of 
Northmavine,  Shetland.  His  father,  the  Rev. 
William  Jack  (d.  9  Feb.  1854)  (Ml).  Edin- 
burgh), was  sub-principal  of  University  and 
King's  colleges,  Aberdeen,  1800-15,  and 
principal  1815-54.  Principal  Jack  married 
in  1794  Grace,  daughter  of  Andrew  Bolt 
of  Lerwick,  Shetland,  by  whom  he  had  six 
children.  Alexander,  one  of  four  sons,  was 
born  on  19  Oct.  1805,  was  a  student  in 
mathematics  and  philosophy  at  King's  Col- 
lege, Aberdeen,  in  1820-2,  and  is  remem- 
bered by  a  surviving  class-fellow  as  a  tall, 
handsome,  soldierly  young  man.  He  obtained 
a  Bengal  cadetship  in  1823,  was  appointed 
ensign  in  the  (late)  30th  Bengal  native  in- 
fantry 23  May  1824,  and  became  lieutenant 
in  the  regiment  30  Aug.  1825,  captain  2  Dec. 
1832,  and  major  and  brevet-lieutenant-colo- 
nel 19  June  1846.  He  was  present  with  his 
battalion  at  the  battle  of  Aliwal  (medal), 
and  acted  as  brigadier  of  the  force  sent 
against  the  town  and  fort  of  Kangra  in  the 
Punjab,  when  he  received  great  credit  for 
his  extraordinary  exertions  in  bringing  up 
his  18-pouiider  guns,  which  he  had  been  re- 
commended to  leave  behind.  The  march  was 
said  '  to  reflect  everlasting  credit  on  the  Ben- 
gal artillery'  (BUCKLE,  Hist,  of  the  Bengal 
Art.  p.  520).  Some  views  of  the  place  taken 
by  Jack  were  published  under  the  title  '  Six 
Sketches  of  Kot-Kangra,  drawn  on  the  spot ' 
(London,  1847,  fol.)  Jack  was  in  command 
of  his  battalion  in  the  second  Sikh  war,  in- 
cluding the  battles  of  Chillianwalla  and 
Goojerat  (medal  and  clasps  and  C.B.)  He 
was  promoted  to  lieutenant-colonel  in  the 
(late)  34th  Bengal  native  infantry  18  Dec. 
1851.  He  became  colonel  20  June  1854,  and 
on  18  July  1856  was  appointed  brigadier  at 
Cawnpore,  the  headquarters  of  Sir  Hugh 
Wlieeler's  division  of  the  Bengal  army.  On 
7  June  1857  the  mutiny  broke  out  at  Cawn- 

pore. Wheeler  maintained  his  position  in 
an  entrenched  camp  till  the  27th,  when  an 
attempted  evacuation  was  made  in  accord- 
ance with  an  arrangement  entered  into  with 
Nana  Sahib.  After  the  troops  had  embarked 
in  boats  for  Allahabad,  the  mutineers  trea- 
cherously shot  down  Jack  and  all  the  Eng- 
lishmen except  four.  During  the  previous 
defence  of  the  lines  a  brother,  Andrew  Wil- 
liam Thomas  Jack,  who  was  on  a  visit  from 
Australia,  had  his  leg  shattered,  and  suc- 
cumbed under  amputation. 

[Information  supplied  through  the  courtesy 
of  the  registrar  of  Aberdeen  University ;  East 
Indian  Registers  and  Army  Lists  ;  Buckle's  Hist, 
of  the  Bengal  Art.  ed.  Kaye,  London,  1852; 
Kaye'sHist.  of  the  Indian  Mutiny,  ed.  (1888-9) 
Malleson,  ii.  217-68  ;  Mowbray  Thorn  son's  Story 
of  Cawnpore,  London,  1859  ;  Gent.  Mag.  3rd  ser. 
iii.  565.]  H.  M.  C. 

JACK,  GILBERT,  M.D.  (1578P-1628), 
metaphysician  and  medical  writer,  born  in 
Aberdeen  about  1578,  was  son  of  Andrew 
Jack,  merchant.  After  attending  Aberdeen 
grammar  school,  he  became  a  student  in 
Marischal  College.  By  the  advice  of  Robert 
Howie,  the  principal,  Jack  proceeded  to  the 
continent,  and  studied  first  at  the  college  of 
Helmstadt,  and  then  at  Herborn,  where  he 
graduated.  Attracted  by  the  high  reputa- 
tion of  the  newly  founded  university  of 
Leyden,  he  enrolled  himself  a  student  on 
25  May  1603  (Leyden  Students,  Index  Soc., 
p.  53),  and  after  acting  as  a  private  lecturer, 
he  became  in  1604  professor  of  philosophy. 
He  at  the  same  time  diligently  prosecuted  his 
own  studies,  particularly  in  medicine,  and 
proceeded  M.D.  in  1611.  His  inaugural  dis- 
sertation, 'De  Epilepsia,'  was  printed  at 
Leyden  during  the  same  year.  Jack  was  the 
first  who  taught  metaphysics  at  Leyden,  and 
his  lectures  gained  him  such  celebrity  that 
in  1621  he  was  offered  the  Whyte's  pro- 
fessorship of  moral  philosophy  at  Oxford, 
then  lately  founded,  but  he  declined  it,  He 




died  at  Leyden  on  17  April  1628,  leaving  a 
widow  and  ten  children.  At  his  funeral  on 
21  April  Professor  Adolf  Vorst  pronounced 
an  eloquent  Latin  oration.  His  portrait  ap- 
pears in  vol.  ii.  of  Freher's  '  Theatrum.' 

Jack  published :  1.  '  Institutions  Physicse,' 
12mo,  Leyden,  1614 ;  other  editions,  1624, 
Amsterdam,  1644.  2.  '  Primse  Philosophise 
Institutions,'  8vo,  Leyden,  1616 ;  other  edi- 
tions, 1628  and  1640,  which  he  prepared  at 
the  suggestion  of  his  friend  Grotius.  3.  '  In- 
stitutiones  Medicae,'  12mo,  Leyden,  1624; 
another  edition,  1631. 

[Paul  Freher's  Theatrum  Virorum  Eruditions 
Clarorum,  1688,  ii.  1353  ;  Vorst's  Oratio  Fune- 
bris ;  Icones  ac  Vitae  Professorum  Lugd.  Batav. 
1617,  pt.  ii.  pp.  29-30  ;  Waller's  Imperial  Diet. ; 
Evans's  Cat.  of  Engraved  Portraits,  ii.  216; 
Granger's  Biog.  Hist,  of  England,  2nd  edit., 
ii.  5  ;  Anderson's  Scottish  Nation.]  GK  Gr. 

JACK,  THOMAS  (d.  1598),  |cottish 
schoolmaster,  was  appointed  minister  of 
Rutherglen  in  the  presbytery  of  Glasgow,  in 
1567,  and  subsequently  became  master  of 
Glasgow  grammar  school.  In  1570  he  was 
presented  by  James  VI  to  the  vicarage  of 
Eastwood  in  the  presbytery  of  Paisley,  and 
in  August  1 574  resigned  his  mastership.  In 
1577  his  name  occurs  as  quaestor  of  Glasgow 
University,  along  with  the  record  of  his  gift 
of  the  works  of  St.  Ambrose  and  St.  Gregory 
to  the  university.  In  1582  he  was  an  oppo- 
nent of  the  appointment  of  Robert  Mont- 
gomery as  archbishop  of  Glasgow,  and  from 
1581  to  1590  he  was  thrice  member  of  the 
general  assemblies,  and  in  1589  a  commis- 
sioner for  the  preservation  of  the  true  re- 
ligion. He  was  imprisoned  before  1591  with 
Dalgleish,  Patrick  Melville,  and  others.  He 
died  in  1598.  His  widow,  Euphemia  Wylie, 
survived  till  1608,  and  a  daughter,  Elizabeth, 
became  the  wife  of  Patrick  Sharpe,  principal  of 
Glasgow  University.  While  master  of  Glas- 
gow grammar  school,  Jack  began  a  dictionary 
in  Latin  hexameter  verse  of  proper  names  oc- 
curring in  the  classics.  Andrew  Melville  en- 
couraged and  helped  him ;  and  he  tells  us  that 
when  he  called  on  George  Buchanan  at  Stir- 
ling, the  great  man  interrupted  his  history  of 
Scotland,  the  sheets  of  which  were  lying  on 
the  table,  to  correct  Jack's  book  with  his 
own  hand.  Robert  Pont,  Hadrian  Damman, 
and  other  scholars  also  gave  their  aid.  The 
dictionary,  a  work  of  considerable  scholar- 
ship, was  finally  published  as  '  Onomasticon 
Poeticum,  sive  Propriorum  quibus  in  suis 
Monumentis  usi  sunt  veteres  poetse,  brevis 
descriptio  poetica,  Thoma  lacchseo  Caledonio 
Authore.  Edinburgi  excudebat  Robertus 
Waldegrave,'  1592,  4to. 

[M'Crie's  Life  of  Melville,  1824,  i.  444,  ii. 
365,  478  ;  Hew  Scott's  Fasti  Ecclesise  Scoticanse, 
vol.  ii.  pt.  i.  pp.  78,  210  ;  Chambers's  Biog.  Diet, 
of  Eminent  Scotsmen,  1869;  Tanner's  Bibl. 
Brit.  p.  426  ;  R.  Baillie's  Letters  and  Journals, 
iii.  403 ;  Wodrow's  Collections  upon  the  Lives 
of  the  Reformers,  &c.,  i.  179,  529.]  E.  B. 

JACK,  WILLIAM  (1795-1822),botanist, 
was  born  at  Aberdeen  29  Jan.  1795,  and  re- 
ceived his  early  education  at  that  university. 
At  sixteen  years  of  age  he  graduated  M.A., 
but  an  attack  of  scarlet  fever  prevented  him 
from  going  to  study  medicine  at  Edinburgh. 
He  came  to  London  in  October  1811,  and 
passed  his  examination  as  surgeon  in  the 
next  year.  Having  been  appointed  surgeon 
in  the  Bengal  medical  service,  he  left  for  his 
post  on  his  eighteenth  birthday.  He  went 
through  the  Nepal  war  in  1814—15,  and  after 
further  service  in  other  parts  of  India,  he  met 
Sir  Stamford  Raffles  at  Calcutta  in  1818, 
and  accompanied  him  to  Sumatra  to  investi- 
gate the  botany  of  the  island.  Broken  down 
by  fatigue  and  exposure,  he  embarked  for  the 
Cape,  but  died  the  day  following  (15  Sept. 
1822).  He  published  some  papers  on  Malayan 
plants  in  the  scarce  '  Malayan  Miscellanies ' 
(two  volumes  printed  in  1820-1  at  Ben- 
coolen),  and  these  were  reprinted  by  Sir 
W.  J.  Hooker  thirteen  years  later.  Jack's 
name  is  commemorated  in  the  genus  Jackia, 

[Hooker's  Comp.  Bot.  Mag.  i.  122;  Hooker 
and  Thomson's  Flora  Indica,  i.  48.]  B.  D.  J. 

JACKMAN,  ISAAC  (fl.  1795),  journal- 
ist and  dramatist,  born  about  the  middle 
of  the  eighteenth  century  in  Dublin,  prac- 
tised as  an  attorney  there.  He  ultimately 
removed  to  London  and  wrote  for  the  stage. 
His  '  Milesian,'  a  comic  opera,  on  its  produc- 
tion at  Drury  Lane  on  20  March  1777,  met 
with  an  indifferent  reception  (Biog.  Dramat. ; 
GEXEST,  Engl.  Stage,  \.  554).  It  was  pub- 
lished in  1777.  '  All  the  World's  a  Stage,' 
a  farce  by  Jackman  in  two  acts  and  in  prose, 
was  first  acted  at  Drury  Lane,  7  April  1777, 
and  was  frequently  revived.  Genest  (t'6.) 
characterises  it  as  an  indifferent  piece,  which 
met  with  more  success  than  it  deserved.  It 
was  printed  in  1777,  and  reprinted  in  Bell's 
'  British  Theatre '  and  other  collections.  '  The 
Divorce,'  '  a  moderate  farce,  well  received,' 
produced  at  Drury  Lane  10  Nov.  1781,  and 
afterwards  twice  revived,  was  printed  in  1781 
(ib.  vi.  214).  '  Hero  and  Leander,'  a  burletta 
by  Jackman  (in  two  acts,  prose  and  verse), 
was  produced  '  with  the  most  distinguished 
applause,'  says  the  printed  copy,  at  the 
Royalty  Theatre,  Goodman's  Fields,  in  1787. 
Jackman  prefixed  a  long  dedication  to  Phillips 

Jackson  * 

Glover  of  AVispington,  Lincolnshire,  in  the 
shape  of  a  letter  on  '  Royal  and  Royalty 
Theatres,'  purporting  to  prove  the  illegality 
of  the  opposition  of  the  existing  theatres  to 
one  just  opened  by  Palmer  in  Wellclose 
Square,  Tower  Hamlets.  Jackman  seems  to 
be  one  of  two  young  Irishmen  who  edited 
the '  Morning  Post '  for  a  few  years  between 
1786  and  1795,  and  involved  the  printer  and 
proprietor  in  several  libel  cases  (Fox  BOURNE, 
Hist,  of  Newspapers ;  JOHN  TAYLOK,  Record 
of  my  Life,  ii.  268). 

[Authorities  in  text ;  Webb's  Irish  Biography, 
•quoting  Dublin  Univ.  Mag.]  J.  T-T. 

JACKSON,  ABRAHAM  (1589-1646?), 
divine,  born  in  1589,  was  son  of  a  Devon- 
shire clergyman.  He  matriculated  at  Oxford 
from  Exeter  College  on  4  Dec.  1607  (Or/. 
Univ.  Reg.,  Oxf.  Hist.  Soc.,  vol.  ii.  pt.  ii.  p. 
299)  ;  graduated  B.A.  in  1611 ;  became  chap- 
lain to  the  Lords  Harington  of  Exton,  Rut- 
land ;  and  proceeded  M.  A.  when  chaplain  of 
Christ  Church  in  1616  (ib.  vol.  ii.  pt.  iii.  p. 
303).  In  1618  he  was  lecturer  at  Chelsea, 
Middlesex.  On  18  Sept.  1640  he  was  ad- 
mitted prebendary  of  Peterborough  (LE 
NEVE,  Fasti,  ed.  Hardy,  ii.  546),  and  appa- 
rently died  in  1645-6. 

Jackson  wrote  :  1.  '  Sorrowes  Lenitive ; 
an  Elegy  on  the  Death  of  John,  Lord  Harring- 
ton,' 8vo,  London,  1614.  In  dedicating  it 
to  Lucy,  countess  of  Bedford,  and  Lady  Anne 
Harington,  Jackson  observes  that  he  has 
addressed  them  before  in  a  similar  work. 
2.  '  God's  Call  for  Man's  Heart,'  8vo,  London, 
1618.  3.  '  The  Pious  Prentice  .  .  .  wherein 
is  declared  how  they  that  intend  to  be  Pren- 
tices may  rightly  enter  into  that  calling, 
faithfully  abide  in  it,'  &c.,  12mo,  London, 

[Wood's  Athense  Oxon.  ed.  Bliss,  ii.  267-8  ; 
Bodleian  Libr.  Cat.]  G.  G. 

JACKSON,  ARTHUR  (1593?-1666), 
ejected  divine,  was  born  at  Little  Walding- 
fi'eld,  Suffolk,  about  1593.  He  early  lost  his 
father,  a  Spanish  merchant  in  London ;  his 
mother  (whose  second  husband  was  Sir  T. 
Crooke,  bart.)  died  in  Ireland.  His  uncle 
and  guardian,  Joseph  Jackson  of  Edmonton, 
Middlesex,  sent  him  to  Trinity  College,  Cam- 
bridge. His  tutor  was  inefficient,  but  Jack- 
son was  studious  and  obtained  his  degrees. 
In  1619  he  left  Cambridge,  married,  and  be- 
came lecturer,  and  subsequently  rector,  at  St. 
Michael's,  "Wood  Street,  London.  He  was 
also  chaplain  to  the  Clothworkers'  Company, 
preaching  once  a  quarter  in  this  capacity  at 
Lamb's  Chapel,  where  he  celebrated  the  com- 
munion on  a  common  turn-up  table.  He 

j  Jackson 

declined  to  read  the  '  book  of  sports.'  Laud 
remonstrated  with  him,  but,  as  Jackson  was 
'  a  quiet  peaceable  man,'  took  no  action 
against  him.  His  parochial  diligence  was 
exemplary ;  he  remained  amidst  his  flock 
during  the  plague  of  1624.  He  accepted  the 
rectory  of  St.  Faith's  under  St.  Paul's,  vacant 
about  1642  by  the  sequestration  of  Jonathan 
Brown,  LL.D.,  dean  of  Hereford,  who  died 
in  1643.  Under  the  presbyterian  regime  Jack- 
son was  a  member  of  the  first  London  classis, 
and  was  on  the  committee  of  the  London 
provincial  assembly. 

He  was  a  strong  royalist,  signing  both  of 
the  manifestos  of  January  1648-9  against  the 
trial  of  Charles.  In  1651  he  got  into  trouble 
by  refusing  to  give  evidence  against  Chris- 
topher Love  [q.  v.]  The  high  court  of  jus- 
tice fined  him  50CM.,  and  sent  him  to  the 
Fleet  (Baxter  says  the  Tower)  for  seventeen 
weeks.  At  the  Restoration  he  waited  at  the 
head  of  die  city  clergy  to  present  a  bible  to 
Charles  ft  as  he  passed  through  St.  Paul's 
Churchyard  (in  Jackson's  parish)  on  his  entry 
into  London.  He  opposed  the  nonconformist 
vote  of  thanks  for  the  king's  declaration, 
being  of  opinion  that  any  approbation  of  pre- 
lacy was  contrary  to  the  covenant.  In  1661 
he  was  a  commissioner  on  the  presbyterian 
side  at  the  Savoy  conference.  The  Unifor- 
mity Act  of  1662  ejected  him  from  his  living, 
and  Jackson  retired  to  Hadley,  Middlesex, 
afterwards  removing  to  his  son's  house  at 
Edmonton.  He  does  not  appear  to  have 
preached  in  conventicles,  but  devoted  himself 
to  exegetical  studies.  Since  his  college  days 
he  had  been  accustomed  to  rise  at  three  or 
four  o'clock,  winter  and  summer,  and  would 
spend  fourteen,  and  sometimes  sixteen,  hours 
a  day  in  study.  He  died  on  5  Aug.  1666, 
aged  73.  He  married  the  eldest  daughter 
of  T.  Bownert  of  Stonebury,  Hertfordshire, 
who  survived  him,  and  by  her  he  had  three 
sons  and  five  daughters. 

Jackson  published :  1 . '  Help  for  the  Under- 
standing of  the  Holy  Scripture ;  or,  Annota- 
tions on  the  Historicall  part  of  the  Old  Tes- 
tament,' &c.,  Cambridge  and  London,  1643, 
4to ;  2nd  vol.,  1646,  4to.  2.  '  Annotations 
on  Job,  the  Psalms,  Proverbs,  Ecclesiastes, 
and  Song  of  Solomon,'  &c.,  1658, 4to,  2  vols. 
Posthumous  was  :  3.  '  Annotations  upon 
. . .  Isaiah,'  &c.,  1682, 4to  (edited  by  his  son). 

[Memoir  by  his  son,  John  Jackson,  prefixed  to 
Annotations  upon  Isaiah  ;  Reliquiae  Baxterianae, 
1696,  i.  67,  ii.  284 ;  Calamy's  Account,  1713, 
pp.  3  sq.;  Calamy's  Continuation,  1727,  i.  7; 
Walker's  Sufferings  of  the  Clergy,  1714,  ii.  34  ; 
Palmer's  Nonconformist's  Memorial,  1802,  i.  120 
sq. ;  Neal's  Hist,  of  the  Puritans,  1822,  iii.  280, 
325,  iv.  374.]  A.  G. 




(1852-1881),  composer,  born  in  1852,  was  a 
student  from  1872  of  the  Royal  Academy  of 
Music,  where  he  won  among  other  honours 
the  Lucas  medal  for  composition,  and  was 
elected  in  1878  a  professor  of  harmony  and 
composition.  During  his  short  life  Jackson 
accomplished  work  of  a  high  order  of  merit. 
He  died,  aged  29,  on  27  Sept.  1881. 

His  manuscript  orchestral  compositions 
were :  '  Andante  and  Allegro  Giocoso,'  pub- 
lished for  the  piano,  1881 ;  overture  to  the 
'  Bride  of  Abydos ; '  '  Intermezzo  ; '  concerto 
for  pianoforte  and  orchestra  (played  by  Miss 
Agnes  Zimmermann  at  the  Philharmonic 
Society's  concert,  30  June  1880,  the  piano- 
forte part  published  in  the  same  year) ; 
violin  concerto  in  E,  played  by  Sainton  at 
Cowen's  orchestral  concert,  4  Dec.  1880. 
For  the  pianoforte  he  published :  '  Toccata,' 
1874 ;  <  March '  and  '  Waltz,'  Brighton,  1878 ; 
'In  a  boat,' barcarolle, 'Elaine,' 1879;  'An- 
dante con  variazione,'  1880  ;  '  Capriccio ; ' 
'  Gavotte '  and  '  Musette,'  and  '  Song  of  the 
Stream,'  Brighton,  1880 ;  three  '  Humorous 
Sketches,'  1880 ;  and  fugue  in  E,both  for  four 
hands;  three  'Danses  Grotesques,'  1881.  His 
vocal  pieces  are:  manuscript,  two  masses  for 
male  voices;  'Magnificat;'  cantata,  'Jason,' 
'  The  Siren's  Song,'  for  female  voices,  harp, 
violin,  and  pianoforte,  published  1885 ; '  'Twas 
when  the  seas  were  roaring,'  four-part  song, 
1882  ;  '  O  Nightingale,'  duet ;  and  songs : 
'  Lullaby,'  '  Who  knows  ?  '  '  I  meet  thee, 
love,  again'  (1879),  'Pretty  little  Maid,' 
'  The  Lost  Boat,' 

[Musical  Times,  xxii.  581  ;  Brown's  Biogra- 
phical Dictionary,  p.  342 ;  Athen?eum,  1880, 
p.  2?.]  L.  M.  M. 

JACKSON,  CHARLES  (1809-1882), 
antiquary,  was  born  25  July  1809,  and  came 
of  an  old  Yorkshire  family  long  connected 
with  Doncaster,  where  both  his  grandfather 
and  his  father  filled  the  office  of  mayor.  He 
was  the  third  son  of  the  large  family  of  James 
Jackson,  banker,  by  Henrietta  Priscilla,  se- 
cond daughter  of  Freeman  Bower  of  Baw- 
try.  In  1829  he  was  admitted  of  Lincoln's 
Inn,  and  called  to  the  bar  there  in  1834,  but 
settled  as  a  banker  at  Doncaster.  He  was 
treasurer  of  the  borough  from  1 838,  and  trustee 
of  numerous  institutions,  taking  a  chief  share 
in  establishing  the  Doncaster  free  library. 
He  suffered  severe  losses  by  the  failure  of 
Overend,  Gurney,  &  Co.  Jackson  died  at 
Doncaster  1  Dec.  1882.  By  his  marriage 
with  a  daughter  of  Hugh  Parker  of  Wood- 
thorpe,  Yorkshire,  he  left  four  sons  and  four 

For  the  Surtees  Society  Jackson  edited,  in 

1870,  the 'Diary  of  Abraham  de  la  Pryme, 
the  Yorkshire  Antiquary;'  in  1873  the 
'  Autobiography  of  Mrs.  A.  Thornton,'  &c. ; 
and  in  1877  '  Yorkshire  Diaries  and  Auto- 
biographies of  the  17th  and  18th  Centuries.' 
He  was  engaged  at  the  time  of  his  death  in 
editing  for  the  society  a  memoir  of  the 
Priestley  family.  Jackson  also  contributed 
to  the  '  Yorkshire  Archreological  Journal '  a 
paper  on  Sir  Robert  Swift  and  a  memoir  of 
the  Rev.  Thomas  Broughton,  as  well  as  papers 
on  local  muniments  (abstracts  of  deeds  in, 
the  possession  of  Mr.  James  Montagu  of 
Melton-on-the-IIill)  and  on  the  Stovin  MS. 
His  chief  work,  however,  was  his  '  Doncaster 
Charities,  Past  and  Present,'  which  was  not 
published  until  1881  (Worksop,  4to),  though 
it  was  written  long  before.  To  it  a  portrait 
is  prefixed. 

[Doncaster  Chron.  8  Dec.  1882;  Athenaeum, 
16  Dec.  1882  ;  Times,  15  Dec.  1882  ;  Notes  and 
Queries,  6th  ser.  vi.  500.]  J.  T-T. 

JACKSON,  CYRIL  (1746-1819),  dean, 
of  Christ  Church,  Oxford,  born  in  Yorkshire 
in  1746,  was  the  elder  son  of  Cyril  Jackson, 
M.D.  (who  lived  successively  at  Halifax,. 
York,  and  Stamford).  Hismotherwas  Judith 
Prescot,  widow  of  William  Rawson  of  Jsidd, 
Hall  and  Bradford,  who  died  in  1745,  leaving 
to  her  the  estate  and  manor  of  Shipley  in 
the  parish  of  Bradford.  This  property  passed, 
to  her  sons,  Cyril  and  William  Jackson(1751— 
1815)  [q.  v.],  and  afterwards  came  into  the 
hands  of  John  Wilmer  Field  (BuKKE,  Com- 
moners, ii.  47).  Some  letters  to  and  from  the 
father  on  scientific  matters  are  in  Nichols's 
'  Illustrations  of  Literature,'  iii.  353-6.  He- 
died  17  Dec.  1797,  aged  80,  and  was  buried 
at  St.  Martin's,  Stamford,  on  22  Dec.,  his  wife 
having  previously  died  on  6  March  1785,  at 
the  age  of  sixty-six. 

Cyril  was,  after  some  slight  teaching  at. 
Halifax,  admitted  into  Manchester  grammar 
school  on  6  Feb.  1755  (cf.  Manchester  School 
Register,  Chetham  Soc.,  i.  62-4).  He  soon- 
migrated  to  Westminster  School,  and  in  1760 
became  a  king's  scholar  on  its  foundation. 
Here  he  was  known  as  one  of  Dr.  William. 
Markham's  two  favourite  pupils,  and  to  his 
master's  favour  he  was  partly  indebted  for  his 
success  in  life.  In  1764  he  was  elected  a  scholar 
of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge  ;  but  with  the 
prospect  of  a  studentship  at  Christ  Church,. 
Oxford,  he  matriculated  there  as  a  commoner 
on  26  June  1764,  and  the  following  Christ- 
mas was  appointed  student.  He  graduated 
BA.  1768,  M.A.  1771,  B.D.  1777,  and  D.D. 

When  Markham  was  selected  as  precep- 
tor to  the  two  eldest  sons  of  George  III,. 




Jackson  became,  on  his  recommendation, 
the  sub-preceptor  (12  April  1771).  From 
this  position  he  was  dismissed  in  1776, 
when  all  the  other  persons  holding  similar 
places  about  the  princes  resigned  their 
posts ;  but  his  salary  was  paid  to  him  for 
some  time  afterwards.  The  Duke  of  York 
told  Samuel  Rogers  that  Jackson  conscien- 
tiously did  his  duty  (Recollections  of  Table- 
talk  of  Rogers,  pp.  162-3).  John  Nicholls 
attributes  his  removal  to  the  peevishness  of 
the  Earl  of  Holdernesse,  the  governor  of  the 
prince,  and  considered  i't  '  a  national  cala- 
mity '  (Recollections,  i.  393-4).  Jackson  after- 
wards took  holy  orders,  and  from  17  May 
1779  to  1783  held  the  preachership  at  Lin- 
coln's Inn.  In  1779  he  was  also  created 
canon  of  Christ  Church,  Oxford,  and  in  1783 
became  dean,  whereupon  the  Prince  of  Wales 
wrote  a  letter  of  thanks  to  Fox,  expressive 
of  his  warm  admiration  and  friendship  for 
Jackson  (Memorials  of  C.  J.  Fox,  ii.  109). 
Two  minor  preferments  were  the  rectory  of 
Kirkby  in  Cleveland,  to  which  he  was  collated 
in  1781,  and  a  prebendal  stall  in  Southwell 
Collegiate  Church,  which  was  given  to  him 
in  1786. 

At  Christ  Church  Jackson  soon  became 
famous.  He  possessed  a  genius  for  govern- 
ment, and  enforced  discipline  without  any 
distinction  of  persons.  He  took  a  large  share 
in  framing  the  '  Public  Examination  Statute,' 
and  always  impressed  upon  his  undergradu- 
ates the  duty  of  competing  for  exhibitions 
and  prizes.  Every  day  he  entertained  at 
dinner  some  six  or  eight  members  of  the 
foundation,  and  on  his  annual  travel  in  some 
part  of  the  United  Kingdom  took  the  most 
promising  pupil  of  the  year  for  his  companion. 
He  was  a  good  botanist  and  a  student  of  ar- 
chitecture, and  under  his  charge  the  buildings 
and  walks  of  Christ  Church  were  greatly 
improved.  By  some  he  was  considered  cold 
in  his  manners  and  arbitrary  in  his  tone,  but 
Polwhele  (  Traditions,  i.  89)  and  John  James, 
then  an  undergraduate  at  Queen's  College, 
praise  his  kindly  bearing  (Letters  ofRadclijfe 
and  James,  pp.  146-9).  C.  Kirkpatrick 
Sharpe  wrote  of  him  in  1798  as  '  a  very 
handsome  oldish  man'  (Letters  of  Sharpe, 
i.  78-9).  Copleston  highly  commended  his 
talent  in  governing  and  his  love  of  encou- 
raging youth  (Letters  of  Lord  Dudley  to 
Bishop  of  Llandaff,  p.  192).  He  declined 
the  bishopric  of  Oxford  in  1799  and  the 
primacy  of  Ireland  in  1800.  When  offered 
an  English  see  on  a  later  occasion  he  is  said 
to  have  remarked :  '  Nolo  episcopari.  Try 
Will  [i.e.  his  brother];  he'll  take  it.'  In 
1809  he  resigned  his  deanery,  and  retired  to 
the  Manor  House  at  Felpham,  near  Bognor, 

in  Sussex.  Some  Latin  lines  by  himself  on 
this  clerical  elysium  are  in  the  '  Manchester 
School  Register.'  He  died  there  on  31  Aug. 
1819.  Over  his  grave  in  the  churchyard  i& 
a  stone  with  his  name,  age,  and  date  of  death 
only;  but  the  east  window  of  the  church, 
when  restored  in  1855,  was  dedicated  to  his 
memory.  An  excellent  portrait  of  him  by 
Owen  hangs  in  Christ  Church  hall,  and  has. 
been  engraved  by  C.  Turner.  From  it  was 
executed  the  statue  by  Chantrey,  which  was- 
placed  in  1820,  at  the  cost  of  Jackson's  pupils, 
in  the  north  transept  of  the  cathedral.  By 
the  death  of  his  brother  without  a  will  con- 
siderable wealth  fell  to  him,  which  was  sub- 
sequently inherited  by  his  near  relation,  Cyril 
George  Ilutchinson,  rector  of  Batsford  in 

Many  illustrious  men  were  under  Jackson'a 
charge  at  Christ  Church,  among  them  Can- 
ning, Sir  Robert  Peel,  and  Charles  Wynn. 
Several  letters  to  and  from  him  are  in  Par- 
ker's 'Sir  R.  Peel,'  i.  27-8,  and  in  one  of 
them  Jackson  characteristically  recommends 
'  the  last  high  finish '  of  oratory  by  the  con- 
tinual reading  of  Homer.  Abbot,  first  lord 
Colchester,  was  his  chief  friend,  and  ob- 
tained much  political  gossip  from  him.  Jack- 
son helped  to  bring  about  the  removal  of 
Addington  from  the  premiership  in  1804. 
For  some  years  he  kept  a  diary  of  his  life 
and  times,  which,  with  characteristic  caution, 
he  afterwards  destroyed ;  but  his  political 
intrigues  are  visible  in  the  '  Diaries  of  the 
first  Earl  of  Malmesbury,'  iv.  255-6,  302, 
in  Lord  Colchester's  '  Diary '  (passim),  and  in 
Dean  Pellew's  '  Life  of  Lord  Sidmouth,'  ii. 
302-4.  Jackson  was  considered  to  excel  in 
Greek  scholarship,  and  about  1802  he  and 
the  Rev.  John  Stokes  of  Christ  Church,  Ox- 
ford, began  printing  at  the  Clarendon  press. 
an  edition  of  the  history  of  Herodotus  ;  but 
it  was  soon  stopped,  and  almost  every  copy 
destroyed.  The  printed  sheets  are  preserved 
at  the  British  Museum  (cf.  Manchester  School 
Register,  ii.  272).  Parr's  not  unnatural  com- 
ment on  him  was :  '  Stung  and  tortured  as 
he  is  with  literary  vanity,  he  shrinks  with, 
timidity  from  the  eye  of  criticism.'  Jackson 
is  described  under  the  name  of  President 
Herbert  in  R.  Plumer  Ward's  novel  of  '  De 
Vere,'  and  a  caricature  by  Dighton,  in  which 
his  stoop  is  well  brought  out,  depicts  him  as 
walking  with  one  or  two  companions. 

[Gent.  Mag.  1819  pt.  ii.  273,  459-63,  486, 
573,  1820  pt.  i.  3-5,  504-5;  Notes  and  Queries, 
2nd  ser.  xi.  170,  233,  296,  3rd  ser.  xi.  229-30, 
267,  319,  448,  5th  ser.  xi.  9,  353,  398,  6th 
ser.  vi.  488,  vii.  216.  viii.  139;  Annual  Biog. 
1822,  vi.  444-6;  Spilslmry's  Lincoln's  Inn,  p. 
77;  Bell's  George  Canning,  pp.  23-6;  Welch's. 



Alumni  "Westmonast.  (Phillimore),  pp.  374,380- 
382,  484,  556-7;  Chatham  Corresp.  ir.  151; 
Manchester  School  Reg.  i.  62-4,  229-30;  Quar- 
terly Rev.  xxiii.  403  ;  G-.  V.  Cox's  Recollections, 
pp.  172-6;  Life  of  Admiral  Markham,  pp.  13- 
16;  Foster's  Oxford  Reg.]  W.  P.  C. 

1814),  diplomatist,  born  in  December  1770,  was 
son  of  THOMAS  JACKSON,  D.D.  (1745-1797). 
The  father,  a  Westminster  scholar,  matricu- 
lated at  Christ  Church,  Oxford,  in  1763,  and 
graduated  B.A.  1767,  M.A.  1770,  B.D.  and 
D.D.  1783  (WELCH,  Alumni  Westmon.)  He 
was  tutor  to  the  Marquis  of  Carmarthen, 
afterwards  fifth  Duke  of  Leeds  ;  minister  of 
St.  Botolph,  Aldersgate,  until  1796 ;  chaplain 
to  the  king,  1782  ;  prebendary  of  Westmin- 
ster, 1782-92  ;  canon  residentiary  of  St. 
Paul's,  1792 ;  and  rector  of  Yarlington,  So- 
merset. He  died  at  Tunbridge  Wells  1  Dec. 

Francis  James,  his  eldest  son,  entered  the 
diplomatic  service  at  the  early  age  of  sixteen, 
and  was  secretary  of  legation  from  1789  to 
1 797,  first  at  Berlin,  and  afterwards  at  Madrid. 
His  letters  to  the  fifth  Duke  of  Leeds  during 
this  time  are  among  British  Museum  Addit. 
MSS.  28064-7.  He  was  appointed  ambassador 
at  Constantinople  23  July  1796,  and  minister 
plenipotentiary  to  France  on  2  Dec.  1801,  after 
Cornwallis  had  returned  from  the  peace  con- 
gress at  Amiens  [see  CORNWALLIS,  CHARLES, 
first  MARQUIS].  In  October  1802  Jackson  was 
sent  as  minister  plenipotentiary  to  Berlin, 
where  he  married.  Except  for  a  brief  period, 
when  his  younger  brother  George  [see  JACK- 
SON, SIR  GEORGE,  1785-1861]  was  in  tem- 
porary charge,  Jackson  stayed  at  Berlin  un- 
til the  breaking-off  of  diplomatic  relations 
consequent  upon  the  occupation  of  Hanover 
in  1806.  He  was  employed  in  1807  on  a  spe- 
cial mission  to  Denmark  previous  to  the  i 
bombardment,  which  he  witnessed.  After- 
wards, in  1809,  he  was  sent  as  minister  pleni-  • 
potentiary  to  Washington  on  the  recall  of  ' 
DaA'id  Montagu  Erskine  [q.v.],  second  lord 
Erskine,  whose  arrangement  of  the  difficulty 
arising  out  of  the  conflict  between  H.M.S. 
Leopard  and  the  U.S.  frigate  Chesapeake 
in  1807  the  British  government  refused  to 
Jackson  remained  at  Washington  until  the 
rupture  between  Great  Britain  and  the  United 
States  in  1811,  which  ended  in  the  war  of 

Jackson  died  at  Brighton,  after  a  linger- 
ing illness,  on  5  Aug.  1814,  in  the  forty-fourth 
year  of  his  age.  A  number  of  his  diaries  and 
letters  during  the  period  1801-10  are  included 
in  Lady  Jackson's  '  Diaries  and  Letters  of  Sir 
George  Jackson.' 

[Welch's  Alumni  Westmon.  1852  ;  Gent.  Mag. 
Ixvii.  1075,  Ixxxiv.  pt.  ii.  198;  Brit.  Mus.  Add. 
MSS.  under  name  ;  Nelson  Desp.  vol.  iii. ;  Lady 
Jackson's  Diaries  and  Letters  of  Sir  George  Jack- 
son (London,  1872,  2  vols.)  Also  Foreign  Office 
Papers  in  Public  Record  Office,  London ;  corre- 
spondence under  countries  and  dates ;  Haydn's 
Book  of  Dignities  ;  Military  Auxiliary  Expedi- 
tions.] H.  M.  C. 

JACKSON,  afterwards  DUCKETT,  SIR 
GEORGE  (1725-1822),  judge-advocate  of 
the  fleet,  born  24  Oct.  1725,  was  eldest  sur- 
viving son  of  George  Jackson  of  Richmond, 
Yorkshire,  by  Hannah,  seventh  daughter  of 
William  Ward  of  Guisborough.  He  entered 
the  navy  office  about  1743,  became  secretary 
to  the  navy  board  in  1758,  and  second  secre- 
tary to  the  admiralty  and  judge-advocate  on 
11  Nov.  1766.  In  the  last  capacity  he  pre- 
sided at  the  court-martial  on  Keppel  in  1778. 
Subsequently  Palliser  was  summoned  by  the 
same  tribunal  to  answer  the  evidence  inci- 
dentally given  against  him  at  the  court- 
martial  on  Keppel.  No  specific  charge  was 
brought  against  Palliser.  The  Duke  of  Rich- 
mond in  the  House  of  Lords  (31  March  1779) 
attacked  this  method  of  procedure,  for  which 
Jackson  was  held  responsible.  He  was  called 
before  the  house  and  ably  defended  himself ; 
but  the  lords  passed  a  resolution  which  ap- 
peared to  censure  the  admiralty  officials,  and 
when  Lord  Sandwich,  under  whom  he  had 
worked  since  1771,  retired  from  the  board, 
Jackson  resigned  his  office  of  second  secre- 
tary 12  June  1782.  He  retained  the  judge- 
advocateship,  but  subsequently  declined  Pitt's 
offer  of  the  secretaryship  of  the  admiralty. 
From  1762  to  1768  Jackson  was  M.P.  for 
Weymouth'and  Melcombe Regis;  in  1788 he 
was  elected  for  Colchester,  defeating  George 
Tierney  at  a  cost  of  20,000/.,  but  although 
on  that  occasion  unseated,  represented  the 
borough  from  1790  to  1796.  Captain  Cook 
the  navigator  had  been,  when  a  boy,  in  the 
service  of  Jackson'ssisterat  Ayton,  andhence 
Jackson  was  favourable  to  his  schemes,  and 
probably  influenced  Sandwich  in  his  behalf. 
In  gratitude  Cook,  in  his  first  voyage,  named 
after  him  Port  Jackson  in  New  South  Wales, 
and  Point  Jackson  in  New  Zealand.  Jackson 
obtained  in  1766  an  act  of  parliament  for 
making  the  Stort  navigable  up  to  Bishop 
Stortford,  and  saw  the  work  completed  in 
1769  (Gent.  Mag.  1769, p.  608).  On  21  June 
1791  he  was  created  a  baronet,  and  died 
at  his  house  in  Upper  Grosvenor  Street, 
London,  on  15  Dec.  1822.  He  was  buried  at 
Bishop  Stortford.  A  portrait  by  Dance  and 
a  miniature  by  Copley  are  in  the  possession 
of  Sir  George  Duckett,  hart.  Jackson  mar- 
ried, first,  his  cousin  Mary,  daughter  of  Wil- 




liam  Ward  of  Guisborough,  by  whom  he  left 
three  daughters ;  secondly,  Grace,  daughter 
of  Gwyn  Goldstone  of  Goldstone,  Shropshire 
by  Grace,  daughter  and  coheiress  of  George 
Duckett  of  Hartham  House,  "Wiltshire,  by 
whom  he  left  surviving  a  son,  George,  second 
baronet.  In  1797  Jackson  assumed  the  name 
of  Duckett  by  royal  license,  in  accordance 
with  the  will  of  his  second  wife's  uncle, 
Thomas  Duckett.  His  reports  of  the  courts- 
martial  held  on  the  loss  of  the  Ardent  and 
on  the  lion.  William  Cornwallis  (1744-1819) 
[q.  v.]  were  published  in  1780  and  1791  re- 
spectively. He  also  left  a  manuscript  list, 
drawn  up  about  1755,  of  commissioners  oi 
the  navy  from  12  Charles  II  to  1  George  III, 
which  was  edited  by  his  grandson,  Sir  George 
Duckett,  in  1889.  Many  of  his  papers  are  at 
Hinchinbrook  in  the  possession  of  the  Earl  of 
Sandwich.  He  was  very  friendly  with  the 
Pitts,  and  has  been  rashly  identified  with 
Junius  (Notes  and  Queries,  1st  ser.  i.  172, 
276,  322). 

[Sir  George  Duckett's  Duchetiana,  pp.  70,  &c. ; 
Jackson's  Works ;  Annual  Eegister ;  Haydn's 
Book  of  Dignities.]  W.  A.  J.  A. 

JACKSON,  SIR  GEORGE  (1785-1861), 
diplomatist,  born  in  October  1785,  was 
youngest  son  of  Thomas  Jackson,  D.D.  [see 
under  his  brother,  JACKSON,  FRANCIS  JAMES! 
He  was  intended  for  the  church,  but  his  father  s 
death  in  December  1797  changed  the  plans  of 
the  family,  and  in  1801  he  joined  the  diplo- 
matic mission  to  Paris  under  his  brother  Fran- 
cis James  as  an  unpaid  attache.  In  October 
1802  he  accompanied  his  brother  to  Berlin, 
and  in  1805  was  presented  at  the  Prussian 
court  as  charge  d'affaires,  and  was  sent  on 
a  special  mission  to  Hesse  Cassel.  In  1806 
diplomatic  relations  were  broken  off"  by  Great 
Britain  in  consequence  of  the  occupation  of 
Hanover ;  but  later  in  the  year  overtures 
were  made  by  the  Prussians  for  a  renewal  of 
friendly  relations,  and  when  Lord  Morpeth 
[see  HOWARD,  GEORGE,  sixth  EARL  OF  CAR- 
LISLE] was  sent  to  conduct  the  negotia- 
tions at  Berlin,  Jackson,  then  a  very  young 
man,  with  pleasing  manners  and  a  good 
diplomatic  training,  was  sent  into  the  north 
of  Germany  to  pick  up  what  information 
he  could.  He  returned  home  in  February 
1807,  with  a  treaty  signed  at  Memel  by 
Lord  Hutchinson  [see  HELY-HUTCHINSON, 
JOHN,  second  EARL  OP  DONOUGHMORE],  and 
was  sent  back  with  the  ratification  of  the 
treaty,  and  instructions  to  Hutchinson  to 
appoint  him  charge  d'affaires  on  leaving. 
Diplomatic  relations  were  suspended  after  the 
treaty  of  Tilsit,  and  Jackson  returned  home 
by  way  of  Copenhagen,  bringing  with  him 

the  news  of  the  seizure  of  the  Danish  fleet  on 
7  Sept.  1807.  In  1808-9  he  was  one  of  the 
secretaries  of  legation  with  the  mission  under 
John  Hookham  Frere  [q.  v.]  to  the  Spanish 
junta,  and  was  subsequently  appointed  in 
the  same  capacity  to  "Washington,  where  his 
brother  Francis  James  was  minister  pleni- 
potentiary, but  diplomatic  relations  with  the 
United  States  were  broken  off  before  he 
could  join.  He  subsequently  did  duty  with 
the  West  Kent  militia,  in  which  he  held  a 
captain's  commission  from  2  July  1809  to 
1812.  In  1813  he  accompanied  Sir  Charles 
Stewart  (afterwards  third  marquis  of  Lon- 
donderry) to  Germany ;  was  present  with  the 
allied  armies  in  Germany  and  France  during 
the  campaigns  of  1813-14,  and  entered  Paris 
with  them.  On  the  return  of  the  king  of 
Prussia  to  Berlin,  Jackson  was  appointed 
charge  d'affaires,  with  the  appointment  of 
minister  at  the  Prussian  court,  and  remained 
there  until  after  the  battle  of  Waterloo.  In 
1816  he  was  made  secretary  of  embassy  at 
St.  Petersburg.  In  1822  he  was  sent  by 
Canning  on  a  secret  and  confidential  mission 
to  Madrid,  and  the  year  after  was  appointed 
commissioner  at  Washington,  under  article  1 
of  the  treaty  of  Ghent,  for  the  settlement  of 
American  claims.  This  post  he  filled  until 

Jackson's  later  services  were  in  connection 
with  the  abolition  of  the  slave  trade.  In  1828 
he  was  appointed  the  first  commissary  judge 
of  the  mixed  commission  court  at  Sierra 
Leone.  Afterwards  he  was  chief  commis- 
sioner under  the  convention  for  the  abolition 
of  the  African  slave  trade  at  Rio  Janeiro 
from  1832  to  1841,  at  Surinam  from  1841 
to  1845,  and  at  St.  Paul  de  Loando  from  1845 
until  his  retirement  on  pension,  after  fifty- 
seven  years'  service,  in  1859. 

Jackson  was  made  a  knight-bachelor  and 
K.C.H.  in  1832,  and  died  at  Boulogne,  2  May 
1861,  aged  75.  He  married  (1)  in  1812  Cor- 
delia, sister  of  Albany  Smith,  M.P.  for  Oke- 
hampton,  Devonshire — she  died  in  1853; 
(2),  in  1856,  at  St.  Helena,  Catherine  Char- 
lotte, daughter  of  Thomas  Elliott  of  Wake- 
field,  Yorkshire,  who  survived  him. 

His  widow  published  selections  from  his 
'  Diaries  and  Letters,'  London,  1872,  2  vols. ; 
and  a  continuation  entitled '  Bath  Archives/ 
London,  1873,  2  vols. 

[Dod's  Knightage,  1861  ;  Foreign  Office  List, 
1861 ;  Lady  Jackson's  publications  cited  above; 
jent.Mag.  3rd  ser.  x.  699 ;  see  also  Foreign  Office 
Correspondence  in  Public  Kecord  Office,  London.] 

H.  M.  C. 

JACKSON,  HENRY  (1586-1662),  divine, 
editor  of  Hooker's  '  Opuscula,'  born  in  1586 
n  St.  Mary's  parish,  Oxford,  was  the  son  of 

Jackson  c 

Henry  Jackson,  mercer,  and  was  a '  kinsman ' 
of  Anthony  a  Wood.  On  1  Dec.  1 602  he  was 
admitted  scholar  of  Corpus  Christi  College, 
Oxford,  '  having  for  years  before  been  clerk 
of  the  said  house,'  and  proceeded  B.  A.  1605, 
M.  A.  1608,  B.D.  1617.  In  1630  he  succeeded 
his  tutor,  Dr.  Sebastian  Benefield  [q.  v.],  as 
rector  of  Meysey  Hampton,  Gloucestershire. 
His  death  at  Meysey  Hampton,  on  4  June 
1662,  is  noted  by  Wood  in  his  diary.  Wood, 
who  attended  the  funeral,  speaks  of  Jackson 
as  one  of  the  earliest  of  his  learned  acquaint- 
ances, and  says  that  '  being  delighted  in  his 
company,  he  did  for  the  three  last  yeares  of 
his  life  constantly  visit  him  every  summer  'and 
took  notes  of  Jackson's  recollections  of  the 
Oxford  of  his  youth. 

In  1607  Dr.  Spenser,  president  of  Corpus 
Christi  College,  employed  Jackson  in  tran- 
scribing, arranging,  and  preparing  for  the 
press  '  all  Mr.  Hooker's  remaining  written 
papers,'  which  had  come  into  Spenser's  pos- 
session shortly  after  Hooker's  death  [see 
HOOKEK,  RICHAKD].  Jackson  printed  at  Ox- 
ford in  1612  in  4to  Hooker's  answer  to  Walter 
Travers's  '  Supplication,'  and  four  sermons  in 
separate  volumes;  of  that  on  justification  a 
'  corrected  and  amended '  edition  appeared  in 

1613.  Two  sermons  on  Jude,  doubtfully  as- 
signed to  Hooker,  followed,  with  a  long  dedi- 
cation by  Jackson  to  George  Summaster,  in 
the  same  year.  After  Spenser's  death,  in  April 

1614,  Hooker's  papers  were  taken  out  of  Jack- 
son's custody,  but  he  would  seem  to  have 
supervised  the  reprints  by  William  Stansby, 
London,  of  Hooker's  '  Works,'  in  1618  and 
1622,  which  included  the  above-mentioned 
'Opuscula'  and  the  first  five  books  of  the 
'  Ecclesiastical  Polity.'     The  preface,  with 
Stansby's  initials,  is  conjectured  to  be  Jack- 
son's. When  Hooker's  papers  were  taken  from 
Jackson's  care,  he  was  engaged  uponan  edition 
of  the  hitherto  unpublished  eighth  book  of  the 
'Polity,'  and  complained  (December  1612) 
that-the  president  (Spenser)  proposed  to  put 
his  own  name  to  the  edition,  '  though  the  re- 
surrection of  the  book  is  my  work  alone '  ('  a 
me  plane  vitae  restitutum').     Keble  suggests 
that  Jackson,  aggrieved  by  Spenser's  treat- 
ment, retained  his  own  recension  of  Hooker's 
work  when  he  delivered  up  the  other  papers, 
and  that  when  his  library  at  Meysey  Hamp- 
ton was  plundered  and  dispersed  by  the  par- 
liamentarians in  1642,  his  version  of  book 
viii.,  or  a  copy  of  it,   came  into  Ussher's 
hands.  It  is  now  in  the  library  of  Trinity  Col- 
lege, Dublin,  and  has  been  made  the  basis  of 
the  text  printed  in  Keble's  editions  of  Hooker's 

Besides  his  editions  of  Hooker's  Sermons, 
Jackson  published:  1.  « WicklifFes  Wicket ; 


or  a  Learned  and  Godly  Treatise  of  the 
Sacrament,  made  by  John  Wickliffe.  Set 
forth  according  to  an  ancient  copie,'  Ox- 
ford, 1612,  4to.  2.  '  D.  Gulielmi  Whitakeri 
.  .  .  Responsio  ad  Gulielmi  Rainoldi  Refuta- 
tionem,  in  qua  varise  controversise  accurate 
explicantur  Henrico  Jacksono  Oxoniensi  in- 
terprete,'  Oppenheim,  1612.  3.  'Orationes 
duodecim  cum  aliis  opusculis,'  Oxford,  1614, 
8vo.  Jackson's  lengthy  dedication  to  Sum- 
master  is  inserted  after  the  first  two  ora- 
tions, which  had  been  previously  published. 
4.  '  Commentarii  super  1  Cap.  Amos,'  Oppen- 
heim, 1615,  8vo,  a  translation  of  Benefield's- 
'  Commentary  upon  the  first  chapter  of  Amos, 
delivered  in  twenty-one  sermons.'  5.  '  Vita 
Th.  Lupseti,'  printed  by  Knight  in  the  ap- 
pendix to  his  '  Colet,'  p.  390,  from  Wood's- 
MSS.  in  the  Ashmolean  Museum.  Besides 
these  printed  works  Jackson  projected  editions 
of  J.  L.  Vives's  '  De  corruptis  Artibus '  and 
his  '  De  tradendis  Disciplinis,'  and  of  Abe- 
lard's  works.  The  rifling  of  his  library  de- 
stroyed his  notes  for  these  works,  but  Wood 
mentions  as  extant '  Vita  Ciceronis,  ex  variis 
Autoribus  collecta ; '  '  Commentarii  in  Cice- 
ronis Quaest.  Lib.  quintum'  (both  dedicated 
to  Benefield)  ;  translations  into  Latin  of 
works  by  Fryth,  Hooper,  and  Latimer.  Jack- 
son collected  the  '  testimonies'  in  honour  of 
John  Claymond  [q.  v.]  prefixed  to  Shepgreve's 
'  Vita  Claymundi,'  and  translated  Plutarch's 
'  De  morbis  Animi  et  Corporis.'  Among 
Wood's  MSS.  are  'Collectanea  H.  Jacksoni,' 
regarding  the  history  of  the  monasteries  of 
Gloucester,  Malmesbury,  and  Cirencester. 

[Wood's  Fasti,  ed.  Bliss,  passim ;  Wood's 
Athense  Oxon.  ed.  Bliss,  i.  xli,  li,  iii.  577  and 
passim  ;  Cooper's  Athense  Cantabr.  ii.  199  ; 
Hooker's  Works,  Clarendon  Press  7th  edit.,, 
editor's  preface,  pp.  28,  31,  51,  52,  and  passim; 
Catalogues  of  British  Museum  and  Bodleian 
Libraries.]  R.  B. 

JACKSON,  HENRY  (1831-1879),  novel- 
ist, born  at  Boston,  Lincolnshire,  on  15  April 
1831,  was  son  of  a  brewer.  After  attending 
Sleaford  and  Boston  grammar  schools,  he  was 
placed  first  in  a  bank,  and  subsequently  in 
his  father's  brewery.  Severe  illness  left  him 
an  invalid  for  life  at  eighteen,  and  he  devoted 
himself  thenceforth  to  literary  work.  He 
died  at  Hampstead  on  24  May  1879. 

Jackson's  earliest  stories  were  published  in 
'  Chambers's  Journal,'  beginning  with  a  brief 
tale  called  'A  Dead  Man's  Revenge.'  His 
first  novel,  entitled '  A  First  Friendship,'  was 

Sublished  in  '  Eraser's  Magazine '  while  Mr. 
.  A.  Froude  was  editor ;  it  was  reissued  in 
one  volume  in  1863.     His  next  novel, '  Gil- 
bert Rugge,'  appeared  in  the  same  magazine, 
and  was  published  in  three  volumes  in  1866k 




Both  novels  were  reprinted  in  America,  where 
they  had  alarger  circulation  than  in  England. 
In  1871  Jackson  published  a  volume  of  three 
stories,  called  '  Hearth  Ghosts,'  and  in  1874 
a  novel  in  three  volumes,  entitled  '  Argus 
Fairbairn,'  the  only  one  of  his  writings  to 
which  his  name  is  attached. 

[Information  from  F.  Jackson,  esq.]     G.  G. 

JACKSON,  JOHN  (d.  1689  ?),  organist 
and  composer,  was  '  instructor  in  musick '  at 
Ely  in  1669  for  one  quarter  only.  He  was 
organist  of  Wells  Cathedral  in  1676,  and 
died  at  Wells  probably  in  1689,  as  adminis- 
tration was  granted  of  his  goods  to  Dorothea, 
his  widow,  in  the  December  of  that  year. 

There  are  printed  in  Dering's  '  Cantica 
Sacra,'  second  book,  1674,  two  of  Jackson's  an- 
thems, '  Set  up  Thyself '  and  '  Let  God  arise.' 
In  Tudway's  manuscript  collection,  vol.  ii. 
(Brit.  Mus.  Harl.  MS.  7338),  is  Jackson's 
solo  anthem,  '  The  Lord  said  unto  my  Lord ; ' 
in  the  choir-books  of  Wells  are  a  service  in 
C,  and  some  single  parts  of  various  anthems 
and  of  a  burial  service.  In  the  library  of 
the  Royal  College  of  Music  four  out  of  the 
five  chants  described  as  '  Welles  tunes  '  are 
attributed  to  Jackson,  together  with  the  organ 
part  of  the  service  in  C,  and  of  the  anthems, 
'The  days  of  Man,"O  Lord,  let  it  be  Thy 
pleasure,'  '  The  Lord  said  unto  my  Lord,' '  O 
how  amiable,'  '  Christ  our  Passover,'  '  Many 
a  time '  (a  thanksgiving  anthem  for  9  Sept. 
1683),  '  God  standeth  in  the  congregation,' 
and  '  I  said  in  the  cutting  off  of  my  days '  (a 
thanksgiving  anthem  for  recovery  from  a 
dangerous  illness). 

[Grove's  Diet,  of  Music,  ii.  27 ;  Cat.  of  the  Li- 
brary of  the  Sacred  Harmonic  Society;  Dick- 
son's  Ely  Cathedral ;  P.  C.  C.  Administration 
Acts,  December  1689.]  L.  M.  M. 

JACKSON,  JOHN  (1686-1763),  theolo- 
gical writer,  eldest  son  of  John  Jackson  (d. 
1707,  aged  about  48),  rector  of  Sessay,  near 
'Thirsk,  North  Riding  of  Yorkshire,  was  born 
at  Sessay  on  4  April  1686.  His  mother's 
maiden  name  was  Ann  Revell.  Afterpassing 
through  Doncaster  grammar  school  he  entered 
at  Jesus  College,  Cambridge,  in  1702,  and 
went  into  residence  at  midsummer  1703.  He 
studied  Hebrew  under  Simon  Ockley.  Gra- 
duating B.  A.  in  1707  he  became  tutor  in  the 
family  of  Simpson,  at  Renishaw,  Derbyshire. 
His  father  had  died  rector  of  Rossington, 
West  Riding  of  Yorkshire,  and  this  pre- 
ferment was  conferred  on  Jackson  by  the 
corporation  of  Doncaster  on  his  ordination 
Xdeacon  1708,  priest  1710). 

Jackson's  mind  was  turned  to  contro- 
versial topics  by  the  publication  (1712)  of 
the  '  Scripture  Doctrine  of  the  Trinity  '  by 

Samuel  Clarke  (1675-1729)  [q.  v.]  His 
first  publication  was  a  series  of  three  letters, 
dated  14  July  1714,  by  '  A  Clergyman  of  the 
Church  of  England,'  in  defence  of  Clarke's 
position.  He  corresponded  with  Clarke,  and 
made  his  personal  acquaintance  at  King's 
Lynn.  Jackson's  theological  writings  were 
anonymous ;  he  acted  as  a  sort  of  mouth- 
piece for  Clarke,  who  kept  in  the  back- 
ground after  promising  convocation,  in  July 
1714,  to  write  no  more  on  the  subject  of  the 
Trinity.  Whiston,  in  a  letter  to  William 
Paul,  30  March  1724,  says  that  '  Dr.  Clarke 
has  long  desisted  from  putting  his  name  to 
anything  against  the  church,  but  privately 
assists  Mr.  Jackson ;  yet  does  he  hinder  his 
speaking  his  mind  so  freely,  as  he  would 
otherwise  be  disposed  to  do.'  Almost  simul- 
taneously with  his  first  defence  of  Clarke, 
Jackson  advocated  Hoadly's  views  on  church 
government  in  his  '  Grounds  of  Civil  and 
Ecclesiastical  Government,'  1714,  8vo ;  2nd 
edit.  1718.  In  1716  he  corresponded  with 
Clarke  and  Whiston  on  the  subject  of  baptism, 
defending  infant  baptism  against  Whiston ; 
his  '  Memoirs '  contain  a  previously  unpub- 
lished reply  to  the  anti-baptismal  argument 
of  Thomas  Emlyn  [q.  v.]  In  1718  he  went 
up  to  Cambridge  for  his  M.A.;  the  degree 
was  refused  on  the  ground  of  his  writings 
respecting  the  Trinity.  Next  year  he  was 
presented  by  Nicholas  Lechmere  (afterwards 
Baron  Lechmere  [q.  v.]),  chancellor  of  the 
duchy  of  Lancaster,  to  the  confratership  of 
Wigston's  Hospital,  Leicester.  Clarke  held 
the  mastership  of  the  hospital,  and  recom- 
mended Jackson.  The  post  involved  no  sub- 
scription, and  carried  with  it  the  afternoon 
lectureship  at  St.  Martin's,  Leicester,  for 
which  Jackson,  who  removed  from  Rossing- 
ton to  Leicester,  received  a  license  on  30  May 
1720from  Edmund  Gibson[q.v.],  then  bishop 
of  Lincoln.  On  22  Feb.  1722  he  was  in- 
ducted to  the  private  prebend  of  Wherwell, 
Hampshire,  on  the  presentation  of  Sir  John 
Fryer;  here  also  no  subscription  was  re- 
quired. The  mastership  of  .Wigston's  Hos- 
pital was  given  to  him  on  Clarke's  death 

(1729)  by  John  Manners,  third  duke  of  Rut- 
land, chancellor  of  the  duchy  of  Lancaster. 
Several  presentments  had  previously  been 
lodged  against  him  for  heretical  preaching 
at  St.  Martin's,  and  when  he  wished  to  con- 
tinue the  lectureship  after  being  appointed 
master,  the  vicar  of  St.  Martin's  succeeded 

(1730)  in  keeping  him  out  of  the  pulpit  by 
somewhat  forcible  means.     In  1730  Hoadly 
offered  him  a  prebend  at  Salisbury  on  con- 
dition of  subscription,  but  this  he  declined, 
for  since  the  publication  (1721)  of  Water- 
land's  '.Case  of  Arian  Subscription'  he  had 




resolved  to  subscribe  no  more.  He  busie 
himself  in  writing  treatises  and  pampblets 
many  of  them  against  the  deists.  In  Septem 
ber  1736  he  went  to  Bath  for  the  benefit  o 
a  dislocated  leg.  On  28  Sept.  he  preache 
at  St.  James's,  Bath,  at  the  curate's  request 
Dr.Coney,  the  incumbent,  preached  on  12  Oct 
and  refused  the  sacrament  to  Jackson,  on  the 
plea  that  he  did  not  believe  the  divinity  of  th 
Saviour.  Jackson  complained  to  the  bisho 
(John  Wynne),  who  disapproved  Coney' 

Jackson's  later  years  were  spent  in  the 
compilation  of  his '  Chronological  Antiquities 
(1752),  a  collection  of  laborious  research 
He  had  projected  a  critical  edition  of  the 
Greek  Testament,  but  his  work  was  inter- 
rupted by  decaying  health.     He  died  at  Lei 
cester  on  12  May  1763.  He  married,  in  1712 
Elizabeth  (d.  December  1760),  daughter  o 
John  Cowley,  collector  of  excise  at  Doncas- 
ter,  and  had  twelve  children ;  his  son  John 
and  three  daughters  (all  married)  survivec 

Apart  from  his  relation  to  Clarke,  Jack- 
son's polemical  tracts  possess  little  impor- 
tance. The  most  notable  replies  to  them  are 
by  Waterland.  Jackson  was  a  pertinacious 
writer,  without  originality  or  breadth  of  cul- 
ture. He  had  none  of  the  devotion  to  science 
which  distinguished  the  abler  divines  of  his 
school,  and  of  modern  languages  he  was 
wholly  ignorant.  He  is  said  to  have  been 
litigious;  but  his  general  disposition  was 
amiable  and  generous. 

He  published,  besides  the  tracts  already 
mentioned  :  1.  '  An  Examination  of  Mr. 
Nye's  Explication  ...  of  the  Divine  Unity/ 
&c.,  1715,  8vo.  2.  '  A  Collection  of  Queries, 
wherein  the  most  material  objections  . 
against  Dr.  Clarke  .  .  .  are  .  .  .  answered,' 
&c.,  1716,  8vo.  3.  '  A  Modest  Plea  for  the 
.  .  .  Scriptural  Notion  of  the  Trinity,'  &c., 
1719,  8vo.  4.  <  A  Reply  to  Dr.  Waterland's 
Defense,'  &c.,  1722,  8vo  (by '  A  Clergyman  in 
the  Country').  5.  'The  Duty  of  Subjects 
towards  their  Governors,'  &c.,  1723, 8vo  (ser- 
mon, at  the  camp  near  Leicester,  to  Colonel 
Churchill's  dragoons).  6.  '  Remarks  on  Dr. 
Waterland's  Second  Defense,'  &c.,  1723, 8vo 
(by  'Philalethes  Cantabrigiensis').  7.  ' Fur- 
ther Remarks  on  Dr.  Waterland's  Further Vin- 
dication of  Christ's  Divinity,'  &c.,  1724,  8vo 
(same  pseudonym).  8.  '  A  True  Narrative  of 
the  Controversy  concerning  the  .  .  .  Trinity,' 
&c.,  1725,  4to.  9.  '  A  Defense  of  Humane 
Liberty,'  &c.,  1725, 8vo ;  2nd  edit.  1730,  8vo. 

10.  '  The  Duty  of  a  Christian  .  .  .  Exposi- 
tion of  the  Lord's  Prayer,'  &c.,  1728,  12mo. 

11.  '  Novatiani  Presbyteri  Romani  Opera,' 
&c.,  1728,  8vo  (this  was  criticised  by  Lard- 

ner,  '  Works,'  1815,  ii.  57  sq.,  and  led  to  a 
correspondence  with  Samuel  Crell,  the  Soci- 
nian  critic,  published  in  (  M.  Artemonii  De- 
fensio  Emendationum  in  Novatiano/  &c., 
1729, 8vo).  12.  '  A  Vindication  of  Humane 
Liberty,'  &c.,  1730, 8vo ;  also  issued  as  second 
part  of  2nd  edit,  of  No.  9  (against  Anthony 
Collins).  13.  'A  Plea  for  Humane  Reason/ 
&c.,  1730, 8vo  (addressed  to  Edmund  Gibson, 
then  bishop  of  London).  14.  '  Calumny  no 
Conviction/  &c.,  1731,  8vo  (defence  of  No. 
15).  15.  '  A  Defense  of  the  Plea  for  Humane 
Reason/  &c.,  1731, 8vo.  16. '  Some  Reflexions 
on  Prescience/  &c.,  1731, 8vo.  17.  '  Remarks 
on  ..."  Christianity  as  old  as  the  Crea- 
tion/" &c.,  1731,  8vo;  continuation,  1733, 
8vo  (by  '  A  Priest  of  the  University  of  Cam- 
bridge ').  18.  '  Memoirs  of  ...  Waterland, 
being  a  Summary  View  of  the  Trinitarian 
Controversy  for  20  years,  between  the  Doc- 
tor and  a  Clergyman  in  the  Country/  &c., 
1731,  8vo.  19.  'The  Second  Part  of  the 
Plea  for  Humane  Reason/  &c.,  1732,  8vo. 

20.  '  The  Existence  and  Unity  of  God/  &c., 
1734,    8vo    (defence    of    Clarke's    proof). 

21.  <  Christian  Liberty  asserted/  &c.,  1734, 
8vo.     22.  '  A  Defense  of  ..."  The  Exist- 
ence and  Unity/"  &c.,  1735,  8vo  (against 
William  Law).      23.    'A  Dissertation  on 
Matter  and  Spirit/  &c.,  1735,  8vo  (against 
Andrew  Baxter  [q.  v.])     24.  '  Athanasian 
Forgeries  .  .  .  chiefly  out  of  Mr.  Whiston's 
Writings/  &c.,  1736,  8vo  (by  '  A  Lover  of 
Truth  and  of  True  Religion ; '  ascribed  to 
Jackson,  but  not  certainly  his).  25. '  A  Nar- 
rative of  ...  the  Rev.  Mr.  Jackson  being 
refused  the  Sacrament/  &c.,  1736,  8vo  (see 
above).     26.  '  Several  Letters  ...  by  W. 
Dudgeon  .  .  .  with  Mr.  Jackson's  Answers/ 
&c.,  1737,  8vo.     27.  '  Some  Additional  Let- 
ters/ &c.,  1737,  8vo.    28.  '  A  Confutation  of 

.  Mr.  Moore/  &c.,  1738,  8vo.     29.  'The 
Belief  of  a  Future  State  proved  to  be  a  Fun- 
damental Article   of  the  Religion   of  the 
Hebrews,  and  held  by  the   Philosophers/ 
L745,  8vo    (against   Warburton).     30.   'A 
Defense  of  ..."  The  Belief  of  a  Future 
State/"  &c.,  1746,  8vo.      31.  'A  Farther 
Defense/  &c.,  1747,  8vo.     32.  •  A  Critical 
nquiry  into  the  Opinions  ...  of  the  An- 
;ient  Philosophers  concerning  .  .  .  the  Soul/ 
748, 8vo.     33.  '  A  Treatise  on  the  Improve- 
ments ...  in  the  Art  of  Criticism/  &c., 
748,  8vo  (by  '  Philocriticus  Cantabrigien- 
is').  34.  '  A  Defense  of  .  .  .  "A  Treatise/" 
cc.[1748],8vo.  35.  '  Remarks  on  Dr.  Middle- 
on'sFree  Enquiry/ &c.,  1749, 8vo.  36.  'Chro- 
lological  Antiquities  ...  of  the  most  An- 
ient  Kingdoms,  from  the  Creation  of  the 
World  for  the  space  of  5,000  years/1752, 4to, 
~  vols.  (this  was  translated  into  German). 




[Memoirs  of  Jackson,  with  Letters  and  Ee- 
mains,  were  published  anonymously,  1764,  by 
Dr.  Sutton  of  Leicester ;  the  memoirs  are  founded 
on  particulars  given  by  Jackson  the  summer 
before  his  death,  and  their  defects  are  attributed 
to  his  failing  memory ;  Memoirs  of  Whiston, 
1753,  p.  267;  Nichols's  Lit.  Anecd.]  A.  G-. 

JACKSON,  JOHN  (/.  1761-1792),  ac- 
tor, manager,  and  dramatist,  the  son  of  a 
clergyman  who  held  livings  at  Keighley, 
Doncaster  (?),  and  Beenham  in  Berkshire, 
was  born  in  1742,  and  was  educated  for  the 
church.  On  9  Jan.  1761  (according  to  Biog. 
Dram,  on  9  Oct.  1762,  as  '  a  gentleman ')  he 
appeared  at  the  Theatre  Royal,  Edinburgh, 
as  Oroonoko.  During  the  season  he  played 
Romeo,  Osmyn  in  the  'Mourning  Bride,' 
Jaffier,  Douglas,  Hamlet,  Prospero,  &c.  Hav- 
ing given  offence  to  George  Anne  Bellamy 
&^.  v.],  he  left  the  following  season  for  Lon- 
on,  and  appeared  at  Drury  Lane  under  Gar- 
rick,  7  Oct.  1762,  as  Oroonoko.  He  remained 
at  this  house  two  or  three  years,  playing  Lord 
Guilford  Dudley  in  '  Lady  Jane  Gray,'  Mo- 
neses  in  '  Tamerlane,'  Southampton  in  '  Earl 
of  Essex,'  Sir  Richard  Vernon  in  the  '  First 
Part  of  King  Henry  IV,'  Polydore  in  '  The 
Orphan,'  Lysimachus  in  the  '  Rival  Queens,' 
&c.  About  1765  he  was  playing  at  Smock 
Alley  Theatre,  Dublin,  where  he  married 
Miss  Browne,  the  daughter  of  an  actor  in 
the  same  theatre.  She  was  a  pleasing  singer, 
and  was  '  possessed  of  much  merit  both  in 
tragedy  and  comedy '  (HITCHCOCK).  At  Dub- 
lin the  pair  remained  for  several  seasons, 
? laying  very  many  leading  characters.  On 
July  1775  Jackson  was  at  the  Haymarket 
the  original  Eldred  Durvy  in  his  own  tragedy 
of '  Eldred,  or  the  British  Freeholder,'  which 
had  been  previously  given  in  Dublin.  His 
wife,  announced  as  'from  Dublin,'  played 
the  heroine.  As  Juliet,  Mrs.  Jackson  made 
her  first  appearance  at  Covent  Garden  on 
25  Sept.  1775.  For  her  benefit,  1  May  1776, 
'  Eldred '  was  given  here,  with  Jackson  as 
Eldred  Durvy.  In  the  two  following  seasons 
she  frequently  appears  to  have  assumed  cha- 
racters of  importance,  Juliet,  Mariana  in  'Ed- 
ward the  Black  Prince,' Cordelia,  &c.,  Jackson 
being  rarely  heard  of  except  on  the  occasion 
of  her  benefits.  On  9  June  1777  he,  however, 
played  Tony  Lumpkin  at  the  Haymarket. 

On  10  Nov.  1781  Jackson,  according  to  his 
own  account,  purchased  the  Edinburgh  thea- 
tre on  advantageous  terms  from  Ross,  a  former 
manager.  Bringing  his  wife  with  him,  he 
began  his  management  with  the  '  Suspicious 
Husband,'  1  Dec.  1761.  About  the  middle  of 
January  1782  he  opened  a  new  theatre  which 
he  had  built  in  Dunlop  Street,  Glasgow, 
and  this  he  managed  together  with  that  at 

Edinburgh.  He  seldom  played  himself;  en- 
gaged Miss  Farren,  Mrs.  Siddons,  Henderson, 
&c.,  and  seems  for  some  years  to  have  been 
a  fairly  good  manager.  His  engagement  of 
Fennell  led  to  a  curious  quarrel  with  the 
Edinburgh  lawyers  [see  FENNELL,  JAMES]. 
In  1790-1  he  fell  into  pecuniary  difficulties, 
took  out  sequestration,'  and  put  his  estate 
into  the  hands  of  trustees.  His  failure  seems 
mainly  due  to  his  efforts  to  work  together 
the  theatres  of  Edinburgh,  Glasgow,  Dundee, 
and  Aberdeen.  A  partnership  with  Stephen 
Kemble  was  arranged,  and  led  to  prolonged 
litigation,  Jackson  during  1791-2  being  re- 
fused admittance  into  his  own  theatre.  In 
1801-2  Jackson  was  again  manager  in  con- 
junction with  a  Mr.  Aickin.  Under  his  ma- 
nagement Henry  West  Betty  appeared  in 
1804,  and  Jackson  published  a  pamphlet 
in  his  defence  entitled  '  Strictures  upon  the 
Merits  of  Young  Roscius,'  Glasgow,  1804r 
8vo.  In  1809  Jackson  finally  retired  from 

During  his  management  he  had  produced 
his  own  tragedy  of  '  Eldred '  (Edinburgh, 
1782),  a  work  of  some  merit,  the  authorship 
of  which  was,  however,  frequently  claimed 
for  a  Welsh  clergyman,  who  was  said  to  have 
given  it  to  Jackson.  '  The  British  Heroine/ 
an  unprinted  tragedy  by  him,  was  given  at 
Covent  Garden  for  the  benefit  of  Mrs.  Jack- 
son, 5  May  1778.  It  had  been  seen  under  the 
title  of  '  Giralda,  or  the  Siege  of  Harlech,'  in 
Dublin  a  year  previously.  On  the  same  oc- 
casion was  given  at  Covent  Garden  '  Tony 
Lumpkin's  Ramble,'  a  piece  not  assigned  to 
Jackson  by  theatrical  authorities,  but  claimed 
by  him  when  he  produced  it,  26  July  1780, 
in  Edinburgh,with  the  title '  Tony  Lumpkin's 
Rambles  through  Edinburgh.'  '  Sir  William 
Wallace  of  Ellerslie,  or  the  Siege  of  Dum- 
barton Castle,'  a  tragedy  by  him,  also  un- 
printed, was  acted  in  Edinburgh  without 
success.  In  addition  to  these  works,  Jackson 
wrote  'The  History  of  the  Scottish  Stage/ 
Edinburgh,  1793,  a  species  of  apologia,  a 
work  of  no  merit  and  little  authority,  incor- 
porating a  previously  published  '  statement 
of  facts  explanatory  of  Jackson's  dispute 
with  Stephen  Kemble,  8vo,  1792.  Jackson 
was  eaten  up  with  vanity.  He  had  a  good 
person  and  some  judgment,  but  was  an  in- 
different performer,  having  a  harsh  voice 
and  a  provincial  accent.  Churchill,  in  '  The 
Rosciad/  speaks  of  him  with  much  severity. 
His  death  cannot  be  traced. 

[The  full  particulars  of  Jackson's  life  have  not 
been  collected ;  they  have  to  be  gleaned  from  his 
own  History  of  the  Scottish  Stage,  and  from  the 
Memoirs  of  Charles  Lee  Lewis,  1805,  vols.  iii. 
and  iv.  of  which  are  largely  occupied  with  dia- 



tribes  against  him,  the  outcome  of  a  quarrel. 
Genest's  Account  of  the  English  Stage,  the  Bio- 
graphia  Dramatiea,  Dibdin's  Annals  of  the  Edin- 
burgh Stage,  the  Thespian  Dictionary,  and  Lowe's 
Bibliographical  Account  of  English  Theatrical 
Literature,  have  been  freely  used.]  J.  K. 

JACKSON,  JOHN  (d.  1807),  traveller, 
was  for  at  least  six  years  before  1792  a  wine 
merchant  at  31  Clement's  Lane,  City.  In 
1786  he  sent  to  Richard  Gough  [q.  v.],  the 
topographer,  a  description  of  Roman  remains 
then  lately  discovered  during  some  excava- 
tions in  Lombard  Street  and  Birchin  Lane, 
which  was  printed,  with  plates,  in  '  Archeeo- 
logia,'  vol.  viii.  He  was  made  a  fellow  of 
the  Society  of  Antiquaries,  15  March  1787. 
Some  years  afterwards  he  proceeded  to  India 
on  private  business ;  and  on  4  May  1797  left 
Bombay  by  country  ship  for  Bassora  on 
his  way  home.  He  proceeded  by  way  of 
the  Euphrates  and  Tigris  to  Baghdad,  and 
thence  travelled  through  Kurdistan,  Armo- 
rica,  Anatolia,  Bulgaria/Wallachia,  Transyl- 
vania, reaching  Hamburg  on  28  Oct.  the 
same  year.  He  published  an  account  of  his  tra- 
vels under  the  title  'Journey  from  India  to- 
wards England  . .  ./London,  1799,  in  which  he 
showed  that  the  route  he  followed  was  prac- 
ticable all  the  year  round.  In  1803  he  com- 
municated to  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  an 
account  of  some  excavations  made  under  his 
directions  among  the  ruins  of  Carthage  and 
at  Udena,  published  in  'Archaeologia,'  vol.  xv., 
1806.  He  also  wrote  'Reflections  on  the 
Commerce  of  the  Mediterranean,  deduced 
from  actual  experience  during  a  residence 
on  both  shores  of  the  Mediterranean  Sea  .  . 
showing  the  advantages  of  increasing  the 
number  of  British  Consuls,  and  of  holding 
possession  of  Malta  as  nearly  equal  to  our 
West  Indian  trade,'  London,  1804,  8vo.  He 
died  in  1807  (Gent.  Mag.) 

[Lowndes's  London  Directory,  1 789 ;  List  of  the 
Soc.  of  Antiquaries  of  London,  1717-96  ;  Index 
to  Archseologia,  vols.  i-xxx.;  Watt's  Bibl.  Brit.; 
Gent.  Mag.  vol.  Ixxvii.  pt.  ii.  p.  785.]  H.  M.  C. 

JACKSON,  JOHN  (1778-1831),  portrait- 
painter,  born  31  May  1778,  was  son  of  a 
tailor  at  Lastingham  in  the  North  Riding 
•of  Yorkshire,  to  whom  he  was  apprenticed. 
At  an  early  age  he  showed  a  predilection 
for  art,  and  drew  portraits  of  his  boyish  as- 
sociates. His  father,  who  did  not  wish  to 
lose  his  services,  discouraged  such  practices. 
In  1797  Jackson  is  said,  however,  to  have 
offered  himself  as  a  painter  of  miniatures  at 
York,  and  during  an  itinerant  excursion  to 
Whitby  (whether  as  painter  or  tailor  does  not 
appear)  he  seems  to  have  been  introduced  to 
Lord  Mulgrave.  Lord  Mulgrave  recommended 

him  to  the  notice  of  the  Earl  of  Carlisle, 
who  gave  him  the  advantage  of  studying  the 
fine  collection  of  pictures  at  Castle  Howard. 
Finally  Lord  Mulgrave  and  Sir  George  Beau- 
mont freed  him  by  purchase  from  the  last 
two  years  of  his  apprenticeship.  His  early 
portraits  were  in  pencil,  weakly  tinted  with 
water-colour,  and  his  first  essay  in  oils  was 
a  copy  of  a  portrait  of  George  Colman  the 
elder,  by  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds,  lent  to  him 
by  Sir  George  Beaumont.  He  had  to  seek 
the  materials  in  the  shop  of  a  local  house- 
painter  and  glazier  at  Lastingham,  and  not- 
withstanding their  roughness  and  paucity 
he  managed  to  make  so  creditable  a  copy  that 
Sir  George  advised  him  to  go  to  London, 
promising  him  50/.  a  year  during  his  student- 
ship, and  a  place  at  his  table  (some  accounts 
say  a  room  in  his  house,  and  HAYDON  says 
that  the  pension  came  from  Lord  Mulgrave). 
He  arrived  in  London  in  1804,  and  was  ad- 
mitted a  student  of  the  Royal  Academy  in 
the  following  year,  the  same  year  as  Wilkie 
and  the  year  after  Hay  don.  The  three  stu- 
dents soon  became  fast  friends,  and  Jackson 
generously  introduced  Haydon  to  Lord  Mul- 
grave, and  brought  Lord  Mulgrave  and  Sir 
George  Beaumont  to  see  Wilkie's  picture  of 
the  '  Village  Politicians,'  a  visit  which  laid 
the  foundation  of  Wilkie's  success.  Jackson 
first  exhibited  at  the  Royal  Academy  in  1804, 
sending  a  portrait  of  Master  H.  Robinson. 
In  1806  he  exhibited  a  portrait  group  of 
Lady  Mulgrave  and  the  Hon.  Mrs.  Phipps, 
and  his  contributions  for  several  years  testi- 
fied to  the  kind  patronage  of  that  family, 
which  continued  till  his  death.  Although 
the  boldness  of  his  effects  of  colour  and 
chiaroscuro  did  not  attract  a  taste  which  de- 
lighted in  the  smooth  manner  of  Lawrence, 
Jackson  made  a  good  income  by  his  admir- 
able small  portraits  in  pencil,  highly  finished 
with  water-colour,  and  he  obtained  much 
employment  in  painting  and  copying  por- 
traits for  Cadell's  'Portraits  of  Illustrious 
Persons  of  the  18th  Century.'  Though  not 
greatly  patronised  by  the  aristocracy,  he  soon 
exhibited  portraits  of  Lady  Mary  Fitzgerald, 
the  Marquis  of  Huntly,  the  Marquis  of  Hart- 
ington,  the  Archbishop  of  York,  Lord  Nor- 
manby,  and  the  Marquis  of  Buckingham, 
besides  more  than  one  of  Lord  Mulgrave, 
and  he  painted  many  of  the  academicians, 
Northcote,  Bone,  West,  Stothard,  Ward, 
Westmacott,  Thomson,  and  Shee,  to  whom 
he  afterwards  added  Nollekens,  Dance, Flax- 
man,  Soane,  and  Chantrey.  He  was  elected 
an  associate  of  the  Royal  Academy  in  1815. 
In  1816  he  travelled  in  Holland  and  Flan- 
ders with  the  Hon.  General  Phipps,  making 
sketches,  some  of  which  are  in  the  South 


Kensington  and  British  Museums.  In  the 
following  year  he  was  raised  to  the  full 
honours  of  the  Academy,  and  received  a  pre- 
mium from  the  British  Institution  of  200/. 
In  1819  he  went  to  Rome  by  way  of  Geneva, 
Milan,  Padua,  Venice,  Bologna,  and  Florence. 
Chantrey,  who  accompanied  him,  testifies  to 
his  merit  as  a  companion, '  easy  and  accom- 
modating to  a  fault.'  At  Rome  he  is  said 
to  have  astonished  the  Italians  by  his  por- 
trait of  Canova,  one  of  his  best  works,  which 
was  exhibited  at  the  Royal  Academy  in  1820, 
and  by  the  rapidity  and  skill  with  which  he 
copied  Titian's  '  Sacred  and  Profane  Love ' 
(or  a  portion  of  it).  He  was  elected  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Roman  Academy  of  St.  Luke,  and 
in  the  British  Museum  are  several  sketches 
in  Italy  taken  in  the  course  of  the  tour. 
During  the  remainder  of  his  life  Jackson  sent 
yearly  to  the  Academy  from  five  to  eight 
portraits,  though  he  does  not  appear  to  have 
become  fashionable  or  to  have  charged  more 
than  fifty  guineas  for  a  portrait.  The  most 
he  made  in  a  single  year  was  probably  not 
more  than  1,500/.,  a  sum  which  Lawrence 
once  received  for  one  picture — that  of  Lady 
Gower  and  her  child — but  the  list  of  Jack- 
son's sitters  from  1815  to  1830  contains  many 
notable  names,  such  as  the  Duke  of  York, 
the  Dukes  of  Devonshire  and  Wellington, 
the  Marquis  of  Chandos,  Viscounts  Nor- 
manby  and  Lascelles,  Earls  Grosvenor,  Grey, 
Villiers,  and  Sheffield,  Lords  Grenville,  Bray- 
brooke,  and  Dundas,  Lady  Dover,  Ladies 
Georgina  Herbert,  Caroline  Macdonald,  Mary 
Howard,  and  Anne  Vernon,  and  the  Hon. 
Mrs.  Agar  Ellis.  He  also  painted  some 
actors  and  actresses,  Listen  and  Macready  (as 
Macbeth),  Miss  Wilson,  and  Miss  Stephens 
(Countess  of  Essex).  At  the  Loan  Collec- 
tion of  National  Portraits  at  South  Kensing- 
ton in  1868  were  (besides  some  already  men- 
tioned) portraits  of  James  Heath,  A.R.A., 
Dr.  Wollaston,  F.R.S.,  Dr.  Latham,  F.R.S., 
president  of  the  Royal  College  of  Physicians, 
James  Montgomery  the  poet,  the  Rev.  Adam 
Clarke,  Wesleyan  preacher,  Sir  John  Frank- 
lin, the  arctic  explorer,  and  Sir  John  Barrow, 

Jackson  was  a  Wesleyan  methodist,  and 
executed  the  monthly  portrait  in  the  '  Evan- 
gelist Magazine,'  the  organ  of  his  sect.  His 
religious  opinions  were  earnest  but  gloomy, 
and  are  said  to  have  ruined  his  health  and 
spirits  in  his  last  years,  while  the  low  state 
of  his  finances  at  his  death  is  partly  attri- 
buted to  his  extravagant  generosity  in  sup- 
port of  Wesleyan  institutions.  That  his  re- 
ligious opinions  were  not  illiberal  is  never- 
theless testified  by  his  painting  for  the  church 
of  his  birthplace  (Lastingham)  a  copy  of  the 




Duke  of  Wellington's  Correggio — '  Christ 
in  the  Garden  of  Gethsemane  ' — the  figures 
increased  to  life  size.  He  also  gave  50/.  in 
order  to  improve  the  light  about  the  part  of 
the  building  in  which  it  was  placed. 

The  death  of  Sir  Thomas  Lawrence  on 
7  Jan.  1830  might  have  been  expected  to  give 
Jackson  much  professional  advantage,  but  his 
health  was  then  declining.  On  returning 
from  Lastingham  he  caught  a  cold,  which 
was  aggravated  by  a  chill  caught  in  attend- 
ing the  funeral  of  his  old  patron  the  Earl  of 
Mulgrave.  He  died  at  his  house  at  St.  John's 
Wood,  1  June  1831.  His  addresses,  given  in 
the  Royal  Academy  Catalogues,  are :  1804, 
Hackley  Street;  1806,  32  Haymarket;  1809, 
54  Great  Marlborough  Street;  1811,7  New- 
man Street,  where  his  painting-room  was  to 
the  last.  He  married  twice.  His  first  wife, 
daughter  of  a  jeweller  named  Fletcher,  died 
in  1817  ;  his  second  wife,  daughter  of  James 
Ward,  R.A.,  survived  him  with  three  chil- 
dren. They  were  left  without  any  resources, 
and  the  Royal  Academy  granted  a  pension 
to  the  widow. 

As  a  man  Jackson  was  simple  and  sincere, 
silent  in  society,  but  companionable  and 
even  lively  with  one  or  two  friends.  As  a 
portrait-painter  he  was  wanting  in  vivacity 
and  elevation,  but  very  faithful  and  vigorous 
in  character.  Of  his  female  portraits,  that 
of  Lady  Dover  is  regarded  as  the  finest ;  of 
his  male,  that  of  Flaxman.  This  portrait 
and  that  of  Chantrey  were  commissions  from 
Lord  Dover,  and  were  intended  to  form  part 
of  a  series  of  portraits  of  famous  English  ar- 
tists, which  was  never  completed.  Sir  Thomas 
Lawrence  characterised  the  Flaxman,  at  the 
Academy  dinner  of  1827,  as  '  a  grand  achieve- 
ment of  the  English  School,  and  a  picture  of 
which  Vandyck  might  have  felt  proud  to 
own  himself  the  author.'  In  execution  Jack- 
son was  rapid  and  masterly.  Several  stories 
are  told  by  Cunningham  and  others  of  his 
'  marvellous  alacrity  of  hand '  in  painting 
portraits  and  copying  the  works  of  others, 
and  he  excelled  as  a  colourist.  '  For  subdued 
richness  of  colour,'  says  Leslie,  '  Lawrence 
never  approached  him.' 

At  the  National  Gallery  is  Jackson's  por- 
trait of  the  Rev.  William  Holwell  Carr ;  and 
at  the  National  Portrait  Gallery,  Catherine 
Stephens  (Countess  of  Essex),  Sir  John 
Soane,  his  own  portrait,  and  one  of  John 
Hunter  (copied  from  Reynolds).  At  the 
South  Kensington  Museum  is  another  one 
of  Earl  Grey,  besides  the  six  sketches  made 
in  Holland  and  Belgium.  Among  the  nu- 
merous drawings  by  him  at  the  British 
Museum  are  portraits  of  Sir  David  Wilkie, 
Joseph  Nollekens,  R.  A.,  Alexander,  emperor 




of  Russia,  Mrs.  Hannah  More,  and  two  copies 
(one  a  sketch  in  pencil  and  one  highlyfinished 
in  water-colour)  of  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds'e 
portrait  of  George  Column  the  elder,  already 
referred  to.  The  sketch  is  inscribed  '  The 
first  of  Sir  Joshua's  pictures  I  ever  saw, 
13  Jan.  1802.'  At  the  British  Museum  is 
also  a  sketch  of  Lastingham.  The  Royal 
Academy  possesses  his  diploma  picture,  '  A 
Jewish  Rabbi.'  Between  1804  and  1830  (both 
inclusive)  Jackson  exhibited  146  pictures  at 
the  Royal  Academy,  and  twenty  at  the  British 

[Redgrave's  Diet,  of  Artists ;  Redgraves' 
Century  of  Painters  ;  Bryan's  Diet.  (Graves) ; 
Graves's  Diet. ;  Library  of  Fine  Arts  ;  Cunning- 
ham's Lives  (Heaton) ;  Haydon's  Autobiography; 
Cunningham's  Life  of  Wilkie  ;  European  Maga- 
zine, August  1823  ;  Annals  of  the  Fine  Arts,  1817 ; 
Cat.  of  Loan  Collection  of  National  Portraits  at 
South  Kensington,  1868;  Catalogues  of  Royal 
Academy,  &c.;  Gent.  Mag.  1831.]  C.  M. 

JACKSON,  JOHN  (1769-1845),  pugilist, 
known  as  GENTLEMAN  JACKSON,  was  the  son 
of  a  London  builder.  He  was  born  in  Lon- 
don on  28  Sept.  1769,  and  appeared  only 
three  times  in  the  prize-ring.  His  first  public 
fight  took  place  on  9  June  1788  at  Smitham 
Bottom,  near  Croydon,  when  he  defeated 
Fewterel  of  Birmingham  in  a  contest  lasting 
one  hour  and  seven  minutes,  in  the  presence 
of  the  Prince  of  Wales.  He  was  defeated 
by  George  (Ingleston)  the  Brewer  at  Ingate- 
stone,  Essex,  on  12  March  1789,  owing  to  a 
heavy  fall  on  the  stage,  which  dislocated  his 
ankle  and  broke  the  small  bone  of  his  leg. 
He  offered  to  finish  the  battle  tied  to  a  chair, 
but  this  his  opponent  declined.  His  third 
and  last  fight  was  with  Mendoza,  whom  he 
beat  at  Hornchurch,  Essex,  on  15  April  1795, 
in  ten  minutes  and  a  half.  Jackson  was 
champion  of  England  from  1795  to  1803, 
when  he  retired  and  was  succeeded  by  Jem 
Belcher.  After  leaving  the  prize-ring,  Jack- 
son established  a  school  at  No.  13  Bond 
Street,  where  he  gave  instructions  in  the  art 
of  self-defence,  and  was  largely  patronised 
by  the  nobility  of  the  day.  At  the  coronation 
of  George  IV  Jackson  was  employed,  with 
eighteen  other  prizefighters  dressed  as  pages, 
to  guard  the  entrance  to  Westminster  Abbey 
and  Hall.  He  seems,  according  to  the  in- 
scription on  a  mezzotint  engraving  by  C.  Tur- 
ner, to  have  subsequently  been  landlord  of 
the  Sun  and  Punchbowl,  Holborn,  and  of 
the  Cock  at  Sutton.  He  died  on  7  Oct.  1845 
at  No.  4  Lower  Grosvenor  Street  West,  Lon- 
don, in  his  seventy-seventh  year,  and  was 
buried  in  Brompton  cemetery,  where  a  co- 
lossal monument  was  erected  by  subscription 
to  his  memory. 

Jackson  was  a  magnificently  proportioned 
man.  His  height  was  5  feet  11  inches  and 
his  weight  14  stone.  He  was  also  a  fine 
short-distance  runner  and  jumper,  and  is  said 
to  have  lifted,  in  the  presence  of  Harvey 
Combe,  10£  cwt.,  and  with  an  84  Ib.  weight 
on  his  little  finger  to  have  written  his  own 
name  (Gent.  Mag.  1845,  new  ser.  xxiv.  649). 
Jackson  was  said  to  make '  more  than  a  thou- 
sand a  year  by  teaching  sparring '  (MooEE, 
Memoirs,  ii.  230).  Byron,  who  was  one  of 
his  pupils,  had  a  great  regard  for  him,  and 
often  walked  and  drove  with  him  in  public. 
It  is  related  that  while  Byron  was  at  Cam- 
bridge his  tutor  remonstrated  with  him  on 
;  being  seen  in  company  so  much  beneath  his 
I  rank,  and  that  he  replied  that  Jackson's 
manners  were  '  infinitely  superior  to  those  of 
the  fellows  of  the  college  whom  I  meet  at  the 
high  table '  (J.  W.  CLARK,  Cambridge,  1890, 
p.  140).  Byron  twice  alludes  to  his  '  old 
I  friend  and  corporeal  pastor  and  master '  in  his 
notes  to  his  poems  (BYRON,  Poetical  Works, 
1885-6,  ii.  144,  vi.  427),  as  well  as  in  his 
'  Hints  from  Horace  '  (ib.  i.  503) : 

And  men  unpractised  in  exchanging  knocks 
Must  go  to  Jackson  ere  they  dare  to  box. 

Moore,  who  accompanied  Jackson  to  a  prize- 
fight in  December  1818,  notes  in  his  diary 
that  Jackson's  house  was  '  a  very  neat  esta- 
blishment for  a  boxer,'  and  that  the  respect 
paid  to  him  everywhere  was '  highly  comical ' 
(Memoirs,  ii.  233).  A  portrait  of  Jackson, 
from  an  original  painting  then  in  the  posses- 
sion of  Sir  Henry  Smythe,bart.,will  be  found 
in  the  first  volume  of  Miles's  'Pugilistica' 
(opp.  p.  89).  There  are  two  mezzotint  en- 
gravings by  C.  Turner. 

[Miles's  Pugilistica,  1880,  i.  89-102;  Fights 
for  the  Championship,  by  the  Editor  of  Bell's 
Life,  1855,  pp.  15-17;  Fistiana,  1868,  pp.  40, 
46,  64-5, 82,  134 ;  Bell's  Life  in  London,  12  Oct. 
1845;  Moore's  Life  of  Byron,  1847,  pp.  70,  71, 
206,  271,  342  ;  Lord  John  Russell's  Memoirs  of 
Moore,  1853,  ii.  229,  230,  233,  iv.  53,  58,  v.  269, 
vi.  72  ;  Annual  Register,  1845,  App.  to  Chron. 
p.  300 ;  Gent.  Mag.  1845,  new  ser.  xxiv.  649.] 

G.  F.  R.  B. 

JACKSON,  JOHN  (1801-1848),  wood- 
engraver,  was  born  of  humble  parentage  at 
Ovingham,  Northumberland,  on  19  April 
1801.  His  early  attempts  at  drawing  at- 
tracted the  notice  of  his  neighbours,  and  in 
the  expectation  that  he  might  follow  the 
example  of  Thomas  Bewick  [q.  v.],  a  native 
of  the  same  village,  he  was  apprenticed  to 
Messrs.  Armstrong  &  Walker,  engravers 
and  printers  at  Newcastle.  On  the  failure 
of  their  business  he  was  apprenticed  to  Be- 
wick, and  at  the  close  of  his  apprentice- 




ship  came  to  London.  Here  he  assisted 
"William  Hughes  to  engrave  the  illustrations 
of  Mr.  Weare's  murder  for  the  '  Observer/  and 
was  afterwards  employed  by  James  North- 
cote,  R.A.  [q.  v.],  to  engrave  most  of  his 
well-known  series  of  '  Fables.'  Henceforth 
Jackson  was  one  of  the  first  engravers  of 
illustrations  on  wood  for  popular  literature 
or  journalism.  His  work  for  Charles  Knight's 
'Penny  Magazine'  did  much  to  insure  the 
success  of  the  periodical.  Jackson  also  drew 
and  painted  domestic  subjects  with  some 
success.  Some  of  his  drawings  were  engraved 
in  the  '  New  Sporting  Magazine,'  and  to  that 
magazine  as  well  as  to  Hone's  '  Every-day 
Book '  he  contributed  literary  articles.  Jack- 
son took  a  literary  and  historical,  as  well  as  a 
practical  interest  in  his  profession  as  a  wood- 
engraver,  and  continually  collected  materials 
for  a  history  of  wood-engraving.  Ultimately 
he  and  his  intimate  friend,  "William  Andrew 
Chatto  [q.  v.],  joined  together  in  bringing  out 
the  work  in  1839.  The  project  was  Jack- 
son's ;  the  subjects  were  selected  by  him, 
and  he  contributed  some  of  the  historical 
matter,  bore  the  cost  of  production,  and  en- 
graved  the  illustrations ;  some  of  his  best 
work  as  a  wood-engraver  is  to  be  found  in 
the  first  edition.  The  whole  was  edited  and 
brought  into  shape  by  Chatto.  A  dispute  fol- 
lowed between  Jackson  and  Chatto  as  to  their 
respective  shares  in  the  credit  of  producing  it. 
Jackson  died  in  London  of  chronic  bronchitis 
on  27  March  1848,  and  was  buried  in  High- 
gate  cemetery.  He  was  the  father  of  Mason 
Jackson,  the  well-known  wood-engraver. 
There  are  good  examples  of  his  work  in  the 
print  room  at  the  British  Museum, 
rinformation  from  Mr.  Mason  Jackson.] 

L.  C. 

JACKSON,  JOHN  (1811-1885),  bishop 
successively  of  Lincoln  and  of  London,  the 
son  of  Henry  Jackson  of  Mansfield,  Notting- 
hamshire, and  afterwards  of  London,  was 
born  in  London  on  22  Feb.  1811.  He  was 
educated  under  Dr.  Valpy  at  Reading,  and 
became  scholar  of  Pembroke  College,  Oxford, 
in  1829.  In  1833  he  came  out  in  the  first 
class  in  the  honour  school  of  lit,  human.,  a 
class  which  also  contained  the  names  of 
Charles  John,  afterwards  Earl  Canning, 
Henry  George  Liddell,  afterwards  dean  of 
Christ  Church,  Robert  Scott,  afterwards 
dean  of  Rochester,  and  Robert  Lowe,  after- 
wards Lord  Sherbrooke.  Jackson  remained 
at  Oxford  a  short  time  after  taking  his  degree, 
and  failed  in  a  competition  for  a  fellowship 
at  Oriel,  but  in  1834  was  awarded  the  Eller- 
ton  theological  prize.  In  1835  he  was  or- 
dained deacon,  and  began  pastoral  work  as 

a  curate  at  Henley-on-Thames.  This  he  re- 
linquished in  1836  to  become  head-master  of 
the  Islington  proprietary  school.  Settled  in 
North  London,  Jackson  rapidly  won  a  posi- 
tion as  a  preacher.  As  evening  lecturer  at 
Stoke  Newington  parish  church  he  delivered 
the  sermons  on  '  The  Sinfulness  of  Little 
Sins,'  the  most  successful  of  his  published 
works.  In  1842  he  was  appointed  first  in- 
cumbent of  St.  James's,  Muswell  Hill,  re- 
taining his  mastership  the  while.  In  1845 
his  university  made  him  one  of  its  select 
preachers,  an  honour  repeated  in  1850, 1862, 
and  1 866.  In  1 853  Jackson  was  Boyle  lecturer, 
and  in  the  same  year,  at  the  suggestion  of  his 
friend  Canon  Harvey  (to  whom  the  post  was 
first  offered),  he  was  made  vicar  of  St.  James's, 
Piccadilly.  There  his  reputation  as  a  good 
organiser  and  a  thoughtful,  if  not  brilliant, 
preacher  steadily  grew.  He  was  appointed 
chaplain  in  ordinary  to  the  queen  in  1847, 
and  canon  of  Bristol  in  1853.  In  the  same 
year  the  see  of  Lincoln  fell  vacant  by  the 
death  of  Dr.  Kaye,  and  Lord  Aberdeen  asked 
Jackson  to  fill  it.  The  choice  was  widely 
approved.  Even  Samuel  Wilberforce  thought 
it  '  quite  a  respectable  appointment,'  which, 
however,  had '  turned  at  the  last  on  a  feather's 
weight'  (Life,  ii.  179).  The  diocese  found  in 
Jackson  the  thorough,  methodical,  patient 
worker  it  needed.  He  welded  together  the 
counties  of  Lincoln  and  Nottingham,  galva- 
nised into  life  the  ruridecanal  system,  stimu- 
lated the  educational  work  of  the  diocese, 
and  raised  the  tone  of  its  clergy.  In  con- 
vocation he  was  active,  but  rarely  spoke 
in  the  House  of  Lords.  When  Tait  was 
translated  from  London  to  Canterbury  in 
1868,  Jackson  was  unexpectedly  selected  by 
Mr.  Disraeli,  then  prime  minister,  for  the 
vacant  see  of  London.  The  choice  was  amply 
vindicated  by  the  results.  Jackson,  like  his 
predecessor,  had  the  mind  of  a  lawyer,  and 
was  a  thorough  man  of  business.  Despite 
grave  anxieties  over  ritual  prosecutions,  he 
achieved  much  that  was  valuable.  By  the 
creation  of  the  diocese  of  St.  Albans,  and  the 
rearrangement  of  Rochester  and  Winchester, 
the  diocese  of  London  was  made  more  work- 
able, and  towards  the  end  of  his  life  a  suf- 
fragan was  appointed  for  the  oversight  of 
East  London.  Jackson  energetically  sup- 
ported the  Bishop  of  London's  Fund,  encou- 
raged the  organisation  of  lay  help,  and,  after 
much  hesitation,  created  a  diocesan  confer- 
ence. At  first  opposed  to  the  ritual  move- 
ment, he  displayed  toleration  in  his  final 
action  in  the  case  of  A.  H.  Mackonochie 
[q.  v.]  He  died  suddenly  on  6  Jan.  1885, 
and  was  buried  in  Fulham  churchyard.  Me- 
thodical in  thought  and  act,  Jackson  was 





reserved  in  manner,  but  was  sympathetic 
nevertheless.  Jackson  married  in  1838  Mary 
Anne  Frith,  daughter  of  Henry  Browell  of 
Kentish  Town,  by  whom  he  had  one  son  and 
ten  daughters. 

Jackson's  works  were:  1.  'The  Sanctify- 
ing Influence  of  the  Holy  Spirit  is  indispen- 
sable to  Human  Salvation'  (Ellerton  essay), 
Oxford,  1834.  2.  '  Six  Sermons  on  the  Lead- 
ing Points  of  the  Christian  Character,'  Lon- 
don, 1844.  3.  '  The  Sinfulness  of  Little  Sins,' 
London,  1849.  4.  '  Repentance :  a  Course 
of  Sermons,'  London,  1851.  5.  '  The  Wit- 
ness of  the  Spirit,'  London,  1854.  6.  '  God's 
Word  and  Man's  Heart,'  London,  1864.  He 
also  wrote  the  commentary  and  critical  notes 
on  the  pastoral  epistles  in  '  The  Speaker's 
Commentary,'  New  Testament,  vol.  iii.,  Lon- 
don, 1881 ;  a  preface  to  Waterland  '  On  the 
Eucharist,'  Oxford,  1868 ;  with  many  sepa- 
rately issued  charges  and  sermons. 

[Times,  7  Jan.  1885  ;  Guardian,  7  and  14  Jan. 
1885  ;  Eecord,  9  and  16  Jan.  1885  ;  Our  Bishops 
and  Deans,  London,  1875,  i.  349  ;  Life  of  Samuel 
Wilberforce,  London,  1881,  ii.  179;  Annals  of 
the  Low  Church  Party,  London,  1888,  ii.  154, 
250,  377,  488 ;  Honours  Reg.  of  the  Univ.  of 
Oxford  (Oxford,  1883),  pp.  135,  136,  175,  222.1 

A.  R.  B. 

1780?),  wood-engraver,  born  in  1701,  is 
stated  to  have  been  a  pupil  of  Elisha  Kirkall 
[q.  v.],  and  it  has  been  conjectured  that  he 
and  Kirkall  engraved  conjointly  the  anony- 
mous wood-engravings  in  Croxall's  edition  of 
'  JEsop's  Fables.'  Some  cuts  to  an  edition 
of  Dryden's  'Poems'  in  1717  bear  Jackson's 
initials.  About  1726  Jackson  went  to  Paris, 
where  he  was  employed  on  engraving  vig- 
nettes and  illustrations  for  books,  working 
under  the  well-known  wood-engraver,  Papil- 
lon,  who  has  left  a  depreciatory  notice  of 
Jackson  as  a  man  and  as  an  artist.  Not  being 
successful  in  Paris,  Jackson  went  to  Rome 
about  1731,  and  shortly  afterwards  removed 
to  Venice,  where  he  resided  some  years.  At 
Venice  Jackson  engraved  a  fine  title-page 
to  an  Italian  translation  of  Suetonius's '  Lives 
of  the  Caesars '  (1738),  and  also  devoted  him- 
self to  a  revival  of  the  disused  art  of  engraving 
in  colours  or  chiaroscuro,  by  the  superimposi- 
tion  of  a  number  of  different  blocks.  He 
published  in  1738  as  his  first  essay,  in  coloured 
engraving,  '  The  Descent  from  the  Cross ' 
by  Rembrandt,  now  in  the  National  Gallery, 
but  then  in  the  collection  of  Mr.  Joseph 
Smith,  the  British  consul  at  Venice,  who 
patronised  and  employed  Jackson.  In  1 745  he 
published  a  set  of  seventeen  large  coloured  en- 
gravings from  pictures  by  Titian,  Paolo  Vero- 
nese, and  other  Venetian  painters,  entitled 

'Titiani  Vecelii,  Pauli  Caliari,  Jacobi  Ro 
busti,  et  Jacopi  de  Ponte  opera  selectiora 
a  Joanne  Baptista  Jackson  Anglo  ligno 
coelata  et  coloribus  adumbrata.'  He  also  en- 
graved some  chiaroscuros  after  Parmigiano, 
six  coloured  landscapes  after  Marco  Ricci,  and 
a  portrait  of  Algernon  Sydney.  After  twenty 
years  on  the  continent  Jackson  returned  to 
England,  and  started  a  manufactory  of  paper- 
hangings,  printed  in  chiaroscuro,  at  Batter- 
sea,  the  first  of  its  kind  in  England.  In  1754 
he  published  '  An  Essay  on  the  Invention  of 
Engraving  and  Printing  in  Chiaroscuro,  as 
practised  by  Albert  Diirer,  Hugo  di  Carpi,  &c., 
and  the  Applications  of  it  to  the  Making 
Paper-hangings  of  Taste,  Duration,  and  Ele- 
gance.' Thomas  Bewick,  writing  in  his  diary 
about  1780,  notes  that  Jackson  lived  in  old 
age  at  Newcastle-on-Tyne,  and  died  in  an 
asylum  near  the  Teviot  or  on  Tweedside. 

[Chatto  and  Jackson's  Hist,  of  Wood  En- 
graving ;  Linton's  Masters  of  Wood  Engraving ; 
Dodd's  manuscript  Hist,  of  English  Engravers 
(Brit.  Mus.  Add.  MS.  33402) ;  Redgrave's  Diet, 
of  Artists.]  L.  C. 

1891),  antiquary,  born  on  12  Nov.  1805,  was 
second  son  of  James  Jackson,  banker,  of  Don- 
caster,  by  Henrietta  Priscilla,  second  daugh- 
ter of  Freeman  Bower.  Charles  Jackson 
(1809-1882)  [q.  v.]  was  a  younger  brother. 
John  matriculated  at  Oxford  from  Brasenose 
College  on  9  April  1823,  graduated  B.  A.  with 
second-class  classical  honours  in  1827,  and 
proceeded  M.A.  in  1830  (FOSTER,  Alumni 
Oxon.  1715-1886,  ii.  736).  In  1845  he  be- 
came rector  of  Leigh  Delamere-with-Seving- 
ton,  Wiltshire,  and  in  1846  vicar  of  Norton 
Coleparle  in  the  same  county.  He  was  also 
rural  dean  and  honorary  canon  of  Bristol 
(1855).  Jackson,  who  was  F.S.A.,  was  li- 
brarian to  the  Marquis  of  Bath,  and  arranged 
and  indexed  the  bulk  of  the  manuscripts  at 
Longleat  (Hist.  MSS.  Comm.  3rd  Rep.  p.  180, 
4th  Rep.  p.  227).  He  died  in  March  1891. 

Jackson  was  a  careful  writer  on  antiquarian 
topics,  and  was  always  ready- to  aid  fellow- 
students.  His  works  are :  1.  '  The  History 
of  Grittleton,  co.  Wilts,'  4to,  1843,  for  Wilts 
Topographical  Society.  2.  'A  Guide  to  Far- 
leigh-Hungerford,  co.  Somerset,'  8vo,  Taun- 
ton,  1853  (1860,  1879).  3.  '  History  of  the 
ruined  Church  of  St.  Mary  Magdalene,  Don- 
caster,'  4to,  London,  1853.  4. '  Maud  Heath's 
Causey,'  4to,  Devizes,  1854.  5.  '  Murder  of 
H.  Long,  Esq.,  A.D.  1594,' 8vo,  Devizes,  1854. 
6.  '  Kingston  House,  Bradford,'  4to,  Devizes, 
1854.  7.  'History  and  Description  of  St. 
George's  Church  at  Doncaster,'  4to,  Lon- 
don, 1855.  8.  '  On  the  Hungerford  Chapels 




in  Salisbury  Cathedral,'  4to,  Devizes,  1855. 
9.  '  A  List  of  Wiltshire  Sheriffs,'  4to,  Devizes, 

1856.  10. '  History  of  Longleat,'8vo,  Devizes, 

1857.  11.  'The  History  of  Kington  St.  Mi- 
chael, co.  Wilts,'4to,  Devizes,  1857.  12.  ' The 
History  of  the  Priory  of  Monkton  Farley, 
Wilts,'  4to,  Devizes,  1857.     13.  '  Swindon 
and  its  Neighbourhood,'  4to,  Devizes,  1861. 
14.  'Malmesbury,'4to,  Devizes,  1863.  15.  'De- 
vizes/4to,  Devizes,  1864.    16. '  The  Sheriffs' 
Turn,  Wilts,  A.D.  1439,'  4to,  Devizes,  1872. 

Jackson  also  edited  for  the  Wiltshire  Ar- 
chaeological and  Natural  History  Society  the 
'Wiltshire  Topographical  Collection'  of  John 
Aubrey,  4to,  1862 ;  Leland's '  Journey  through 
Wiltshire,'  4to  (1875  ?) ;  and  for  the  Rox- 
burghe  Club  the  '  Glastonbury  Inquisition  of 
A.D.  1189,  called  "Liber  Henrici  de  Soliaco,'" 
4to,  1882.  He  was  an  active  contributor  to 
the  '  Wiltshire  Archaeological  Magazine,'  in 
which  appeared  his  valuable  monographs  on 
'  Charles,  Lord  Stourton,  and  the  Murder  of 
the  Hartgills,  January  1557,'  1864 ;  '  Ambres- 
bury  Monastery,'  1866;  '  Ancient  Chapels  in 
Wilts,'  1867;  and  'Rowley,  alias  Witten- 
ham,  co.  Wilts,'  1872,  reissued  separately. 

[Athenaeum,  14  March  1891,  p.  352;  Crock- 
ford's  Clerical  Directory,  1890 ;  Brit.  Mus.  Cat. ; 
Foster's  Yorkshire  Pedigrees,  vol.  i.]  G.  G. 


(1819-1877),  engraver,  born  at  Portsmouth 
on  14  Dec.  1819,  was  second  son  of  E.  Jack- 
son, a  banker  in  that  town.  In  1836  he 
became  pupil  to  Robert  Graves,  A.R.  A.  [q.  vj, 
from  whom  he  learnt  line-engraving.  He 
subsequently  devoted  himself  to  engraving 
in  mezzotint.  In  1847  he  engraved  '  The 
Otter  and  Salmon'  after  Sir  Edwin  Landseer, 
which  brought  him  into  notice.  He  obtained 
frequent  employment  as  an  engraver  of  por- 
traits, and  to  that  work  he  almost  entirely 
devoted  himself.  His  engravings  show  care- 
ful drawing,  and  a  great  feeling  for  the  colour 
in  mezzotint.  He  engraved  numerous  por- 
traits after  George  Richmond,  R.  A.,  including 
'Lord  Hatherley,'  'The  Earl  of  Radnor,' 
'  Samuel  Wilberforce,' '  Archbishop  Trench ; ' 
several  after  J.  P.  Knight,  R.  A.,  including '  Sir 
F.  Grant, R. A.,' and  'F.R. Say; "The Queen' 
after  W.  Fowler ;  '  The  Princess  Royal  and 
her  Sisters'  after  Winterhalter ;  '  The  Arch- 
bishop of  Armagh'  after  J.  Catterson  Smith, 
and  'Lady  Gertrude  Fitzpatrick'  after  Sir 
Joshua  Reynolds.  He  also  engraved,  among 
other  subjects,  'St.  John  the  Baptist'  after 
the  well-known  picture  by  Murillo  in  the 
National  Gallery.  Jackson  died  at  Southsea 
of  fever  on  10  May  1877.  There  are  some  fine 
examples  of  his  engravings  in  the  print  room 
at  the  British  Museum. 

[Printing  Times,  15  June  1877;  Art  Journal, 
1877,  p.  155;  Kedgrave's  Diet,  of  Artists.] 

L.  C. 

JACKSON,  JOSEPH  (1733-1792),  letter- 
founder,  was  born  in  Old  Street,  Shoreditch, 
London,  4  Sept.  1733,  and  was  educated  at 
a  school  near  St.  Luke's,  in  which  church  he 
was  the  first  infant  baptised.  He  was  ap- 
prenticed to  William  Caslon  the  elder  (1692- 
1766)  [q.  v.],  at  Chiswell  Street,  to  learn '  the 
whole  art'(E.  Rows  MOKES,  Dissertation  on 
English  Typographical  Founders,  1778,  p.  83), 
and,  says  Nichols, '  being  exceedingly  tractable 
in  the  common  branches  of  the  business,  he  had 
a  great  desire  to  learn  the  method  of  cutting 
the  punches,  which  is  in  general  kept  pro- 
foundly secret '  {Literary  Anecdotes,  ii.  359). 
This  important  art  was  carried  on  privately 
by  Caslon  and  his  son,  and  Jackson  only  dis- 
covered the  process  by  watching  through  a 
hole  in  the  wainscot.  He  worked  for  Caslon 
a  short  time  after  the  expiration  of  his  arti- 
cles, and  is  represented  as  a  rubber  in  the 
view  of  the  foundry  given  in  the  '  Universal 
Magazine '  (June  1750,  vi.  274).  Thomas 
Cottrell  and  he  were  discharged  as  the  ring- 
leaders of  a  quarrel  among  the  workmen,  and 
the  two  began  business  themselves.  In  1759, 
however,  Jackson  was  serving  on  board  the 
Minerva  frigate  as  armourer,  and  in  May 
1761  held  the  same  office  on  the  Aurora.  At 
the  peace  of  1763  he  took  40/.  prize-money. 
Having  left  the  navy,  he  returned  to  work 
in  Cottrell's  foundry  in  Nevill's  Court,  Fetter 
Lane.  He  then  hired  a  small  house  in  Cock 
Lane,  and  about  1765  produced  his  first 
specimen-sheet  of  types.  His  business  in- 
creased, and  he  moved  to  Dorset  Street, 
Salisbury  Square,  Fleet  Street.  In  1773  he 
issued  another  specimen,  including  Hebrew, 
Persian,  and  Bengalee  letters ;  it  is  praised 
by  Mores,  who  describes  Jackson  as '  obliging 
and communicative'(Z)zsserto&'cm,p.83).  He 
produced  the  type  used  in  Domesday  Book, 
1783.  Woide's  facsimile  of  the  New  Testa- 
ment of  the  Codex  Alexandrinus  is  described 
on  the  title-page  as  being '  ty  pis  Jacksonianis ; ' 
and  Jackson  also  cut  the  punches  for  Kip- 
ling's edition  of  the  '  Codex  Bezse,'  1793.  In 
1790  his  moulds  and  matrices  were  much 
damaged  in  a  fire.  He  cut  for  Bensley  a 
splendid  fount  for  Macklin's  '  Bible,'  1800, 
7  vols.  folio,  and  another  for  the  same  printer, 
used  in  Hume's  '  England,'  1806,  10  vols. 
folio ;  the  last,  he  asserted,  would  '  be  the 
most  exquisite  performance  of  the  kind  in 
this  or  any  other  country  '{Gent.  Mag.  1792, 
p.  166).  The  anxiety  of  this  undertaking  is 
supposed  to  have  hastened  his  death,  which 
took  place  14  Jan.  1792,  in  his  fifty-ninth, 




Jackson  was  married,  first,  to  Elizabeth 
Tassell  (d.  1783),  and,  secondly,  to  Mrs. 
Pasham  (d.  1791),  widow  of  a  printer  in 
Blackfriars.  He  was  buried  beside  his  two 
wives  in  the  burial-ground  of  Spa  Fields 
Chapel.  He  '  was  in  every  sense  01  the  word 
a  master  of  his  art '  (T.  C.  HANSABD,  Typo- 
graphia,  1825,  p.  359).  '  By  the  death  of  this 
ingenious  artist  and  truly  worthy  man  the 
poor  lost  a  most  excellent  benefactor,  his  own 
immediate  connections  a  steady  friend,  and 
the  literary  world  a  valuable  coadjutor  to 
their  labours'  (NICHOLS,  Literary  Anecdotes, 
ii.  360).  An  engraved  portrait  is  given  by 
Nichols  (ib.  ii.  358) ;  a  portrait  in  oil  was 
shown  by  W.  Blades  at  the  Caxton  Exhibi- 
tion (Catalogue,  p.  336).  He  was  childless, 
and  left  the  bulk  of  his  fortune,  which  was 
large,  to  fourteen  nephews  and  nieces.  His 
foundry  was  ultimately  purchased  by  the 
third  William  Caslon,  by  whom  it  was  en- 
larged and  improved. 

[Nichols's  Lit.  Anecd.  ii.  358-63,  iii.  264,  460 ; 
Gent.  Mag.  January  1792,  pp.  92-3,  166;  Reed's 
Old  English  Letter  Foundries,  1887,  pp.  315- 
329.]  H.  K.  T. 

JACKSON,  JULIAN  (wrongly  called 
JOHN  RICHARD)  (1790-1853),  colonel  of  the 
imperial  Eussian  staff  and  geographer,  son  of 
William  Turner  Jackson  and  his  wife  Lu- 
cille, was  born  30  March  1790,  and  baptised 
at  St.  Anne's  Church,  Westminster,  24  May 
following.  He  passed  through  the  Royal 
Military  Academy,  Woolwich,  was  nomi- 
nated to  a  Bengal  cadetship  by  Sir  Stephen 
Lushington  in  1807,  and  was  appointed 
second  lieutenant  in  the  Bengal  artillery 
26  Sept.  1808,  and  first  lieutenant  28  April 
1809.  He  resigned  his  rank  in  India  28  Aug. 
1813  to  seek  employment  in  Wellington's 
army  in  the  Peninsula,  but  arrived  too  late. 
On  2  June  1815  the  emperor  Alexander  of 
Russia  appointed  Julian  '  Villiamovitch ' 
Jackson  to  the  quartermaster's  staff  of  the 
imperial  suite,  with  the  rank  of  lieutenant. 
He  did  duty  with  the  quartermaster-general's 
staff  of  the  12th  Russian  infantry  division 
under  Count  Woronzow,  forming  part  of  the 
allied  army  of  occupation  in  France,  until 
6  Nov.  1818,  when  he  went  to  Russia  with 
them  in  the  rank  of  staff-captain.  On  the 
augmentation  of  the  Lithuanian  army  corps 
next  year  Jackson  was  appointed  to  the 
quartermaster-general's  staff,  and  attached  to 
the  grenadier  brigade.  He  did  duty  with 
this  part  of  the  army  during  most  of  his 
service,  becoming  captain  8  Aug.  1821,  and 
lieutenant-colonel  29  March  1825.  He  was 
promoted  colonel  on  the  general  staff  of  the 
army  14  Aug.  1829,  and  retired  from  the 

Russian  service  21  Sept.  1830  (information 
supplied  by  the  imperial  Russian  staff).  On 
Jackson's  retirement  the  Count  de  la  Cane- 
rine,  imperial  finance  minister,  appointed  him 
commissioner  and  correspondent  in  London 
for  the  Russian  department  of  manufactures. 
Early  in  1841  he  was  appointed  secretary  of 
the  Royal  Geographical  Society,  London.  H& 
resigned  the  secretaryship  in  February  1847. 
About  the  same  time  he  was  suddenly  super- 
seded in  his  Russian  post  and  emoluments, 
and  was  thus  placed  in  very  straitened  cir- 
cumstances. Through  Sir  Roderick  Mur- 
chison  he  obtained  a  clerkship  under  the- 
council  of  education,  which  he  held  until  his- 
death.  The  czar  Nicholas  also  gave  him  a 
small  pension  (Journ.  of  the  Roy.  Geogr.  Soc. 
1853,  presidential  address).  Jackson  wa» 
made  a  F.R.S.  London  in  1845,  and  was  a 
member  or  corresponding  member  of  many 
learned  societies.  He  was  a  knight  of  St. 
Stanislaus  of  Poland.  He  died,  after  long 
suffering,  16  March  1853  (Gent.  Mag.  new 
ser.  xxxix.  562).  He  married  Miss  Sarah. 
Ogle,  by  whom  he  had  several  children. 

Jackson  was  an  industrious  writer.  Hi* 
'  Guide  du  Voyageur,'  published  at  Paris  in 
1822,  went  through  several  French  editions, 
and  was  reproduced  in  English  under  the- 
title  of '  What  to  Observe  ;  or  the  Traveller's 
Remembrancer,'  in  1841, 1851  (?),  and  1861. 
Papers  on  '  Couleurs  dans  les  corps  trans- 
parents,'  '  Les  Galets  ou  pierres  roulees- 
de  Pologne,'  'Transparence  et  Couleur  de 
1'Atmosphere,'  '  Les  lacs  salves '  were  con- 
tributed by  him  to  the  '  Bibliotheque  Univ. 
de  Geneve,'  1830-2;  and  '  Physico-Geogra- 
phical  Essays,'  '  Hints  on  Geographical  Ar- 
rangement,' a  translation  of  Wietz's  memoir 
on  'Ground  Ice  in  Siberian  Lakes,'  a  memoir 
on  'Picturesque  Descriptions  in  Books  of 
Travel,'  and  other  papers  to  the  '  Journal  of 
the  Royal  Geographical  Society.'  He  also- 
wrote  a  pamphlet  on  '  National  Education/ 
which  went  through  two  editions ;  a  work  on. 
'  Minerals  and  their  Uses '  (London,  1848)  ; 
a  memoir  on  '  Cartography ; '  and  numerous 
reviews.  He  translated  and  edited  from  the- 
French  La  ValleVs  well-known  treatise  on 
'  Military  Geography,'  which  in  Jackson's 
hands  became  almost  a  new  work.  Jackson 
also  indexed  the  first  ten  volumes  of  the 
'  Proceedings  of  the  Royal  Geographical  So- 
ciety,' a  task  that  occupied  him  255  days, 
at  the  rate  of  five  hours  a  day. 

[Information  obtained  from  the  India  Office, 
from  the  chief  of  the  Scientific  Committee,  Im- 
perial Eussian  Staff,  through  the  courtesy  of 
J.  Michell,  esq.,  H.B.M.  Consul,  St.  Petersburg, 
and  from  the  Royal  Geographical  Society,  Lon- 
don ;  Presidential  Address,  1853,  in  Journ.  of  th& 




Roy.  Geogr.  Soc.  1853,  xxiii.  Ixxii-iii.  Lists 
of  Jackson's  writings  are  given  in  Roy.  Soc. 
Cat.  Scient.  Papers  under  '  Jackson,  Julian  R., 
F.R.S.,'  and  in  Brit.  Mus.  Cat.  Printed  Books, 
under  'Jackson,  John  Richard,  F.R.S.'] 

H.  M.  C. 

JACKSON,  LAURENCE  (1691-1772), 
divine,  born  on  20  March  1691,  son  of  Lau- 
rence Jackson  of  London,  entered  Merchant 
Taylors'  School  on  12  March  1700-1,  was 
admitted  a  pensioner  of  St.  John's  College, 
Cambridge,  in  1709,  and  graduated  B.A.  in 
1712.  He  migrated  to  Sidney  Sussex  Col- 
lege, of  which  he  was  elected  a  fellow,  and 
commenced  M.A.  in  1716,  proceeding  B.D. 
in  1723.  He  became  vicar  of  Ardleigh,  near 
Colchester,  11  May  1723,  rector  of  Great 
Wigborough,  Essex,  25  April  1730,  was  col- 
lated to  the  prebend  of  Asgarby  in  the 
cathedral  church  of  Lincoln  15  April  1747, 
and  died  on  17  Feb.  1772. 

His  works  are :  1.  Verses  on  the  death 
of  his  '  pious  friend  and  schoolfellow,'  Am- 
brose Bonwicke  the  younger  [q.v.],  prefixed 
to  Bonwicke's  '  Life,'  1729,  and  reprinted  in 
Nichols's 'Literary  Anecdotes,' v.  154.  2.  'An 
Examination  of  a  Book  intituled  "  The  True 
Gospel  of  Jesus  Christ  asserted,"  by  Thomas 
Chubb,  and  also  of  his  Appendix  on  Pro- 
vidence. To  which  is  added  A  Disserta- 
tion on  Episcopacy,  shewing  in  one  short 
and  plain  view  the  Grounds  of  it  in  Scrip- 
ture and  Antiquity,'  London,  1739, 8vo.  The 
'Dissertation' is  reprinted  in  'The  Church- 
man's Remembrancer,' vol.  ii.,  London,  1807, 
8vo.  3. '  Remarks  on  Dr.  Middleton's  Exami- 
nation of  the  Lord  Bishop  of  London's  [T. 
Sherlock]  Discourses  concerning  the  Use 
and  Intent  of  Prophecy.  In  a  Letter  from  a 
Country  Clergyman  to  his  Friend  in  London,' 
London,  1750, 8vo.  4. '  A  Letter  to  a  Young 
Lady  concerning  the  Principles  and  Conduct 
of  the  Christian  Life,'  London,  1756,  8vo ; 
4th  edit.,  London,  1818, 12mo.  5.  '  A  Short 
Review  and  Defence  of  the  Authorities  on 
which  the  Catholic  Doctrine  of  the  Trinity 
in  Unity  is  grounded,'  London,  1771,  8vo. 

[Addit.  MS.  5873,  f.  8  b  ;  Cantabrigienses  Gra- 
duati,  1787,  p.  211 ;  Gent.  Mag.  xlii.  151,  xlviii. 
623  ;  Le  Neve's  Fasti  (Hardy),  ii.  103  ;  Morant's 
Essex,  i.  421,  435  ;  Nichols's  Lit.  Anecd.  i.  418, 
v.  154  ;  Robinson's  Register  of  Merchant  Taylors' 
School,  ii.  4 ;  Watt's  Bibl.  Brit.]  T.  C. 

JACKSON,  RANDLE  (1757-1837),  par- 
liamentary counsel,  son  of  Samuel  Jackson  of 
Westminster,  was  matriculated  at  Oxford 
17  July  1789,  at  the  age  of  thirty-two  (Fos- 
TEK,  Alumni  Oxonienses).  A  member  first  of 
Magdalen  Hall,  afterwards  of  Exeter  College, 
he  was  created  M.A.  2  May  1793.  In  the 
same  year,  on  9  Feb.,  he  was  called  to  the  bar 

by  the  Middle  Temple  (FosiEK;  the  Georgian 
Era,  ii.  548,  says  by  Lincoln's  Inn).  He  was 
admitted  ad  eundem  at  the  Inner  Temple  in 
1805,  and  became  a  bencher  of  the  Middle 
Temple  in  1828.  Jackson  won  a  considerable 
reputation  at  the  bar,  and  acted  as  parlia- 
mentary counsel  of  the  East  India  Company 
and  of  the  corporation  of  London.  Five  or 
six  of  his  speeches  delivered  before  parlia- 
mentary committees  or  the  proprietors  of  East 
India  stock  on  the  grievances  of  cloth- 
workers,  the  prolongation  of  the  East  India 
Company's  charter,  &c.,  were  printed.  Jack- 
son died  at  North  Brixton  15  March  1837. 

Besides  his  speeches,  Jackson  published : 
1.  'Considerations  on  the  Increase  of  Crime,' 
London,  1828,  8vo.  2.  '  A  Letter  to  Lord 
Henley,  in  answer  to  one  from  his  Lordship 
requesting  a  vote  for  Middlesex,  and  with 
observations  on  his  Lordship's  plan  for  a  re- 
form in  our  Church  Establishment,'  London, 
1832,  8vo. 

[Authorities  cited ;  Gent.  Mag.  1837,  i.  544 ; 
Brit.  Mus.  Cat.]  J.  T-T. 

JACKSON,  RICHARD  (fl.  1570),  ballad 
writer,  matriculated  from  Clare  Hall,  Cam 
bridge,  25  Oct.  1567,  proceeded  B.A.  1570, 
and  was  shortly  afterwards  appointed  master 
of  Ingleton  school,  in  the  West  Riding  of 
Yorkshire.  The  authorship  of  the  well- 
known  ballad  on  the  battle  of  Flodden  Field, 
supposed  to  have  been  written  about  1570, 
has  been  generally  ascribed  to  him,  either  on 
the  ground  of  vague  tradition  or  from  the 
fact  that  Ingleton  borders  on  the  Craven  dis- 
trict, in  the  dialect  of  which  the  poem  is 
written.  Apart  from  its  historical  interest 
the  ballad  is  valuable  as  a  spirited  example 
of  early  alliterative  poetry.  We  gather  from 
the  opening  lines  that  the  author  was  no 
novice  at  ballad-writing,  while  the  partiality 
constantly  shown  for  the  house  of  Stanley 
and  the  Lancastrian  forces  seems  to  indicate 
some  connection  between  the  author  and  the 
Stanley  family. 

The  earliest  existing  manuscript  of  the 
ballad  is  in  Harl.  MS.  3526,  with  a  long 
title  commencing  '  Heare  is  the  famous  his- 
torie  in  songe  called  Floodan  'Field ; '  it  bears 
no  date,  but  was  probably  written  about  1636. 
The  first  printed  edition  was  published  under 
the  title  of '  Floddan  Field  in  nine  Fits,  being 
an  exact  History  of  that  Famous  Memorable 
Battle  fought  between  the  English  and  Scots 
on  Floddan-Hill,  in  the  time  of  Henry  the 
Eight,  Anno  1513.  Worthy  of  the  Perusal 
of  the  English  Nobility,' London,  12mo,  1664. 
In  the  copy  of  this  edition  at  Bridgewater 
House  there  is  a  manuscript  note  by  Sir  Wal- 
ter Scott  to  the  effect  that '  this  old  copy  ia 




probably  unique,'  but  there  are  copies  in  the 
British  Museum,  the  Huth  Library,  and  else- 
where. Another  edition  (n.  d.)  was  printed 
by  Thomas  Gent  [q.  v.]  about  1756,  and  this 
version  is  of  special  interest  as  having  been 
taken  from  a  different  source,  a  manuscript 
in  the  possession  of  John  Askew  of  Pallings- 
burn,  Northumberland.  A  third  edition  was 
printed  by  Robert  Lambe,  vicar  of  Norham- 
upon-Tweed,  Berwick,  1773  (reprinted  with- 
out alteration  in  '  Ancient  Historic  Ballads,' 
Newcastle,  1807),  and  a  fourth  by  Joseph 
Benson,  'philomath,'  1774.  Two  valuable 
critical  editions  were  subsequently  published, 
one  by  Henry  Weber,  Edinburgh,  1808,  and 
the  other  by 'Charles  A.  Federer,  Manchester, 

[Cooper's  Athenae  Cantabr.ii.  1 18  ;  Whitaker's 
Craven,  ed.  Morant,  p.  326  ;  Collier's  Bibl.  Ac- 
count, i.  290  ;  Watt's  Bibl.  Brit. ;  Weber's  and 
Federer's  editions  of  Flodden  Field  ;  Brit.  Mus. 
Cat.]  T.  S. 

(1623-1690?),  antiquary,  son  of  Gilbert 
Jackson  and  his  wife  Ann  Leyland,  was  born 
at  Cuerden,  near  Preston,  Lancashire,  in  1623. 
He  received  his  early  education  at  Leyland, 
Lancashire,  under  Mr.  Sherburn,  and  was 
admitted  a  commoner  of  St.  Mary  Hall,  Ox- 
ford, in  1638.  On  the  outbreak  of  the  war 
he  removed  to  Emmanuel  College,  Cam- 
bridge, where  he  graduated  B.A.  in  1642. 
In  1646  he  returned  to  Oxford,  graduated 
M.  A.  22  March,  and  was  elected  vice-principal 
of  St.  Mary  Hall  and  tutor.  He  was  a 
staunch  royalist,  and  declined  the  office  of 
proctor  of  the  university  rather  than  submit 
to  the  parliamentary  government.  He  then 
began  the  study  of  medicine,  and  in  1652  was 
appointed '  replicant  to  all  incept  ors  of  physic,' 
which  office  qualified  him  for  the  degree  of 
M.I).  After  paying  the  fees  he,  however, 
again  declined  to  take  the  required  oath,  and 
it  was  not  until  after  the  Restoration  that  he 
was  made  M.D.  (26  March  1663).  At  that 
time  he  was  settled  at  Preston  as  a  physician. 
He  appears  as  a  freeman  of  the  borough  on 
the  Guild  Merchant  Rolls  of  1662  and  1682. 
According  to  Wood  he  neglected  his  practice, 
and  devoted  himself  to  the  study  of  antiqui- 
ties. In  conjunction  with  Christopher  Town- 
ley  of  Carr  Hall  he  contemplated  the  pub- 
lication of  a  complete  history  of  Lancashire, 
but  the  project  was  frustrated  by  Townley's 
death  in  1674.  Jackson  afterwards  issued 
proposals  for  publishing  his  work  under  the 
title  of '  Brigantia  Lancastriensis  Restaurata ; 
or  History  of  the  Honourable  Dukedom  or 
County  Palatine  of  Lancaster,  in  5  vols.  in 
folio,'  1688.  No  further  progress  was  made, 
and  the  manuscripts,  in  a  crabbed  and  almost 

illegible  hand,  and  consisting  of  crude  ma- 
terials without  arrangement,  are  now  pre- 
served in  the  Heralds'  College  (8  vols.),  the 
Chetham  Library,  Manchester  (2  vols.),  and 
the  British  Museum  (1  vol.)  A  fragmentary 
but  valuable  itinerary  of  some  parts  of  Lan- 
cashire from  his  pen  is  given  in  Earwaker's 
'  Local  Gleanings,'  1876.  He  was  a  friend 
of  Sir  William  Dugdale,  and  acted  as  his 
deputy  and  marshal  at  a  visitation  held  at 
Lancaster.  It  is  supposed  that  he  died  be- 
tween 1690  and  1695. 

[Wood's  Fasti  Oxon.  (Bliss),  ii.  94,  275; 
Whitaker's  Hist,  of  Manchester,  1775,  4to,  ii. 
587 ;  Dugdale's  Visitation  of  Lane.  (Chetham 
Soc.),  p.  1 68 ;  Earwaker's  Local  Gleanings,  vol.  i. ; 
Baines's  Lancashire  (Harland),  i.  326 ;  Ralph 
Thoresby's  Diary,  i.  388.]  C.  W.  S. 

JACKSON,  RICHARD  (1700-1782?), 
founder  of  the  Jacksonian  professorship  at 
Cambridge,  born  in  1700,  was  educated  at 
Trinity  College,  Cambridge,  graduated  B.A. 
in  1727,  M.A.  in  1731,  and  became  fellow 
of  the  college.  On  13  Nov.  1739  he  was  in- 
corporated M.A.  at  Oxford  (FOSTER,  Alumni 
Oxon.  p.  736).  By  1775  he  was  residing  at 
Tarrington  in  Herefordshire.  He  died  ap- 
parently in  1782,  and  was  buried  with  his 
wife  at  Kingsbury,  Warwickshire.  He  mar- 
ried Katherine  (d.  1762),  second  daughter 
of  Waldy  ve  Wellington  of  Hurley  in  Kings- 
bury,  but  had  no  issue  (BiTRKE,  Landed 
Gentry,  1868,  p.  1671).  By  his  will  (re- 
gistered in  P.  C.  C.  135,  Cornwallis)  he 
bequeathed  to  Trinity  College  a  freehold 
estate  at  Upper  Longsdon  in  Leek,  Stafford- 
shire, for  founding  a  professorship  of  natural 
experimental  philosophy.  His  bequest  took 
effect  in  1783,  when  Isaac  Milner  was  ap- 
pointed the  first  professor.  Jackson  also  gave 
his  library  to  Trinity  College. 

[Authorities  cited.]  G-.  G. 

JACKSON,  RICHARD  (d.  1787),  poli- 
tician, was  son  of  Richard  Jackson  of  Dub- 
lin. He  was  entered  at  Lincoln's  Inn  as  a 
student  in  1740,  and  called  to  the  bar  in 
1744.  On  22  Nov.  1751  he  was  admitted 
ad  eundem  at  the  Inner  Temple,  became  a 
bencher  in  1770,  reader  in  1779,  and  trea- 
surer in  1780.  He  was  created  standing 
counsel  to  the  South  Sea  Company  in  1764, 
was  one  of  the  counsel  for  Cambridge  Uni- 
versity, and  held  the  post  of  law-officer  to  the 
board  of  trade.  He  was  elected  F.S.  A.  in  1781, 
and  was  a  governor  of  the  Society  of  Dis- 
senters for  Propagation  of  the  Gospel.  On 
a  chance  vacancy  (1  Dec.  1762)  he  was  re- 
turned to  parliament  for  the  conjoint  borough 
of  Weymouth  and  Melcombe  Regis,  and  from 
1768  to  1784  he  sat  for  the  Cinque  port  of 


New  Romney.  Lord  Edmund  Fitzmaurice 
calls  him  '  the  private  secretary  of  George 
Grenville '  in  1765,  and  writes  that  in  that 
year  he  warned  the  House  of  Commons 
against  applying  the  Stamp  Act  to  the  Ame- 
rican colonies.  In  after-years  Jackson  was 
known  as  the  intimate  friend  of  Lord  Shel- 
burne.  When  Shelburne  formed  his  ministry 
in  July  1782,  Jackson  was  made  a  lord  of  the 
treasury,  and  he  held  that  office  until  the  fol- 
lowing A  pril.  He  died  at  Southampton  Build- 
ings, Chancery  Lane,  London,  on  6  May  1787, 
when  a  considerable  fortune  came  to  his  two 

From  his  extraordinary  stores  of  know- 
ledge he  was  known  as  'Omniscient  Jackson,' 
but  Johnson,  in  speaking  of  him,  altered  the 
adjective  to '  all-knowing,'  on  the  ground  that 
the  former  word  was  '  appropriated  to  the 
Supreme  Being.'  "When  Thrale  meditated  a 
journey  in  Italy  he  was  advised  by  Johnson 
to  consult  Jackson,  who  afterwards  returned 
the  compliment  by  remarking  of  the  'Journey 
to  the  Western  Islands'  that '  there  was  more 
good  sense  upon  trade  in  it  than  he  should 
hear  in  the  House  of  Commons  in  a  year, 
except  from  Burke.'  He  is  introduced  into 
'  The  old  Benchers  of  the  Inner  Temple '  in 
Lamb's  '  Essays  of  Elia.' 

[Boswell,  ed.  Hill,  iii.  19,  137;  Fitzmaurice's 
Life  of  Lord  Shelburne,  i.  321-2  ;  W.  H.  Cooke's 
Inner  Temple  Benchers,  p.  80  ;  Lamb's  Elia,  ed. 
Ainger,  p.  127;  Gent.  Mag.  1764  p.  603,  1787 
pt.  i.  p.  454 ;  Cooper's  Annals  of  Cambridge,  iv. 
390 ;  Nichols's  Lit.  Anecd.  viii.  466.]  W.  P.  C. 

JACKSON,  ROBERT,  M.D.  (1750- 
1827),  inspector-general  of  army  hospitals, 
born  in  1750  at  Stonebyres,  near  the  Falls 
of  Clyde,  was  the  son  of  a  small  farmer. 
After  a  good  schooling  at  Wandon  and 
Crawford  he  was  apprenticed  for  three  years 
to  a  surgeon  at  Biggar,  and  in  1768  joined 
the  medical  classes  at  Edinburgh.  Supporting 
himself  by  going  twice  on  a  whaling  voyage 
as  surgeon,  he  finished  his  studies  without 
graduating,  and  went  to  Jamaica,  where  he 
acted  as  assistant  to  a  doctor  at  Savanna-la- 
mer from  1774  to  1780.  He  next  made  his 
way  to  New  York,  with  the  intention  of  join- 
ing the  state  volunteers  ;  but  he  was  even- 
tually received  by  the  colonel  of  a  Scotch 
regiment  (the  71st)  as  ensign,  with  the  duties 
of  hospital-mate.  After  various  adventures 
he  arrived  at  Greenock  in  1782,  and  travelled 
to  London  on  foot.  He  left  early  in  1783  on 
a  journey  on  foot  through  France,  Switzer- 
land, Germany,  and  Italy,  and  landed  on  his 
return  at  Southampton  with  four  shillings 
in  his  pocket.  He  walked  to  London,  and 
thence,  in  January  1784,  to  Perth,  where  the 
71st  regiment  was  stationed.  Coming  at 

5  Jackson 

length  to  Edinburgh  he  remained  two  or 
three  months,  and  married  the  daughter  of 
Dr.  Stephenson,  and  the  niece  of  an  officer 
whom  he  had  known  in  New  York.  The  lady's 
fortune  placed  him  in  easy  circumstances, 
and  he  spent  the  next  year  in  Paris,  attend- 
ing hospitals  and  studying  languages  (in- 
cluding Arabic),  and  then  proceeded  to  Ley- 
den,  where  he  passed  an  examination  forM.D. 
in  1786.  He  settled  as  a  physician  at  Stock- 
ton-on-Tees,  and  remained  there  seven  years, 
but  with  no  great  relish  for  private  practice. 
When  war  broke  out  in  1793,  he  got  appointed 
surgeon  to  the  3rd  regiment,  or  Buff's,  on  the 
strength  of  a  book  which  he  had  published 
on  West  Indian  fevers.  Not  being  connected 
with  the  College  of  Physicians  of  London  he 
was  ineligible  for  the  office  of  army  phy- 
sician ;  but  he  received  the  promotion  in 
1794,  owing  to  the  personal  intervention  of 
the  Duke  of  York,  who  recognised  his  abili- 
ties. This  personal  incident  was  the  begin- 
ning of  Jackson's  resolute  opposition  to  the 
monopoly  of  the  College  of  Physicians  and 
to  the  corrupt  administration  of  the  old  army 
medical  board,  which  ended  in  a  new  regime 
in  1810,  and  in  an  open  career  from  the 
lowest  to  the  highest  ranks  of  the  army  me- 
dical service.  In  the  course  of  the  contest  he 
wrote  seven  pamphlets  (from  1803  to  1809), 
was  obliged  to  retire  from  active  service,  and 
committed  an  assault  on  Keate,  the  surgeon- 
general  (by  striking  him  across  the  shoulders 
with  his  gold-headed  cane),  for  which  he  suf- 
fered six  months'  imprisonment.  The  over- 
throw of  the  monopolists  was  hastened  by 
their  proved  incompetence  in  the  disastrous 
Walcheren  expedition.  Jackson  had  many 
supporters,  among  the  rest  Dr.  McGrigor, 
afterwards  head  of  the  army  medical  depart- 
ment. Meanwhile,  from  1794  to  1798,  he 
had  been  on  active  service  in  Holland  and 
in  the  West  Indies,  acquiring  experience 
which  formed  the  basis  of  his  most  important 
works.  In  1811,  his  old  enemies  being  now 
out  of  the  way,  he  was  recalled  from  his  re- 
tirement at  Stockton  to  be  medical  director 
in  the  West  Indies,  in  which  office  he  re- 
mained until  1815.  He  retired  on  half-pay 
as  inspector-general  of  army  hospitals,  and 
a  pension  of  200/.  per  annum  was  after- 
wards granted  him.  In  1819,  when  yellow 
fever  was  in  Spain,  hS  visited  the  Mediter- 
ranean. He  died  of  paralysis  at  Thursby, 
near  Carlisle,  on  6  April  1827.  Four  children 
of  his  first  marriage  predeceased  him.  His 
second  wife,  who  survived  him,  was  a  daugh- 
ter of  J.  H.  Tidy,  rector  of  Redmarshall, 
Durham.  Jackson  was  of  the  middle  height, 
muscular,  blue-eyed,  inclined  to  be  florid,  and 
of  a  pleasing  expression. 


1 06 


Jackson's  first  book  was '  A  Treatise  on  the 
Fevers  of  Jamaica,'  1791  (reprinted  at  Phila- 
delphia in  1795,  and  in  German  at  Leipzig 
in  1796),  the  result  of  his  early  experience 
as  an  assistant.  He  recommends  the  treat- 
ment of  fevers  by  cold  affusion,  which  was 
afterwards  advocated  by  Currie,  and  by  him- 
self in  a  special  essay  published  at  Edin- 
burgh in  1808.  His  San  Domingo  experi- 
ences of  1796  were  embodied  in  his  next 
work,  '  An  Outline  of  the  History  and  Cure 
of  Fever,  Epidemic  and  Contagious,  more 
especially  of  Jails,  Ships,  and  Hospitals,  and 
the  Yellow  Fever.  With  Observations  on 
Military  Discipline  and  Economy,  and  a 
Scheme  of  Medical  Arrangement  for  Armies,' 
Edinburgh,  1798 ;  German  edition,  Stuttgart, 
1804.  The  subject  last  in  the  title  he  took 
up  again  in  1804  and  expanded  into  his  best- 
known  work,  '  A  Systematic  View  of  the 
Formation,  Discipline,  and  Economy  of  Ar- 
mies,' which  was  republished  by  him  at 
Stockton  in  1824,  and  finally  at  London  in 
1845,  with  portrait  and  memoir.  Part  ii. 
of  this  work  is  a  philosophical  sketch  of '  na- 
tional military  character '  from  ancient  and 
modern  sources.  In  1817  appeared  his '  His- 
tory and  Cure  of  Febrile  Diseases,'  relating 
chiefly  to  soldiers  in  the  West  Indies,  1819 ; 
2nd  edit.,  enlarged  to  2  vols.,  1820.  His 
'  Observations  of  the  Yellow  Fever  in  Spain ' 
was  published  in  1821.  In  1823  he  published 
at  Stockton  '  An  Outline  of  Hints  for  the 
Political  Organization  and  Moral  Training  of 
the  Human  Race.'  Besides  studying  Arabic 
for  its  biblical  interest  he  became  a  student 
of  Gaelic  in  connection  with  the  Ossian  con- 

Both  as  an  administrative  reformer  and  as 
a  writer  on  fevers  Jackson  holds  a  distin- 
guished place.  He  was  philosophically  in- 
clined, modest,  and  zealous  for  the  public 

[Memoir  prefixed  to  3rd  edit.  (1845)  of  his 
Formation,  Discipline,  and  Economy  of  Armies, 
drawn  up  from  his  own  papers  and  from  recol- 
lections by  Borland;  medical  notice  by  Dr. 
Thomas  Barnes  in  Trans.  Prov.  Med.  and  Engl. 
Assoc.;  Gent.  Mag.  June  1827,  p.  566.]  C.  C. 

JACKSON,  afterwards  SCORESBY- 
1867),  biographer  and  medical  writer,  was 
a  son  of  Captain  Thomas  Jackson  of  the 
merchant  navy,  of  Whitby,  by  Arabella,  third 
and  youngest  daughter  of  William  Scoresby 
the  elder,  and  sister  of  William  Scoresby,  D.D. 
[q.  v.],  the  well-known  arctic  explorer  and 
divine.  He  was  born  at  Whitby  in  1835. 
Jackson  was  educated  for  the  medical  pro- 
fession at  St.  George's  Hospital,  London,  at 

Paris,  and  afterwards  at  Edinburgh,  where 
he  devoted  himself  especially  to  the  study  of 
materia  medica  under  Professor  (afterwards 
Sir)  Robert  Christison.  He  took  the  degree 
of  M.D.  in  1857,  writing  a  thesis  on '  Climate, 
Health,  and  Disease,'  a  subject  on  which  he 
afterwards  became  an  authority.  In  1859 
he  became  F.R.C.S.,  in  1861  F.R.S.E.,  and 
in  1862  F.R.C.P.  He  was  lecturer  upon 
materia  medica  and  therapeutics  in  Surgeons' 
Hall,  Edinburgh,  and  in  1865  was  appointed 
physician  to  the  Royal  Infirmary,  and  soon 
afterwards  lecturer  on  clinical  medicine.  On 
the  death  of  his  uncle,  William  Scoresby,  he 
assumed  the  additional  name  of  Scoresby. 
For  some  time  he  was  chairman  of  the 
medical  department  of  the  Scottish  Meteo- 
rological Society.  Scoresby-Jackson  died  at 
32  Queen  Street,  Edinburgh,  on  1  Feb.  1867. 
He  married  in  1858  the  only  child  of  Sir 
William  Johnston  of  Kirkhill,  and  by  her 
had  two  daughters,  who  survived  him.  He 
published,  besides  occasional  papers:  1.  'A 
Life  of  William  Scoresby,  D.D.,'  London, 
1861, 8vo.  2.  'Medical  Climatology:  a  Topo- 
graphical and  Meteorological  Description  of 
Localities  resorted  to  in  Winter  and  Summer 
by  Invalids,'  London,  1862,  12mo ;  a  work 
based  upon  the  results  of  personal  visits  to  the 
chief  continental  and  Mediterranean  health 
resorts  between  1855  and  1861.  3.  'A  Note- 
Book  on  Materia  Medica,  Pharmacology,  and 
Therapeutics,'  1866,  a  fourth  edition  of  which, 
revised  by  F.  W.  Moinet,  M.D.,  appeared  at 
Edinburgh,  1880. 

[Scotsman,  2  Feb.  1867;  Edinburgh  Medical 
Journal,  March  1867;  Lancet,  9  Feb.  1867; 
British  Medical  Journal,  9  Feb.  1 867 ;  Athenaeum, 
16  Feb.  1867;  Life  of  William  Scoresby;  prefaces 
to  his  works.]  J.  T-T. 

JACKSON,  SAMUEL  (1794-1869), 
landscape-painter,  was  born  31  Dec.  1794  at 
Bristol,  where  his  father  was  a  merchant. 
He  began  life  in  his  father's  office,  but  on  his 
death  abandoned  business  in  favour  of  land- 
scape-painting, and  became  a  pupil  of  Francis 
Danby  [q.  v.],  who  was  then  residing  in 
Bristol.  In  1823  he  was  elected  an  associate 
of  the  Society  of  Painters  in  Water-colours, 
and  during  the  next  twenty-six  years  con- 
tributed forty-six  drawings  to  its  exhibitions. 
All  these,  with  the  exception  of  a  few  West 
Indian  views,  the  result  of  a  voyage  taken  in 
1827  for  the  benefit  of  his  health,  illustrated 
English  scenery,  which  he  treated  in  a  pleas- 
ing and  poetical  manner,somewhat  resembling- 
that  of  the  two  Barrets.  In  1833  Jackson 
was  one  of  the  founders  of  a  sketching  so- 
ciety at  Bristol,  to  which  W.  J.  Miiller,  J. 
Skinner  Prout,  and  other  artists  who  later 




achieved  eminence  belonged,  an'd  he  was 
always  closely  identified  with  the  Bristol 
'  school.'  In  1848  he  withdrew  from  the 
Water-colour  Society,  having  failed  to  obtain 
election  to  full  membership.  In  1855  and 
1856  Jackson  made  tours  in  Switzerland,  after 
which  he  painted,  almost  exclusively,  Swiss 
views  in  oils,  which  were  sent  to  the  Bristol 
annual  exhibition  and  sold  well.  Two  draw- 
ings by  him  are  in  the  South  Kensington 
Museum.  Jackson  died  at  Clifton,  8  Dec. 
1869.  By  his  marriage  with  Jane  Phillips 
he  had  one  son,  Samuel  Phillips,  now  a  member 
of  the  Royal  Society  of  Painters  in  Water- 
colours,  and  three  daughters. 

[Redgrave's  Diet,  of  Artists  ;  Eoget's  Hist,  of 
the  Old  Water-colour  Society,  1891 ;  information 
from  the  family.]  F.  M.  OT>. 

JACKSON,  THOMAS  (1579-1640),  pre- 
sident of  Corpus  Christi  College,  Oxford, 
and  dean  of  Peterborough,  was  born  at 
Witton-on-the-Wear,  Durham,  about  St. 
Thomas's  day,  21  Dec.  1579.  Members  of 
his  father's  family  were  Newcastle  merchants, 
and  he  was  at  first  intended  for  commerce. 
But  his  abilities  came  under  the  notice  of  the 
third  Lord  Eure,  at  whose  suggestion  he 
•was  sent  to  Queen's  College,  Oxford  (25  June 
1596),  where  Crackanthorpe  was  his  tutor. 
He  obtained  a  scholarship  at  Corpus  Christi 
College  on  24  March  1596-7.  He  graduated 
B. A.  on  22  July  1599,  and  M.A.  9  July  1603, 
became  a  probationer  fellow  of  his  college  on 
10  May  1606,  and  was  afterwards  repeatedly 
elected  vice-president.  On  25  July  1610  he 
proceeded  B.D.,  receiving  a  license  to  preach 
on  18  June  1611,  and  the  degree  of  D.D. 
26  June  1622.  At  Oxford  Jackson  won 
much  reputation  for  his  varied  learning,  but 
mainly  devoted  himself  to  theology.  He  read 
divinity  lectures  weekly  both  at  his  own  col- 
lege and  at  Pembroke,  and  published  the  first 
two  books  of  his  commentary  on  the  Creed  in 
1613,  dedicating  the  first  to  his  patron,  Lord 
Eure.  He  was  instituted  to  the  living  of 
St.  Nicholas,  Newcastle,  on  27  Nov.  1623, 
through  the  influence  of  Neile,  bishop  of 
Durham,  to  whom  he  was  chaplain  for  a 
time.  In  1624,  with  the  permission  of  his 
bishop,  he  resided  much  at  Oxford,  engaged 
in  literary  work.  About  1625  he  was  pre- 
sented by  Neile  to  the  living  of  Winston, 
Durham,  receiving  on  14  May  1625  a  dispen- 
sation to  hold  it  with  Newcastle,  and  also 
becoming  chaplain  in  ordinary  to  the  king. 
He  resided  principally  at  Newcastle,  where 
his  preaching  and  charitable  work  were  alike 
notable.  In  Fuller's  words,  he  became  '  a 
factor  for  heaven  where  he  was  once  designed 
a  merchant.'  In  1630  Laud  and  Neile  se- 
cured for  Jackson  the  presidency  of  Corpus 

Christi,  his  own  college,  and  on  8  July  1632 
he  was  presented  to  the  crown  living  of 
Witney,  Oxfordshire.  The  latter  he  resigned 
in  1637,  the  former  he  held  till  his  death. 
He  was  installed  prebendary  of  Winchester 
on  18  June  1635,  and  on  17  Jan.  1638-9  be- 
came dean  of  Peterborough.  He  died,  aged  61, 
on  21  Sept.  1640,  and  was  buried  at  Oxford, 
in  the  inner  chapel  of  Corpus  Christi  Col- 
lege, but  no  memorial  marks  the  spot.  By 
his  will,  dated  5  Sept.,  Jackson  bequeathed 
most  of  his  books  to  his  college. 

Jackson's  theological  works  rank  high.  His 
views  were  at  first  decidedly  puritanical,  but 
they  changed  under  the  influence  of  Neile 
and  Laud,  and  he  ultimately  incurred  the 
wrath  of  the  presbyterians,  and  especially  of 
Prynne,  who  attacked  him  in  '  Anti- Armi- 
nianism '  and  •  Canterburie's  Doome.'  At 
Laud's  trial  Dr.  Featley  described  Jackson 
as  '  a  known  Arminian,'  and  Dr.  Seth  Ward 
similarly  characterised  his  religious  position. 
'  An  Historical  Narration '  by  Jackson,  ap- 
parently of  extreme  Arminian  tendency,  was 
licensed  by  Laud's  chaplain  while  Laud  was 
bishop  of  London,  but  was  afterwards  called 
in  and  suppressed,  by  order,  according  to 
Prynne,  of  Archbishop  Abbot.  Southey  de- 
scribed him  as  '  the  most  valuable  of  all  our 
English  divines,'  and  insisted  on  the  sound- 
ness of  his  philosophy  and  the  strength  of  his 
faith.  Jones  of  Nayland  found  in  his  works 
'  a  magazine  of  theological  knowledge.'  His 
theology  powerfully  commended  itself  to 
modern  high  church  divines,  as  recent  re- 
prints abundantly  prove.  Pusey  asserted 
that  his  was  '  one  of  the  best  and  greatest 
minds  our  church  has  nurtured.' 

Jackson's  chief  work  was  his  '  Commenta- 
ries on  the  Apostles'  Creed.'  It  was  designed 
to  fill  twelve  books,  nine  of  which  were 
published  in  separate  volumes  in  his  lifetime. 
The  first  two  appeared  (London,  1613,  4to) 
under  the  titles  of  '  The  Eternall  Truth  of 
Scriptures '  and  '  How  Far  the  Ministry  of 
Man  is  necessary  for  Planting  the  True  Chris- 
tian Faith.'  The  third,  'The  Positions  of 
Jesuitesand  other  later  Romanists  concerning' 
the  Authority  of  their  Church,'  appeared  in 
1614 ;  the  fourth,  entitled '  Justifying  Faith,' 
in  1615  (2nd  edit.  1631)  ;  the  fifth,  entitled 
'  A  Treatise  containing  the  Originall  of  Un- 
beliefe,'  in  1625;  the  sixth,  entitled  'A 
Treatise  of  the  Divine  Essence  and  Attri- 
butes,' pt.  i.  in  1628  (dedicated  to  the  Earl 
of  Pembroke),  pt.  ii.  1629 ;  the  seventh, 
'  The  Knowledge  of  Christ  Jesus,'  in  1634 ; 
the  eighth, '  The  Humiliation  of  the  Sonne 
of  God,'  in  1636 ;  the  ninth,  <  A  Treatise  of 
the  Consecration  of  the  Sonne  of  God,'  Ox- 
ford, 1638,  4to. 




The  tenth  book  ('Christ  exercising  his 
Everlasting  Priesthood,'  or  the  second  part  of 
the  '  Knowledge  of  Christ  Jesus  ')  was  pub- 
lished by  Barnabas  Oley  for  the  first  time 
in  1654,  folio,  and  the  eleventh  book  ('  Domi- 
nus  Veniet.  Of  Christ's  Session  at  the  Right 
Hand  of  God')  first  appeared,  also  under 
Oley's  auspices,  in  1657,  folio,  in  a  volume 
containing  other  of  Jackson's  sermons  and 
treatises.  A  collected  edition  of  Jackson's 
works,  some  of  which  had  not  been  printed 
previously,  dated  1672-3,  in  3  vols.,  supplies 
a  twelfth  book,  of  which  a  portion  had  been 
issued  as  early  as  1627  under  the  title  of '  A 
Treatise  of  the  Holy  Catholike  Faith  and 
Church,'  3  parts  (reprinted  separately  in 
1843).  A  completer  edition  of  Jackson's 
•works  was  issued  at  Oxford  in  1844, 12  vols. 
In  1653  Oley  issued  in  a  single  folio  volume, 
•with  a  preface  by  himself  and  a  life  of  Jack- 
son by  Edmund  Vaughan,  a  new  edition  of 
the  first  three  books  of  the  '  Commentaries,' 
•with  which  the  tenth  and  eleventh  books 
(1654  and  1657)  were  afterwards  frequently 
bound.  Other  books  of  the  Creed,  with  a 
treatise  on  the '  Primeval  State  of  Man,'  also 
appeared  in  folio  in  1654. 

Besides  the '  Commentaries,'  Jackson  pub- 
lished in  his  lifetime  three  collections  of 
sermons:  1.  'Nazareth  to  Bethlehem,'  Ox- 
ford, 1617,  4to.  2.  'Christ's  Answer  unto 
John's  Question,'  London,  1625, 4to.  3.  '  Di- 
verse Sermons,'  Oxford,  1637,  4to. 

[Wood's  Athense  Oxon.  (Bliss),  ii.  664  ;  Wood's 
Fasti  (Bliss),  i.  281,  299,  339,  401 ;  Clark's  Reg. 
Oxf.  Univ.  pt.  i.  pp.  36, 217,  pt.  ii.  p.  214  ;  Lloyd's 
Memoirs,  ed.  1668,  p.  69;  Kennett's  Register, 
pp.  670,  681 ;  Jones's  Life  of  Bishop  Home,  p. 
75  ;  Walton's  Life  of  Hooker ;  Rymer's  Fcedera, 
xviii.  660 ;  A  Discovery  of  Mr.  Jackson's  Vanitie, 
by  W.  Twisse,  ed.  1630,  p.  270  ;  Repertorium 
Theologicum,  a  synoptical  table  of  Jackson's 
works,  by  the  Rev.  H.  J.  Todd,  1838;  Mac- 
kenzie and  Ross's  Durham,  p.  278 ;  Brand's 
Newcastle,  i.  305  ;  Mackenzie's  Newcastle,  p. 
280;  Gale's  Winchester,  p.  123;  Biog.  Brit.; 
Chalmers's  Diet.]  E.  T.  B. 

JACKSON,  THOMAS  (d.  1646),  pre- 
bendary of  Canterbury,  born  in  Lancashire 
and  educated  at  Cambridge,  graduated  M.A. 
in  1600,  and  B.I),  in  1608,  at  Christ's  College; 
and  proceeded  D.D.  in  1615  from  Emmanuel 
College.  He  was  beneficed  at  several  places 
in  Kent,  between  1603  and  1614  at  Wye,  and 
later  at  Ivychurch,  Chilham-with-Molash, 
Great  Chart,"Milton,  near  Canterbury,  and  St. 
George's  in  Canterbury.  On  30  March  1614 
he  was  installed  a  prebendary  in  Canterbury 
Cathedral.  At  the  trial  of  Laud  in  1644  he 
testified  that  the  archbishop  had  in  one  of  his 
statutes  enjoined  bowing  towards  the  altar. 

When  Laud  was  taunted  with  giving  prefer- 
ment only  to  men  '  popishly  inclined,'  he  re- 
plied that  he  disposed  of  livings  to  '  divers 
good  and  orthodox  men,  as  to  Doctor  Jackson 
of  Canterbury,'  to  whom  he  had  given  '  an 
hospital/  Wood  says  that  he '  mostly  seemed 
to  be  a  true  son  of  the  church  of  England.' 
He  nevertheless  found  favour  with  the  par- 
liament, as  he  continued  in  office  until  his 
death  in  November  1646.  His  wife  Eliza- 
beth was  buried  at  Canterbury  on  27  Jan. 
1657.  One  of  his  sons,  also  named  Thomas, 
was  among  a  number  of  Canterbury  clergy- 
men who  in  August  1636  were  reported  to 
Laud  for  tavern-haunting  and  drunkenness. 
Jackson  was  author  of:  1.  'David's  Pas- 
torall  Poeme,  or  Sheepeheards  Song.  Seven 
Sermons  on  the  23  Psalme,'  1603, 8vo.  2. '  The 
Converts  Happiness :  a  Comfortable  Sermon/ 
1609,  4to.  3.  '  Londons  New  Yeeres  Gift, 
or  the  Uncouching  of  the  Foxe.  A  Godly 
Sermon,'  1609, 4to.  4.  '  Peters  Teares,  a  Ser- 
mon,' 1612,  4to.  5.  '  Sinnelesse  Sorrow  for 
the  Dead.  A  Comfortable  Sermon  at  the 
Funeral  of  Mr.  John  Moyle,'  1614,  12mo. 
6.  '  Judah  must  into  Captivitie.  Six  Ser- 
mons,' &c.,  1622, 4to.  7.  '  The  Raging  Tem- 
pest Stilled.  The  Historie  of  Christ,  His 
Passage  with  His  Disciples  over  the  Sea  of 
Galilee,'  &c.,  1623,  4to.  8.  'An  Helpe  to 
the  Best  Bargaine.  A  Sermon,'  1624, 8vo. 

[Wood's  Athenae Oxon.  (Bliss),  ii.  669 ;  Prynne's 
Canterbury's  Doom,  1646,  pp.  79,  534;  Wbarton's 
Troubles  and  Tryal  of  Laud,  1695,  pp.326,  369  ; 
Walker's  Sufferings  of  the  Clergy,  fol.  pt.  ii.  p.  7 ; 
Hist.  MSS.  Comm.  4th  Rep.  p.  125  ;  House  of 
Lords' Journals.viii.  573;  Le  Neve's  Fasti  (Hardy), 
i.  49 ;  Hasted's  Kent,  '  Canterbury,'  1801,  ii.  65; 
Registers  of  Canterbury  Cathedral  (Harl.  Soc.) ; 
Mnsters's  Corpus  Christi  College  (Lamb),  pp.  193, 
199 ;  Calendar  of  State  Papers,  Dom.  Ser.  James  I, 
i.  74,1634-5,  1635,  1635-6,  1636-7;  Brit.  Mus. 
Cat. ;  information  kindly  supplied  by  the  Revs. 
J.  I.  Dredge  and  J.  E.  B.  Mayor.]  C.  W.  S. 

JACKSON,  THOMAS  (1783-1873), 
Wesleyan  minister,  born  at  Sancton,  a  small 
village  near  Market  Weighton,  East  York- 
shire, on  12  Dec.  1783,  was  second  son  of 
Thomas  and  Mary  Jackson.  His  father  was 
an  agricultural  labourer.  Three  of  the  sons, 
Robert,  Samuel,  and  Thomas,  became  minis- 
ters in  the  Wesleyan  Methodist  Connexion. 
Thomas  was  mainly  self-taught,  being  taken 
from  school  at  twelve  years  of  age  to  work 
on  a  farm.  Three  years  after  he  was  appren- 
ticed to  a  carpenter  at  Shipton,  a  neighbour- 
ing village.  At  every  available  moment  he 
read  and  studied,  and  in  July  1801  joined  the 
Methodist  Society  and  threw  his  energies  into 
biblical  study  and  religious  work.  In  Sep- 
tember 1804  he  was  sent  by  the  Wesleyan 




conference  as  an  itinerant  preacher  into  the 
Spilsby  circuit.  For  twenty  years  he  laboured 
in  the  Wesleyan  connexion  in  the  same  ca- 
pacity, occupying  some  of  the  most  important 
circuits,  such  as  Preston  and  Wakefield,  Man- 
chester, Lincoln,  Leeds,  and  London.  His 
position  and  influence  grew  rapidly.  From 
182-4  to  1842  he  was  editor  of  the  connexional 
magazines,  and,  despite  his  lack  of  a  liberal 
education  in  youth,  he  performed  his  duties 
with  marked  success.  The  conference  elected 
him  in  1842  to  the  chair  of  divinity  in  the 
Theological  College  at  Richmond,  Surrey, 
where  he  remained  until  1861. 

In  1838-9  Jackson  was  for  the  first  time 
chosen  president  of  the  Wesleyan  conference. 
A  hundred  years  had  just  passed  since  the 
formation  of  the  first  Methodist  Society  by 
the  brothers  Wesley,  and  Jackson  prepared 
a  centenary  volume,  describing  the  origin 
and  growth  of  methodism,  and  the  benefits 
springing  from  it  (1839).  In  the  centennial 
celebration  he  played  a  leading  part,  and 
preached  before  the  conference  in  Brunswick 
Chapel,  Liverpool,  the  official  sermon,  which 
occupied  nearly  three  hours  in  delivery.  The 
sermon  was  published,  and  had  a  very  large 

Jackson  was  re-elected  president  in  1849, 
when  the  methodist  community  was  agitated 
by  the  so-called  reform  movement  and  the 
expulsion  of  Everett,  Dunn,  and  Griffiths 
[see  DUNN,  SAMTTEL,  and  EVERETT,  JAMES]. 
Jackson  throughout  the  crisis  showed  great 
tact  and  dignity. 

He  retired  from  Richmond  College  and 
from  full  work  as  a  Wesleyan  minister  in 
1861.  At  the  same  time  his  private  library 
was  bought  by  James  Heald  [q.  v.]  for  1,00(W. 
and  given  to  Richmond  College.  After  leaving 
Richmond  he  resided  with  his  daughter,  Mrs. 
Marzials,  first  in  Bloomsbury,  and  afterwards 
in  Shepherd's  Bush,  where  he  died  on  10  March 

In  1809  Jackson  married  Ann,  daughter 
of  Thomas  Hollinshead  of  Horncastle.  She 
died  24  Sept.  1854,  aged  69.  His  son,  the 
Rev.  Thomas  Jackson,  M.A.,  is  separately 

Jackson's  style  as  a  preacher  was  simple 
and  lucid.  As  a  theologian  he  belonged  to 
the  school  of  Wesley  and  Fletcher  of  Made- 
ley.  Besides  occasional  sermons  and  pam- 
phlets he  wrote :  1.  '  Life  of  John  Goodwin, 
A.M.,  comprising  an  Account  of  his  Opinions 
and  Writings,'  8vo,  London,  1822 ;  new  edi- 
tion, 8vo,  1872.  2.  '  Memoirs  of  the  Life 
and  Writings  of  the  Rev.  Richard  Watson,' 
8vo,  1834.  3.  '  The  Centenary  of  Wesleyan 
Methodism :  a  Brief  Sketch  of  the  Rise,  Pro- 
gress, and  Present  State  of  the  Wesleyan 

Methodist  Societies  throughout  the  World,' 
post  8vo,  1839.  4.  '  Expository  Discourses  on 
various  Scripture  Facts,'  &c.,  post  8vo,  1839. 
5.  '  The  Life  of  the  Rev.  Charles  Wesley,' 
2  vols.  8vo,  London,  1841.  6.  '  The  Jour- 
nal of  the  Rev.  Charles  Wesley,  with  Selec- 
tions from  his  Correspondence  and  Poetry; 
with  an  Introduction  and  Notes,'  2  vols.  fcp. 
8vo,  London,  1849.  7.  '  The  Life  of  the 
Rev.  Robert  Newton,  D.D.,'  post  8vo,  1855. 

8.  '  The  Duties  of  Christianity  theoretically 
and  practically  considered,'  cr.   8vo,  1867. 

9.  'The  Providence  of  God,  viewed  in  the 
Light  of   Holy  Scripture,'  cr.   8vo,   1862. 

10.  'Aids  to  Truth  and  Charity,'  8vo,  1862. 

11.  'The  Institutions  of  Christianity,  exhi- 
bited in  their  Scriptural  Character  and  Prac- 
tical Bearing,'  cr.  8vo,  London,  1868.  12. '  Re- 
collections of  my  own  Life  and  Times,'  edited 
by  the  Rev.  B.  Frankland,  B.A. ;  with  an 
introduction  and  a  postscript  by  the  Rev.  G. 
Osborn,  D.D.,  cr.  8vo,  London,  1873. 

He  also  edited,  with  a  preface  or  introduc- 
tory essay :  '  The  Works  of  the  Rev.  John 
Wesley  in  14  vols.,'  8vo,  London,  1829-31 ; 
'  John  Goodwin's  Exposition  of  Romans  ix., 
with  two  other  Tracts  by  the  same,'  8vo, 
London,  1834 ;  'The  Christian  armed  against 
Infidelity,'  24mo,  1837  ;  '  Memoirs  of  Miss 
Hannah  Ball,'  12mo,  1839 ;  'A  Collection  of 
Christian  Biography,'  12  vols.  18mo,  1837- 
1840 ; '  Anthony  Farindon's  Sermons,'  4  vols. 
8vo,  1849 ;  '  Wesley's  Journals,'  4  vols.  12mo, 
1864 ;  '  The  Lives  of  the  Early  Methodist 
Preachers,'  6  vols.  12mo,  1865. 

SAMUEL  JACKSON  (1786-1861),  Thomas 
Jackson's  younger  brother,  was  president  of 
the  Wesleyan  conference  at  Liverpool  in 
1847,  and  died  at  Newcastle  during  the  ses- 
sion of  the  conference  there  in  August  1861. 

[Eecollections  of  my  own  Life  and  Times  (as 
above) ;  Minutes  of  the  Methodist  Conferences ; 
private  information.]  W.  B.  L. 

JACKSON,  THOMAS  (1812-1886), 
divine,  son  of  Thomas  Jackson  [q.  v.],  Wes- 
leyan minister,  was  born  in  1812.  He  was 
educated  at  St.  Saviour's  school,  Southwark,. 
and  St.  Mary  Hall,  Oxford,  where  he  gra- 
duated B.A.  27  Nov.  1834,  M.A.  23  NOT. 
1837.  While  an  undergraduate  he  was  the 
author  of  &jeu  (P esprit,  entitled '  Uniomachia,* 
in  which  John  Sinclair,  afterwards  arch- 
deacon of  Middlesex,  had  a  hand ;  it  was 
printed  at  Oxford  about  1833,  with  annota- 
tions by  Robert  Scott,  afterwards  dean  of 
Rochester,  and  went  through  five  editions. 
After  holding  a  curacy  at  Brompton  he  be- 
came vicar  of  St.  Peter's,  Stepney.  In  1844 
he  was  chosen  principal  of  the  National  So- 
ciety's training  college  at  Battersea,  and  in 
1850  prebendary  of  Wedland  in  St.  Paul's 




Cathedral.  In  1850  also  he  was  nominated 
to  the  bishopric  of  the  projected  see  of 
Lyttelton,  New  Zealand,  and  accordingly 
went  out  to  that  colony.  Difficulties,  how- 
ever, arose  about  the  constitution  of  the  new 
diocese,  and  he  was  never  consecrated.  His 
attitude  was  vindicated  by  Blomfield,  al- 
ways his  firm  friend,  and  Archbishop  Sum- 
ner.  Blomfield  presented  him  in  1852  to 
the  rectory  of  Stoke  Newington.  Here  he 
rebuilt  the  parish  church  from  the  designs 
of  Sir  Gilbert  Scott.  He  took  great  interest 
in  the  question  of  education,  for  some  time 
editing  the  'English  Journal  of  Education.' 
Owing  to  ill-health  Jackson  made  arrange- 
ments to  vacate  his  living  in  June  1886,  but 
died  previously  on  18  March.  A  mural  monu- 
ment was  put  up  to  his  memory  in  Stoke 
Newington  Church.  He  was  married  and 
left  issue. 

He  published,  besides  single  sermons  and 
addresses  (1843-56) :  1.  '  A  Compendium  of 
Logic  .  .  .  with  .  .  .  Notes,'  &c.,  1836, 
12mo  (an  edition  of  Aldrich).  2.  '  Sermons,' 
&c.,  1859,  8vo;  1863,  8vo.  3.  '  Our  Dumb 
Companions,'  &c.,  2nd  edition  [1864],  4to ; 
new  edition  [1869],  4to.  4.  '  Curiosities  of 
the  Pulpit,'  &c.  [1868],  8vo ;  with  new  title, 

*  Reminiscences  and  Anecdotes  of  Celebrated 
Preachers,'  &c.  [1875],  8vo.     5.  « The  Nar- 
rative of  the  Fire  of  London,  freely  handled 
on  the  principles  of  Modern  Rationalism,  by 
P.  Maritzburg,'  &c.,  1869, 8vo  (reprinted  from 

*  Good  Words ').   6.  '  Our  Dumb  Neighbours,' 
&c.  [1870],  4to.     7.  '  Our  Feathered  Com- 
panions,' &c.  [1870],  8vo.    8.  '  Stories  about 
Animals,'  &c.  [1874],  4to. 

[Times,  20  March  1886,  p.  7  ;  Cat.  of  Oxford 
Graduates,  1851,  p.  358 ;  Crockford's  Clerical 
Directory,  1885.]  A.  G. 

JACKSON,  WILLIAM  (1737  P-1795), 
Irish  revolutionist,  son  of  an  officer  in  the  pre- 
rogative court,  Dublin,  became  at  an  early 
age  a  tutor  in  London,  and,  taking  holy  orders, 
was  for  a  time  curate  of  St.  Mary-le-Strand, 
and  gained  some  notoriety  as  a  preacher  at 
Tavistock  Chapel,  Drury  Lane.  Before  1775 
he  became  secretary  or  factotum  to  Elizabeth 
Chudleigh  [q.  v.],  duchess  of  Kingston.  Foote 
satirised  him  as  Dr.  Viper  in  his  '  Capuchin.' 
An  acrimonious  correspondence  followed  in 
the  newspapers.  In  a  letter  to  the  duchess 

Foote  wrote :  '  Pray,  madam,  is  not  J n 

the  name  of  your  female  confidential  secre- 
tary? .  .  .  May  you  never  want  the  benefit 
of  clergy  in  every  emergency.'  Jackson  re- 
taliated by  suborning  Foote's  ex-coachman 
to  prefer  an  infamous  charge  against  him  [see 
FOOTE,  SAMUEL],  and  by  publishing  a  disgust- 
ing poem  under  the  pseudonym  of  Humphry 

Nettle  (1775).  Jackson  had  already  made 
his  way  as  a  radical  journalist.  He  became 
editor  of  the  '  Public  Ledger,'  a  daily  paper, 
and  published  a  reply  to  Dr.  Johnson's 
'  Taxation  no  Tyranny,'  in  which  he  strongly 
supported  the  American  revolutionists.  In 
1776  he  edited  Gurney's  report  of  the  evi- 
dence taken  at  the  Duchess  of  Kingston's 
trial  for  bigamy,  and  probably  accompanied 
her  to  France.  Soon  returning  to  England, 
he  resumed  his  connection  with  the  press 
by  editing  the  '  Morning  Post,'  and  gave 
able  support  to  the  advanced  whigs  by  pub- 
lishing '  The  Constitutions  of  the  several  in- 
dependent States  of  America,  the  Declara- 
tion of  Independence,  and  the  Articles  of 
Confederation  between  the  said  States.  To 
which  are  now  added  the  Declaration  of 
Rights,  «&c.  With  an  Appendix,  &c.,'  8vo, 
London,  1783,  dedicated  to  the  Duke  of 
Portland.  '  Thoughts  on  the  Causes  of  the 
Delay  of  the  Westminster  Scrutiny/  8vo, 
by  Jackson,  appeared  at  London  in  1784. 
According  to  Cockayne,  he  was  sent  by  Pitt 
on  a  secret  mission  to  the  French  govern- 
ment in  the  interval  between  Louis  XVI's 
deposition  and  his  trial.  He  may  have  been 
the  pretended  Irish  quaker  sent  from  London 
to  Paris  at  the  end  of  1792  with  a  passport 
from  Roland  (ETIEXNE  DTTMONT,  Souvenirs 
sur  Mirabeau').  He  seems  to  have  remained 
in  France  until  1794.  In  March  1794  he 
was  commissioned  by  Nicholas  Madgett  and 
John  Hurford  Stone,  men  in  the  employ  of 
the  French  foreign  office,  to  ascertain  the 
chances  of  success  for  a  French  invasion  of 
England  or  Ireland.  Arriving  in  London, 
he  conferred  or  corresponded  with  radical 
politicians,  who  all  deprecated  an  invasion. 
He  also  renewed  acquaintance  with  the 
Duchess  of  Kingston's  former  attorney, 
Cockayne,  who  betrayed  his  plans  to  Pitt. 
Cockayne  accompanied  Jackson  to  Dublin, 
and  gave  information  to  the  authorities  which 
led  to  the  intercepting  of  Jackson's  letters. 
Jackson  was  thereupon  charged  with  high 
treason  and  arrested  (24  April  1794),  but  was 
treated  with  great  indulgence,  and  was  al- 
lowed to  receive  visitors.  One  night,  on  a  friend 
leaving  him,  he  accompanied  him  to  the  gate, 
found  the  turnkey  asleep,  with  his  keys  on 
the  table,  took  up  the  keys  to  let  his  friend 
out,  and  went  back  to  his  «ell.  He  could 
not  have  escaped  without  compromising  both 
friend  and  turnkey.  While  awaiting  trial 
he  wrote  and  published  '  Observations  in  An- 
swer to  Mr.  T.  Paine's  "Age  of  Reason,'" 
Dublin,  1795.  Refusing  to  make  any  disclo- 
sures, which  would  apparently  have  saved 
his  life,  he  was  tried  for  high  treason  23  April 
1795,  the  only  evidence  against  him  being 



given  by  Cockayne  and  the  intercepted  let- 
ters. Curran,  together  with  Ponsonby  and 
M'Nally,  defended  him,  their  contention 
being  that  Cockayne  was  unworthy  of  cre- 
dit, and  that  a  single  witness  was  insuffi- 
cient. Jackson  was  convicted,  but  recom- 
mended to  mercy  on  account  of  his  age. 
He  must  therefore  have  looked  or  have  been 
more  than  fifty-eight.  Judgment  was  fixed 
for  30  April,  on  which  day  his  wife  break- 
fasted with  him,  and  probably  brought  him 
poison.  After  whispering  to  M'Nally  on  his  ar- 
rival in  court, '  We  have  deceived  the  senate' 
(the  dying  words  of  the  suicide  Pierre  in  Ot- 
way's  '  Venice  Preserved '),  he  dropped  down 
dead  in  the  dock  while  his  counsel  were  dis- 
puting the  validity  of  the  conviction.  His 
suicide  was  attributed  to  a  desire  to  save  from 
forfeiture  a  small  competency  for  his  wife. 
His  funeral,  on  3  May,  in  St.  Michan's  ceme- 
tery, Dublin,  was  attended  by  the  leading 
United  Irishmen,  who  till  his  death  had  sus- 
pected him  of  being  a  government  spy.  He 
was  twice  married,  and  by  his  second  wife 
had  two  daughters. 

[Madden's  United  Irishmen  ;  Lecky's  Hist,  of 
England  in  the  18th  Cent.  vii.  27,  28,  136; 
M'Nevin's  Pieces  of  Irish  History,  New  York, 
1807;  Lives  of  Tone,  Curran,  and  Grattan; 
Howell's  State  Trials ;  John  Taylor's  Records  of 
My  Life,  ii.  319-33.]  J.  G.  A. 

JACKSON,  WILLIAM  (1730-1803), 
musical  composer,  known  as  JACKSON  OP 
EXETEE,  born  28  May  1730,  was  the  son  of 
an  Exeter  grocer,  who  afterwards  became 
master  of  the  city  workhouse.  After  re- 
ceiving some  musical  instruction  from  John 
Silvester,  organist  of  Exeter  Cathedral,  Jack- 
son was  sent  in  1748  to  London,  to  become 
a  pupil  of  John  Travers,  organist  to  the 
Chapel  Royal.  In  1767  he  wrote  the  music 
for  an  adaptation  of  Milton's '  Lycidas,'  which 
was  produced  at  Covent  Garden  on  4  Nov. 
of  the  same  year,  on  the  occasion  of  the  death 
of  Edward  Augustus,  duke  of  York  and 
Albany,  brother  to  George  HI.  While  in 
London  Jackson  was  a  visitor  at  the  meetings 
of  the  Madrigal  Society.  On  his  return  to 
Exeter  he  devoted  himself  to  teaching  music 
until  Michaelmas  1777,  when  he  was  ap- 
pointed subchanter,  organist,  lay  vicar,  and 
master  of  choristers  to  the  cathedral,  in  suc- 
cession to  Richard  Langdon. 

On  27  Dec.  1780  Jackson  achieved  a  great 
success  by  the  production  at  Drury  Lane  of 
his  opera  '  The  Lord  of  the  Manor,'  the  li- 
bretto to  which  was  written  by  General  John 
Burgoyne  [q.  v.]  One  of  its  numbers,  '  En- 
compassed in  an  angel's  frame,'  became  very 
popular,  and  the  opera  held  the  stage  for 
fifty  years.  On  5  Dec.  1783  was  first  per- 

formed a  comic  opera,  '  The  Metamorphosis/ 
of  which  Jackson  wrote  the  music  and  pro- 
bably the  words  also. 

In  1792,  with  the  help  of  one  or  two  friends, 
he  started  a  Literary  Society  in  Exeter.  At 
its  meetings,  which  were  held  at  the  Globe 
Inn,  Fore  Street,  each  member  present  read 
an  original  prose  or  verse  composition.  A 
volume  of  the  compositions  was  published  in 
1796.  By  means  of  an  introduction  from  the 
Sheridans,  with  whom  he  was  intimate,  Jack- 
son contracted  in  his  seventieth  year  a  friend- 
ship with  Samuel  Rogers,  the  poet.  Writing 
to  Richard  Sharp  on  5  Feb.  1800,  the  poet 
says,  his  [Jackson's]  kindness  has  affected  me 
not  a  little.  Among  other  proofs  of  his  re- 
gard, he  requested  me  to  take  charge  of  his 
papers.'  Dr.  Wolcot  was  another  of  Jack- 
son's intimate  friends.  Jackson  died  of  dropsy 
on  12  July  1803.  A  contemporary  account 
describes  him  as  'pleasant,  social,  and  com- 
municative.' He  possessed  some  skill  as  a 
painter  of  landscape  after  the  style  of  his 
friend  Gainsborough,  and  was  an  honorary 
exhibitor  at  the  Royal  Academy.  Early  in 
life  he  married  Miss  Bartlett  of  Exeter.  His 
wife,  two  sons,  and  one  daughter  survived  him. 

Jackson's  music  displays  refinement  and 
grace,  but  little  character.  Its  insipidity  is 
most  obvious  in  his  church  music ;  neverthe- 
less his  '  Service  in  F '  was  popular,  and  is 
still  to  be  heard.  Besides  the  works  already 
mentioned,  his  published  compositions  in- 
clude:  1.  'Twelve  Songs,'  op.  1,  London 
[1765  ?].  2.  '  Elegies  for  Three  Voices,'  op.  3, 
London,  1767.  3.  'Twelve  Songs,'  op.  4, 
London  [1767  ?].  4.  <  Twelve  Songs,'  op.  7, 
London  [1768  ?].  5.  A  setting  of  Warton's 
'Ode  to  Fancy,'  op.  8,  London  [1768?]. 
6.  '  Twelve  Canzonets  for  Two  Voices,'  op.  9, 
London  [1770?].  7.  'Six  Quartets  for 
Voices,'  op.  11, London  [1775?].  8.  'Twelve 
Canzonets  for  Two  Voices,'  op.  13,  London 
[1780?].  9.  A  setting  of  Pope's  ode  'A 
Dying  Christian  to  his  Soul'  [London, 
1780?].  10.  'Twelve  Pastorals  for  Two 
Voices",' op.  15, London [1784?].  11.  'Twelve 
Songs,'  op.  16,  London  [1785  ?].  12.  '  Six 
Epigrams  for  2,  3,  and  4  Voices,'  op.  17, 
London  [1786?].  13.  'Six  Madrigals  for 
2,  3,  and  4  Voices,'  op.  18,  London  [1786?]. 

14.  'Services    in    C,   E,   E    flat,   and    F.' 

15.  '  Hymns  in  three  parts.'     He  also  pub- 
lished two  small  collections  of  sonatas  for 
the  harpsichord,  and  various  separate  glees 
and  songs. 

Jackson  was  also  the  author  of  '  Thirty 
Letters  on  Various  Subjects '  (three  of  them 
on  music),  anon.,  London,  1782 ;  2nd  edit. 
London,  1784 ;  3rd  edit.  London,  1785,  with 
author's  name ;  '  Observations  on  the  Present 




State  of  Music  in  London'  (a  pamphlet), 
London,  1791 ;  '  Four  Ages,  together  with 
Essays  on  Various  Subjects,'  London,  1798 ; 
'  A  First  Book  for  Performers  on  Keyed  In- 
etruments ; '  and  various  anonymous  letters 
and  essays  contributed  to  periodicals. 

Posthumous  publications  were :  '  Anthems 
and  Church  Services  by  the  late  W.  Jackson 
of  Exeter,  edited  by  J.  Peddon '  (organist  to 
the  cathedral),  3  vols.,  Exeter,  1819 ;  '  The 
Year :  a  Cantata,'  London,  1859  ;  and  selec- 
tions from  his  works,  sacred  and  secular, 
4  vols.,  published  in  London  without  date. 

[Grove's  Diet,  of  Music,  ii.  27 ;  Brown's  Biog. 
Diet,  of  Music,  p.  343  ;  Bemrose's  Choir  Chant 
Book,  App.  p.  xxi ;  Georgian  Era,  iv.  246 ; 
Clayden's  Early  Life  of  Samuel  Rogers,  p.  399 ; 
Public  Characters  of  1798-9,  p.  242  ;  John 
Taylor's  Records  of  My  Life ;  Madrigal  Soc.  Re- 
cords ;  Jackson's  music  in  Brit.  Mus.]  R.  F.  S. 

JACKSON,  WILLIAM  (1751-1815), 
bishop  of  Oxford,  born  in  1751,  was  the 
younger  son  of  Cyril  Jackson,  physician,  of 
Stamford,  Lincolnshire,  but  latterly  of  York. 
He  was  entered  at  Manchester  grammar  school 
on  12  Jan.  1762,  but  was  removed  to  West- 
minster in  1764,  when  he  was  elected  a  king's 
scholar.  On  1  June  1768  he  matriculated  at 
Oxford  as  a  student  of  Christ  Church  (FOSTER, 
Alumni  Oxon.  1715-1886,  ii.  737),  and  in 
1770  gained  the  chancellor's  prize  for  Latin 
verse,  the  subject  being  '  Ars  Medendi.'  He 
graduated  B.A.  in  1772,  M.A.  in  1775,  B.D. 
in  1783,  and  D.D.  in  1799.  At  Christ  Church 
he  was  for  many  years  actively  engaged  as 
tutor,  rhetoric  reader,  and  censor.  He  also 
became  chaplain  to  Markham,  archbishop 
of  York,  who  appointed  him  prebendary  of 
Southwell  on  23  Sept.  1780  (LE  NEVE,  Fasti, 
ed.  Hardy,  iii.  420),  prebendary  of  York  on 
26  March  1783  (ib.  iii.  208),  and  rector  of 
Beeford  in  East  Yorkshire.  On  19  Dec.  1783 
he  was  elected  regius  professor  of  Greek  at 
Oxford  (ib.  iii.  517),  and  shortly  afterwards 
one  of  the  curators  of  the  Clarendon  press. 
In  the  same  year  he  was  chosen  preacher 
of  Lincoln's  Inn.  On  4  Jan.  1792  he  was 
made  prebendary  of  Bath  and  Wells  (ib. 
i.  203),  and  became  dean  in  1799  (ib.  i.  155). 
He  was  preferred  to  a  canonry  at  Christ 
Church  on  2  Aug.  1799  (ib.  ii/522).  The 
prince  regent  having  vainly  solicited  his  old 
tutor,  Jackson's  elder  brother,  Cyril  [q.  v.], 
to  accept  a  bishopric,  conferred  that  dignity 
upon  William .  Jackson  was  accordingly  con- 
secrated bishop  of  Oxford  on  23  Feb.  1812  (ib. 
ii.  509),  and  was  subsequently  appointed 
clerk  of  the  closet  to  the  king.  He  died  at 
Cuddesdon,  Oxford,  on  2  Dec.  1815  (Gent. 
Mag.  vol.  Ixxxv.  pt,  ii.  p.  633).  In  E.  H. 
Barker's  'Parriana'  (i.  421-4)  Jackson  is 

described  as  very  self-indulgent.  His  por- 
trait, by  W.  Owen,  is  in  Christ  Church  Hall. 
An  engraving  by  S.  W.  Reynolds  is  in  the  old 
school  at  Manchester. 

Jackson  published  several  sermons. 

[Reg.  Manchester  Grammar  School  (Chetham 
Soc.),  i.  98-9  ;  Welch's  Alumni  Westmon.  1852, 
p.  388 ;  Wood's  Antiq.  of  Oxford  (Gutch).  vol.  ii. 
pt.  ii.  pp.  855,  950 ;  Brit.  Mus.  Cat.]  G.  G. 

JACKSON,  WILLIAM,  'of  Masham' 
(1815-1866),  musical  composer,  was  born  at 
Masham  in  Yorkshire  on  9  Jan.  1815.  He 
was  the  son  of  a  miller,  and  as  a  boy  worked 
in  the  flour-mill  or  in  the  fields.  At  an  early 
age  he  showed  an  interest  in  music  and  in  the 
mechanism  of  instruments.  After  mending 
some  barrel-organs  for  neighbours,  he  induced 
his  father  (equally  inexperienced)  to  help  him 
in  the  construction  of  one,  a  task  the  pair 
accomplished  during  leisure  hours  in  four 
months'  time.  Jackson  then  made  a  five- 
stop  finger-organ.  He  had  taught  himself  to 
play  on  fifteen  musical  instruments,  studying 
scores  from  a  library,  as  well  as  Callcott's 
'  Grammar  of  Thorough  Bass.'  His  first  efforts 
in  composition  were  some  tunes  for  a  military 
band,  and  twelve  short  anthems.  In  1832 
Jackson  was  earning  3s.  6d.  a  week  as  a  jour- 
neyman miller ;  but  after  taking  a  few  lessons 
at  Ripon,  he  was  appointed  first  organist  to  the 
Masham  Church,  at  a  salary  of  30/.  In  1839 
Jackson  went  into  partnership  with  a  tallow- 
chandler  for  thirteen  years.  In  1852  he 
settled  in  Bradford  as  a  music-seller,  in  part- 
nership with  one  Winn,  and  became  or- 
ganist to  St.  John's  Church,  and  afterwards 
to  the  Horton  Lane  Independent  Chapel.  He 
was  conductor  of  the  Bradford  Choral  Union 
(male  voices),  chorus-master  of  the  Bradford 
musical  festivals  of  1853,  1856,  and  1859, 
and  conductor  of  the  Festival  Choral  Society 
from  1856.  Jackson  came  withhis  chorus  of 
210  singers  to  London  in  1858,  and  performed 
before  the  queen  at  Buckingham  Palace. 

Jackson  did  not  live  to  conduct  his  last 
work,  the  '  Praise  of  Music,'  composed  for  the 
Bradford  festival  of  1866.  He  died  at  Ash- 
grove,  Bradford,  on  15  April  1866,  leaving  a 
widow  and  nine  children.  His  son  William, 
organist  at  Morningside  Church,  Edinburgh, 
died  at  Ripon  on  10  Sept.  1877. 

Jackson  published  :  1 .  An  anthem  for 
soprano  and  chorus, '  For  joy  let  fertile  valleys 
ring,'  1839.  2.  A  glee, '  Sisters  of  the  Lea/ 
which  won  the  prize  at  Huddersfield,  1840. 
3.  '  103rd  Psalm,'  1841.  4.  '  The  Deliverance 
of  Israel  from  Babylon,'  oratorio,  3  parts, 
Leeds,  1844-5,  first  performed  at  Bradford, 
1847,  and  favourably  criticised.  5.  '  Blessed 
be  the  Lord  God  of  Israel.'  6.  A  service  in  G. 



7.  Church  music  in  vocal  score,  London,  1848. 

8.  '  Singing  Class  Manual.'    9.  '  Mass  in  E,' 
four  voices.   10.  'O  come  hither !' and  11.  '0 
Zion ! '  anthems,  1850.    12.  Oratorio, '  Isaiah,' 
1851,  produced  three  years  later  at  Bradford. 
13.  Another  ' 103rd  Psalm,'  1856.     14.  Can- 
tata, '  The  Year,'  words  selected  from  various 
poets,  London,  composed  for  Bradford  festival 
of  1859,  published  in  that  or  the  following 
year.     15.  Several  glees.     16.  Slow  move- 
ment and  rondo,  pianoforte.     17.  '  O  Happi- 
ness !'  vocal  duet.     18.  Songs,  'Breathe  not 
for  me,'  '  Come,  here's  a  health,' '  She's  on  my 
heart,'  'Tears,  idle  tears.'     19.  Sixty-three 
hymns   and   chants  (Bradford  Hymn-book 
harmonised),  1860.     20.  Glees.     21.  Sym- 
phony for  orchestra  and  chorus,  compressed 
for  pianoforte,  London,  1866.     Jackson  was 
the  author  of '  Rambles  in  Yorkshire/  a  series 
of  articles  published  in  a  newspaper. 

[Eliza  Cook's  Journal,  ii.  324 ;  Musical  Times, 
iii.  229,  xii.  289  ;  Sheahan's  Hist,  of  the  Wapen- 
take  of  Claro,  iii.  239 ;  James's  Hist,  of  Brad- 
ford, Supplement,  p.  128;  Musical  World,  xliv. 
252;  Grove's  Diet.  ii.  27,  iv.  685.]  L.  M.  M. 

JACOB,  ARTHUR  (1790-1874),  oculist, 
second  son  of  John  Jacob,  M.D.  (1754-1827), 
surgeon  to  the  Queen's  County  infirmary, 
Maryborough,  Ireland,  by  his  wife  Grace 
(1765-1835),  only  child  of  Jerome  Alley  of 
Donoughmore,  was  born  at  Knockfin,  Mary- 
borough, on  13  or  30  June  1790.  He  studied 
medicine  with  his  father,  and  at  Steevens's 
Hospital,  Dublin,  under  Abraham  Colles 
[q.  v.]  Having  graduated  M.D.  at  the  uni- 
versity of  Edinburgh  in  1814,  he  set  out 
on  a  walking  tour  through  the  United  King- 
dom, crossing  the  Channel  at  Dover,  and  con- 
tinuing his  walk  from  Calais  to  Paris.  He 
studied  at  Paris  until  Napoleon's  return 
from  Elba.  He  subsequently  pursued  his 
studies  in  London  under  Sir  B.  Brodie,  Sir 
A.  Cooper,  and  Sir  W.  Lawrence.  In  1819  he 
returned  to  Dublin,  and  became  demonstra- 
tor of  anatomy  under  Dr.  James  Macartney 
at  Trinity  College.  Here  his  anatomical  re- 
searches gained  for  him  a  high  reputation,  and 
he  collected  a  valuable  museum,  whichMacart- 
ney  afterwards  sold  to  the  university  of  Cam- 
bridge. In  1819  he  announced  the  discovery, 
whichhe  had  made  in  1816,  of  a  previously  un- 
known membrane  of  the  eye,  in  a  paper  in  the 
'  Philosophical  Transactions '  (pt.  i.  pp.300-7). 
The  membrane  has  been  known  since  as 
'  membrana  Jacobi.'  On  leaving  Macartney, 
Jacob  joined  with  Graves  and  others  in  found- 
ing the  Park  Street  School  of  Medicine.  In 
1826  he  was  elected  professor  of  anatomy  in 
the  Royal  College  of  Surgeons  in  Ireland, 
and  held  the  chair  until  1869.  He  was  three 



times  chosen  president  of  the  colle, 
1832,  in  conjunction  with  Charles  Benson' 
and  others,  he  established  the  City  of  Dublin 
Hospital.  "With  Dr.  Henry  Maunsell  in 
1839  he  started  the  '  Dublin  Medical  Press,'  a 
weekly  journal  of  medical  science,  and  edited 
forty-two  volumes  (1839  to  1859).  He  also 
took  an  active  part  in  founding  the  Royal 
Medical  Benevolent  Fund  Society  of  Ireland 
and  the  Irish  Medical  Association.  At  the 
age  of  seventy-five  he  retired  from  the  active 
pursuit  of  his  profession.  His  fame  rests 
upon  his  anatomical  and  ophthalmological 
discoveries.  Apart  from  his  discovery  of  the 
'membrana  Jacobi,'  he  described  'Jacob's 
ulcer,'  and  revived  the  operation  for  cataract 
through  the  cornea  with  the  curved  needle.  To 
the '  Cyclopaedia  of  Anatomy '  he  contributed 
an  article  on  the  eye,  and  to  the '  Cyclopaedia  of 
Practical  Medicine '  treatises  on '  Ophthalmia ' 
and  '  Amaurosis.'  In  December  1860  a  medal 
bearing  his  likeness  was  struck  and  presented 
to  him,  and  his  portrait,  bust,  and  library 
were  afterwards  placed  in  the  Royal  College  of 
Surgeons  in  Ireland.  He  died  at  Newbarnes, 
Barrow-in-Furness,  on  21  Sept.  1874.  In 
1824  he  married  Sarah,  daughter  of  Coote 
Carroll,  esq.,  of  Ballymote,  co.  Sligo.  She  died 
on  6  Jan.  1839.  By  her  he  had  five  sons. 
His  chief  publications  were :  1.  'A  Treatise 
on  the  Inflammation  of  the  Eyeball,'  1849. 
2.  '  On  Cataract  and  the  Operation  for  its  Re- 
moval by  Absorption,'  1851. 

[British  Medical  Journal,  1874,  ii.  511 ;  Medi- 
cal Press  and  Circular,  1874,  Ixix.  278,  285; 
Medical  Times  and  Gazette,  3  Oct.  1874,  pp. 
405-6;  Graphic,  17  Oct.  1874,  pp.  367,  372, 
with  portrait;  Jacob  and  Glascott's  Hist,  and 
Genealogical  Narrative  of  the  Families  of  Jacob, 
privately  printed,  1875,  pp.  63  sq.]  G.  C.  B. 

JACOB,  BENJAMIN  (1778-1829),  or- 
ganist, son  of  Benjamin  Jacob,  an  amateur 
violinist,  was  born  before  26  April  1778, 
and  was  employed  as  a  chorister  at  Portland 
Chapel,  London.  He  learnt  the  rudiments 
of  music  from  his  father,  singing  from  Robert 
"Willoughby,  harpsichord  and  organ  from 
William  Shrubsole  and  Matthew  Cooke,  and 
at  a  later  date  harmony  from  Dr.  Samuel 
Arnold  [q.  v.]  At  the  age  of  ten  Jacob  be- 
came organist  of  Salem  Chapel,  Soho;  in  1789 
organist  of  Carlisle  Chapel,  Kennington  Lane ; 
in  1790  organist  of  Bentinck  Chapel,  Lisson 
Grove;  in  1791  he  was  a  chorister  at  tho 
Handel  commemoration ;  and  in  1794  was  ap- 
pointed organist  of  Surrey  Chapel,  in  succes- 
sion to  John  Immyns  [q.  v.],  the  first  organist 
there.  An  organ  (built  by  Thomas  Elliot) 
was  first  introduced  into  Surrey  Chapel  in 
1793,  ten  years  after  the  chapel  was  opened 




by  Rowland  Hill  (1744-1833)  [q.v.],  and 'all 
the  serious  people  were  exceedingly  grieved' 
by  its  introduction.  Jacob  held  the  post 
until  1825;  he  was  a  very  fine  executant, 
and  established  a  series  of  organ  recitals  at 
the  chapel.  In  1809  Wesley  played  alter- 
nately with  him,  and  in  1811  and  some 
years  afterwards  Dr.  Crotch  [q.  v.]  was  his 
principal  coadjutor.  Their  concerts  begun  at 
11  A.M.  and  lasted  between  three  and  four 
hours,  the  audiences  numbering  three  thou- 
sand people.  A  variation  was  made  when 
Salomon  played  the  violin  in  concert  with  the 
organ.  Jacob  also  gave  annual  public  con- 
certs in  aid  of  the  Rowland  Hill  Almshouses. 
His  connection  with  Hill  ceased  after  May 
1825,  when  he  accepted  the  post  of  organist 
to  St.  John's  Church,  Waterloo  Road,  at  a 
salary  of  70/.,  with  permission  to  play  once 
each  Sunday  at  Surrey  Chapel.  Hill  preferred 
to  dispense  entirely  with  the  musician's  ser- 
vices, and  after  a  painful  discussion  and  a 
published  correspondence  their  friendship 
was  interrupted.  Jacob  remained  at  St. 
John's  Church  until  his  death  on  24  Aug. 
1829.  He  was  buried  atBunhill  Fields.  He 
left  a  widow  and  three  daughters.  An  only 
son  died  early. 

Jacob's  compositions  were  few  and  unim- 
portant. The  best  known  are  '  Dr.  Watts's 
Divine  and  Moral  Songs,  Solos,  Duets, 
and  Trios,'  London,  1800  (?) ;  'National 
Psalmody  '  contains  twelve  pieces  by  Jacob 
among  a  large  collection  of  old  church  melo- 
dies, London,  1819,  4to.  Jacob  is  also  re- 
presented in '  Surrey  Chapel  Music,'  London, 
2  vols.  1800  (?)  and  1815  (?).  ' Letters '  ad- 
dressed by  Wesley  to  Jacob  '  relating  to 
Bach'  were  published  by  Eliza  Wesley  in 

[Diet,  of  Music,  1827,  i.  385;  Georgian  Era, 
iv.  324 ;  Grove's  Diet,  of  Music,  ii.  28 ;  article 
by  F.  G.  Edwards  in  the  Nonconformist  Musical 
Journal,  April  and  May  1890.]  L.  M.  M. 

JACOB,  EDWARD  (1710  ?-1788),  an- 
tiquary and  naturalist,  born  about  1710,  was 
son  of  Edward  Jacob,  surgeon,  alderman,  and 
chamberlain  of  Canterbury,  Kent,  by  his  wife 
Mary  Chalker  of  Romney  in  the  same  county. 
He  practised  as  a  surgeon  at  Faversham, 
Kent,  and  was  several  times  mayor  of  the 
borough.  He  purchased  the  estate  of  Sex- 
tries  in  Nackington,  near  Canterbury.  He 
died  at  Faversham  on  26  Nov.  1788,  in  his 
seventy-eighth  year  (Gent.  Mag.  vol.  Iviii. 
pt.  ii.  p.  1127).  Jacob  married,  first,  on 
4  Sept.  1739,  Margaret,  daughter  of  John 
Rigden  of  Canterbury,  by  whom  he  had  no 
surviving  issue;  and  secondly,  Mary,  only 
daughter  of  Stephen  Long  of  Sandwich,  Kent, 

by  whom  he  had  eleven  children ;  she  died 
on  7  March  1803,  in  her  eighty-first  year  (ib. 
vol.  Ixxiii.  pt.  i.  p.  290;  Arch<eologia  Cantiana, 
xiv.  384). 

Jacob  was  author  of:  1.  'The  History  of 
the  Town  and  Port  of  Faversham,'  8vo,  Lon- 
don, 17  74;  and  2.  '  Plantse  Favershamienses. 
A  Catalogue  of .  .  .  Plants  growing  .  .  .  about 
Faversham .  .  .  With  an  Appendix,  exhibit- 
ing a  short  view  of  the  Fossil  bodies  of  the 
adjacent  Island  of  Shepey,'  8vo,  London, 
1777,  to  which  his  portrait,  engraved  by 
Charles  Hall,  is  prefixed.  In  1754  he  com- 
municated to  the  Royal  Society  'An  Account 
of  several  Bones  of  an  Elephant  found  at 
Leysdown,  in  the  Island  of  Sheppey'  (Phil. 
Trans,  vol.  xlviii.  pt.  ii.  pp.  626-7).  In  1770 
he  edited,  with  a  preface,  the  tragedy,  '  Arden 
of  Faversham.'  Jacob  was  elected  F.S.  A.  on 
5  June  1755,  and  in  1780  contributed  to  the 
'  Archseologia'  some  'Observations  on  the 
Roman  Earthen  Ware  taken  from  the  Pan- 
Pudding  Rock'at  Whitstable,  Kent,  in  which 
he  took  occasion  to  refute  the  views  held  by 
Governor  Thomas  Pownall,  F.S. A.  He  also 
assisted  William  Boys  in  'A  Collection  of 
the  minute .  .  .  Shells .  .  .  discovered  near 
Sandwich,'  4to  [1784].  Some  of  his  letters 
to  A.  C.  Ducarel  are  printed  in  Nichols's 
'Illustrations  of  Literature'  (vols.  iv.  vi.); 
his  correspondence  with  E.  M.  da  Costa,  ex- 
tending from  1748  to  1776,  is  in  Addit.  MS. 
28538,  ff.  260-77. 

JOHN  JACOB  (1765-1840),  third  son  of 
the  above,  born  on  27  Dec.  1765,  was  in 
1803  residing  at  Roath  Court,  Glamorgan- 
shire. In  1815  he  removed  to  Guernsey, 
where  he  employed  his  leisure  in  collecting 
materials  for  '  Annals  of  some  of  the  British 
Norman  Isles  constituting  the  Bailiwick  of 
Guernsey,'  of  which  part  i.,  comprising  the 
Casket  Lighthouses,  Alderney,  Sark,  Herm, 
and  Jethou,  with  part  of  Guernsey,  was 
printed  in  a  large  octavo  volume  at  Paris  in 
1830.  Part  ii.,  announced  for  December  1831, 
never  appeared.  John  Jacob  died  on  21  Feb. 
1840,  in  Guernsey,  in  his  seventy-fifth  year 
(  Gent.  Mag.  newser.  xiv.  663-4).  He  married 
Anna  Maria,  daughter  of  George  Le  Grand, 
surgeon,  of  Canterbury,  and  had  five  sons  and 
four  daughters.  Sir  George  Le  Grand  Jacob 
[q.  v.]  was  his  fifth  son. 

[Nichols's  Lit.  Anecd.  vii.  194,  601  ;  Jacob 
and  Glascott's  Hist,  and  Geneal.  Narrative  of 
the  Families  of  Jacob,  privately  printed,  1 875, 
pp.  15,  23.]  G.  G. 

(1805-1881),  major-general  in  the  Indian 
army,  the  fifth  son  and  youngest  child  of 
John  Jacob  [see  JACOB,  EDWABD,  1710?- 

Jacob  i 

1788,  ad  Jin.'],  by  his  wife  Anna  Maria  Le 
Grand,  was  born  at  his  father's  residence, 
Roath  Court,  near  Cardiff,  24  April  1805.  His 
family  in  1815  removed  to  Guernsey.  Jacob 
was  educated  at  Elizabeth  College,  Guernsey, 
and  under  private  tutors  in  France  and  Eng- 
land, and  when  about  fifteen  was  sent  to 
London  to  learn  oriental  languages  under 
Dr.  John  Borthwick  Gilchrist  [q.  v.]  He  ob- 
tained an  Indian  infantry  cadetship  in  1820, 
and  on  the  voyage  out  to  Bombay  contracted 
a  close  friendship  with  Alexander  Burnes 
[q.  v.]  He  was  posted  to  the  2nd  or  grena- 
dier regiment  Bombay  native  infantry  (now 
Prince  of  Wales's  own)  as  ensign  9  June 
1821,  in  which  corps  he  obtained  all  his 
regimental  steps  except  the  last.  His  sub- 
sequent commissions  were :  lieutenant  10  Dec. 
1823,  captain  6  June  1836,  major  1  May 
1848,  lieutenant-colonel  in  the  (late)  31st 
Bombay  native  infantry  15  Nov.  1853,  brevet- 
colonel  6  Dec.  1856,  brigadier-general  21  July 
1858,  major-general  on  retirement  31  Dec. 

Jacob  passed  for  interpreter  in  Hindustani 
so  speedily  after  arrival  in  India,  that  he  was 
complimented  in  presidency  general  orders. 
He  afterwards  passed  in  Persian  and  Ma- 
rathi.  He  saw  some  harassing  service  with 
his  regiment  against  the  Bheels  in  the  pes- 
tiferous Nerbudda  jungles,  and  was  subse- 
quently with  it  in  Cutch  and  at  Ukulkote. 
He  took  his  furlough  home  in  1831,  and  in 
January  1833  was  appointed  orderly  officer  in 
the  East  India  Military  Seminary,  Addis- 
combe.  While  there,  at  the  request  of  the 
Oriental  Translation  Fund,  he  undertook 
the  translation  of  the  '  Ajaib-al-Tabakat ' 
(Wonder  of  the  Universe),  a  manuscript 
purchased  by  Alexander  Burnes  in  the  bazaar 
at  Bokhara.  Jacob  considered  the  work  not 
worth  printing,  and  his  manuscript  translation 
is  now  in  the  library  of  the  Asiatic  Society, 
London.  On  18  June  1835  he  married  Emily, 
daughter  of  Colonel  Utterton  of  Heath  Lodge, 
Croydon,  and  soon  afterwards  sailed  for  India. 
His  wife  died  at  sea,  and  Jacob  landed  at 
Bombay  in  very  broken  health.  He  recovered 
under  the  care  of  a  brother,  William  Jacob, 
then  an  officer  in  the  Bombay  artillery,  and  in 
1836  was  appointed  second  political  assistant 
in  Kattywar,  where  he  was  in  political  charge 
in  1839-43.  His  ability  in  dealing  with  the 
disputed  Limree  succession  was  noticed  by 
the  government ;  the  curious  details  are  given 
in  his  book  (Ls  GRAND  JACOB,  Western  India, 
pp.  22-55).  He  was  also  thanked  for  his 
report  on  the  Babriawar  tribes  (1843)  and 
other  reports  on  Kattywar.  Early  in  1845  he 
served  as  extra  aide-de-camp  to  Major-general 
Delamotte  during  the  disturbances  in  the 

-5  Jacob 

South  Mahratta  country,  and  was  wounded 
in  the  head  and  arm  by  a  falling  rock  when 
in  command  of  the  storming  party  in  the 
assault  on  the  hill-fort  of  Munsuntosh.  In 
April  1845  Jacob  was  appointed  political 
agent  in  Sawunt  Warree.  The  little  state 
was  bankrupt,with  its  gaols  overflowing ;  but 
Jacob's  judicious  measures  during  a  period 
of  six  years  restored  order,  retrieved  the 
finances, andreformed  abuses.  On 8  Jan.  1851 
Jacob  was  made  political  agent  in  Cutch,  and 
was  sent  into  Sind  as  a  special  commissioner 
to  inquire  into  the  case  of  the  unfortunate 
Mir  Ali  Morad,  khan  of  Khypore,  the  papers 
relating  to  which  were  printed  among  '  Ses- 
sional Papers'  of  1858  and  the  following 
years.  He  also  sat  on  an  inquiry  into  de- 
partmental abuses  at  Bombay.  An  account 
of  his  travels  in  Cutch  appeared  in  the '  Pro- 
ceedings '  for  1862  of  the  Bombay  Geogra- 
phical Society,  since  merged  in  the  Asiatic 
Society  of  Bombay.  His  health  needing 
change,  he  obtained  leave,  and  visited  China, 
Java,  Sarawak,  and  Australia,  '  keeping  his 
eyes  and  ears  ever  on  the  alert,  always  read- 
ing, writing,  or  inquiring — mostly  smoking — 
winning  men  by  his  geniality  and  women  by 
his  courteous  bearing ' (Overland Mail, 6  May 
1881).  On  his  return  he  was  shipwrecked 
on  a  coral  reef  in  Torres  Straits,  and  saved 
from  cannibal  natives  by  a  Dutch  vessel.  He 
quitted  Cutch  for  Bombay  in  December  1856, 
at  first  purposing  to  retire ;  but  he  served  under 
Outram  in  the  Persian  expedition.  In  Persia 
he  was  in  command  of  the  native  light  batta- 
lion in  the  division  under  Henry  Havelock, 
whom  Jacob  appears  to  have  regarded  as  too 
much  of  a  martinet.  He  returned  with  the 
expeditionary  force  to  Bombay  in  May  1857. 
Acting  under  the  orders  of  Lord  Elphin- 
stone,  the  governor  of  Bombay,  Jacob  arrived 
at  Kolaporeonl4  Aug.,  a  fortnight  after  the 
27th  Bombay  native  infantry  had  broken 
into  mutiny  there.  Four  days  later  he,  with 
a  mere  handful  of  troops,  quietly  disarmed 
the  regiment,  and  brought  the  ringleaders  of 
the  outbreak  to  justice  (JACOB,  Western  India, 
pp.  144-77).  On  4  Dec.  following,  when  the 
city  closed  its  gates  against  Jacob's  small  force 
which  was  encamped  in  their  lines  outside, 
Jacob  promptly  blew  open  one  of  the  gates, 
put  the  rebels  to  flight,  tried  by  drumhead 
court-martial  and  executed  on  the  spot  thirty- 
six  who  were  caught  red-handed,  and  held 
the  city  until  the  mischief  was  past  (ib. 
pp.  182-208).  His  vigour,  no  doubt,  pre- 
vented the  wave  of  rebellion  from  sweeping 
over  the  whole  southern  Mahratta  country 
and  overflowing  into  the  nizam's  dominions 
(HOLMES,  Indian  Mutiny,  p.  455 ;  Report  on 
Administration  of  Public  Affairs  in  Bombay, 





pp.  18-19).  Jacob  was  specially  thanked  in 
presidency  general  orders  8  Jan.  1858  for  'the 
promptitude  and  decision  shown  by  you  on 
the  occasion  of  the  recent  insurrection  at 
Kolapore,'  and '  for  the  manner  in  which  you 
upheld  the  honour  of  this  army,  proving'  to 
all  around  you  what  a  British  officer  can  effect 
by  gallantry  and  prudence  in  the  face  of  the 
greatest  difficulties '  (ib.  p.  264).  Jacob's 
powers,  at  first  limited  to  Kolapore,  Sawunt 
Warree,  and  Rutnagerry,  were  in  May  1858 
extended  to  the  whole  South  Mahratta  coun- 
try, of  which  he  was  appointed  special  com- 
missioner, the  command  of  the  troops  with  the 
rank  of  brigadier-general  being  subsequently 
added.  After  dealing  successfully  with  various 
local  outbreaks  (ib.  pp.  210-32),  Jacob  was  sent 
to  Goa  to  confer  with  the  Portuguese  autho- 
rities respecting  the  Sawunt  rebels  on  the 
frontier  (ib.  pp.  232-6).  This  service  suc- 
cessfully accomplished,  he  resigned  his  com- 
mand. He  remained  nominally  political  agent 
in  Cutch  up  to  the  date  of  his  leaving  India 
in  1859.  James  Outram  appears  to  have 
desired  that  Jacob  should  succeed  him  as 
member  of  the  council  at  Calcutta,  but  he 
retired  with  the  rank  of  major-general  from 
31  Dec.  1861.  He  was  made  C.B.  in  1859, 
and  K.C.S.I.  in  1869. 

Jacob  has  been  likened  in  character  to  his 
cousin,  General  John  Jacob  [q.  v.]  He  had 
the  same  fearlessness,  the  same  hatred  of  red- 
tape  and  jobbery,  and  the  same  genius  for 
understanding  and  conciliating  Asiatics.  His 
outspoken  advocacy  of  native  rights  not  un- 
frequently  gave  offence  to  the  officials  with 
whom  he  came  in  contact.  Throughout  his 
life  he  was  a  zealous  student  of  the  literature 
of  India,  and  whenever  opportunity  offered 
did  his  best  to  promote  research  in  the  history 
and  antiquities  of  the  land.  He  was  one  of 
the  earliest  copiers  of  the  Asoka  inscriptions 
(250  B.C.)  at  Girnar,  Kattywar;  and  in  Cun- 
ningham's '  Corpus  Inscriptionum,'  Calcutta, 
1877,  are  many  inscriptions  transcribed  by 
him  in  Western  India.  A  list  of  papers  bear- 
ing on  the  history,  archaeology,  topography, 
geology,  and  metallurgy  of  Western  India, 
contributed  by  Jacob  at  different  times  to 
various  publications,  is  given  in  the  '  Journal 
of  the  Asiatic  Society,'  London,  new  ser. 
xiii.  pp.  vii  and  viii.  Some  are  included  in 
the  '  Royal  Society's  Catalogue  of  Scientific 
Papers  ; '  but  neither  list  appears  complete. 
In  his  prime  he  was  an  ardent  sportsman. 
Seven  lions  fell  to  his  rifle  in  one  day  in 
Kattywar,  and  his  prowess  as  a  shikarry  is 
perpetuated  in  native  verse.  The  last  twenty 
years  of  Jacob's  life  were  spent  at  home  under 
much  suffering — a  constant  struggle  with 
asthma,  bronchitis,  and  growing  blindness. 

His  mental  vigour  remained  unimpaired. 
With  the  assistance  of  his  niece  and  adopted 
daughter,  Miss  Gertrude  Le  Grand  Jacob,  he 
wrote  his  '  Western  India  before  and  during 
the  Mutiny,'  which  was  published  in  1871, 
and  was  highly  commended  by  the  historian 
Kaye  ;  and  shortly  before  his  death  he  paid 
20/.  for  a  translation  from  the  Dutch  of  some 
papers  of  interest  on  the  island  of  Bali  (east 
of  Java),  subsequently  printed  in  the  'Journal 
of  the  Asiatic  Society,'  London,  viii.  115,  ix. 
59,  x.  49.  Jacob  died  in  London  on  27  Jan. 
1881,  and  was  buried  in  Brookwood  ceme- 
tery, near  Woking,  Surrey. 

[East  India  Kegisters  and  Army  Lists ;  Kaye's 
Hist.  Indian  Mutiny,  ed.  Malleson,  cabinet  edi- 
tion, vol.  v.  book  xiii.  chap.  i.  book  xir.  chap.  iv.  ; 
T.  R.  E.  Holmes's  Indian  Mutiny,  3rd  ed.  pp.  446- 
457  ;  Report  on  Administration  of  Public  Affairs 
in  Bombay  in  1857-8;  Goldsmid's  James  Outram, 
a  biography,  London,  1888,  i.  341-80;  Overland 
Mail,  6  May  1881  ;  Journal  of  the  Asiatic  Soc. 
London,  May  1881,  new  ser.  vol.  xiii.;  Jacob's 
Western  India.]  H.  M.  C. 

JACOB,  GILES  (1686-1744),  compiler, 
born  in  1686  at  Romsey,  Hampshire,  was  the 
son  of  a  maltster.  In  his  '  Poetical  Register ' 
(i.  318)  he  states  that  he  was  bred  to  the 
law  under  a  '  very  eminent  attorney,'  and 
that  he  was  afterwards  steward  and  secretary 
to  the  Hon.  William  Blathwait.  He  died 
on  8  May  1744. 

Jacob  was  a  most  diligent  compiler.  He 
is  chiefly  remembered  by  the  (1)  '  Poetical 
Register,  or  Lives  and  Characters  of  the  Eng- 
lish Dramatic  Poets,'  2  vols.,  1719-20,  8vo 
(some  copies  are  dated  1723)  ;  and  (2)  '  A 
New  Law  Dictionary,'  1729,  fol.,  which 
reached  a  tenth  edition  in  1782,  and  was  re- 
issued, with  additions  by  T.  Tomlins,  in  1797, 
1809,  and  1835.  Among  other  law-books 
compiled  by  Jacob  are :  3.  '  The  Accom- 
plished Conveyancer,'  3  vols.,  1714.  4.  '  Lex 
Mercatoria,'  1718.  5.  'Lex  Constitutionis,' 
1719.  6. '  The  Laws  of  Appeal  and  Murder,' 
1719.  7.  'The  Laws  of  Taxation,'  1720. 

8.  '  The  Common  Law  common-placed,'  1726. 

9.  '  The  Compleat  Chancery-Practiser,'  1730. 

10.  '  City  Liberties/  1732,  &c.     Other  com- 
pilations are:    11.    'The  Compleat  Court- 
keeper,  or  Land-Steward's  Assistant,'  1713  ; 
8th  edit.  1819.     12.  'The  Country  Gentle- 
man's Vade  Mecum,  containing  an  Account 
of  the  best  Methods  to  improve  Lands,'  1717. 
13.  '  The  Compleat  Sportsman,'  in  three  parts, 
1718.      14.   'The  Land  Purchaser's   Com- 
panion,' 1720. 

In  1714  Jacob  published  an  indifferent 
farce  (never  acted),  '  Love  in  a  Wood,  or 
the  Country  Squire '  (one  act,  prose) ;  and 
he  mentions  in  the  'Poetical  Register'  that 




he  had  written  a  play  called  '  The  Soldier's 
Last  Stake.'  '  Human  Happiness :  a  Poem,' 
&c.,  appeared  in  1721,  with  a  dedication  to 

Pope  introduced  Jacob  in  the  '  Dunciad,' 
iii.  149-50:— 

Jacob,  the  Scourge  of  Grammar,  mark  with  awe, 
Nor  less  revere  him,  Blunderbuss  of  Law. 

In  the  'Poetical  Register'  Pope  had  been 
handsomely  treated,  but  scant  courtesy  had 
been  shown  to  Gay,  in  whose  behalf  Pope 
attacked  Jacob.  The  latter  retorted  in  a 
letter  to  John  Dennis,  printed  in  '  Remarks 
upon  several  Passages  in  the  Preliminaries 
to  the  "  Dunciad,"  by  John  Dennis,'  1729. 
In  1733  Jacob  reprinted  the  letter  to  Dennis 
(and  opened  a  fresh  attack  on  Pope)  in '  The 
Myrrour,  or  Letters  Satyrical,  Panegyrical, 
Serious,'  &c.,  8vo. 

[Poetical  Kegister,  i.  318;  Baker's  Biographia 
Dramatica,  1812 ;  Nichols's  Anecdotes,  viii.  296- 
297 ;  Watt ;  Brit.  Mus.  Cat.  See  for  supposed 
descendants  Jacob  and  Grlascott's  Hist,  and 
Genealog.  Narrative  of  the  Families  of  Jacob, 
privately  printed,  p.  99.]  A.  H.  B. 

JACOB,  HENRY  (1563-1624),  sectary, 
born  in  1563,  was  son  of  John  Jacob,  yeo- 
man, of  Cheriton,  Kent  (parish  register). 
He  matriculated  at  Oxford  from  St.  Mary 
Hall  on  27  Nov.  1581  (Oxf.  Univ.  Reg.,  Oxf. 
Hist.  Soc.,  vol.  ii.  pt.  ii.  p.  Ill),  and  gradu- 
ated B.A.  in  1583  and  M.A.  in  1586  (ib. 
vol.  ii.  pt.  iii.  p.  116).  His  father  left  him 
property  at  Godmersham,  near  Canterbury. 
For  some  time  he  was  precentor  of  Corpus 
Christi  College,  Oxford,  but  he  never  held 
the  rectory  of  Cheriton.  About  1590  he 
joined  the  Brownists,  and  upon  the  general 
banishment  of  that  sect  in  1593  he  retired  to 
Holland.  On  his  return  to  England  in  1597 
he  heard  Bilson  [q.  v.],  bishop  of  Winchester, 
preach  at  Paul's  Cross  on  the  article  in  the 
Apostles'  Creed  relating  to  Christ's  descent 
into  hell.  He  opposed  Bilson's  doctrine  in 
'  A  Treatise  of  the  Suiferings  and  Victory  of 
Christ  in  the  Worke  of  our  Redemption  de- 
claring .  .  .  that  Christ  after  his  Death  on 
the  Crosse  went  not  into  Hell  in  his  Soule,' 
8vo  (Middelburg  ?),  1598.  For  this  attack 
he  was  again  compelled  to  fly  to  Holland, 
where  he  renewed  the  conflict  in '  A  Defence 
of  "  A  Treatise," '  4to,  1600. 

Though  a  Brownist,  Jacob  allowed  that 
the  church  of  England  was  a  true  church  in 
need  of  a  thorough  reformation.  Hence  he 
was  commonly  called  a  '  semiseparatist,'  and 
his  moderation  involved  him  in  a  fierce  con- 
troversy with  Francis  Johnson  [q.  v.] 

For  a  time  Jacob  settled  at  Middelburg 
in  Zealand,  where  he  collected  a  congrega- 

tion of  English  exiles.  Thence  he  issued  an 
address  '  to  the  right  High  and  Mightie 
Prince  lames,'  entitled  '  An  humble  Suppli- 
cation for  Toleration  and  Libertie  to  enioy 
and  observe  the  ordinances  of  Christ  lesvs 
in  th'  administration  of  his  Churches  in  lieu 
of  humane  constitutions,'  4to,  1609.  The 
copy  in  the  Lambeth  Library  contains  mar- 
ginal notes  by  the  king.  In  1610  he  went  to 
Leyden  to  confer  with  John  Robinson  (1575- 
1625)  [q.  v.],  and  ultimately  adopted  the 
latter's  views  in  regard  to  church  govern- 
ment, since  known  by  the  name  of  indepen- 
dency or  Congregationalism.  In  1616  he  re- 
turned to  London  with  the  object  of  forming 
a  separatist  congregation  similar  to  those 
which  he  and  Robinson  had  organised  in 
Holland ;  and  the  religious  society  which 
he  succeeded  in  bringing  together  in  South- 
wark  is  generally  supposed  to  have  been  the 
first  congregational  church  in  England.  In 
the  same  year  he  sent  forth  as  the  manifesto 
of  this  new  sect '  A  Confession  and  Protesta- 
tion of  the  Faith  of  Certain  Christians  in 
England,  holding  it  necessary  to  observe  and 
keep  all  Christs  true  substantial  Ordinances 
for  his  Church  visible  and  political,'  &c., 
16mo,  1616,  to  which  was  added  a  petition  to 
James  I  for  the  toleration  of  such  Christians. 
He  continued  with  this  congregation  about 
six  years.  In  order  to  disseminate  his  views 
among  the  colonists  of  Virginia,  he  removed 
thither  with  some  of  his  children  in  October 
1622  and  formed  a  settlement,  which  was 
named  after  him  '  Jacobopolis.'  He  died  in 
April  or  May  1624  in  the  parish  of  St.  An- 
drew Hubbard,  London  (Probate  Act  Book, 
P.  C.  C.,  1624).  By  his  wife  Sara,  sister  of 
John  Dumaresq  of  Jersey,  who  survived  him, 
he  had  several  children. 

Jacob's  writings,  other  than  those  noticed, 
include:  1.  '  A  Defence  of  the  Churches  and 
Ministery  of  Englande,  written  against  the 
.  .  .  Brownists,'  &c.,  2  pts.,  4to,  Middelburg, 
1599.  Francis  Johnson  rejoined  in  '  An  An- 
swer,' 1600.  2.  '  Reasons  taken  out  of  God's 
Word  and  the  best  humane  testimonies  prov- 
ing a  necessitie  of  reforming  our  Churches 
in  England,'  4to  (Middelburg  ?),  1604,  dedi- 
cated to  James  I.  3.  '  A  Position  against 
vainglorious  and  that  which  is  falsly  called 
learned  Preaching,'  8vo,  1604.  4. '  A  Chris- 
tian and  Modest  OlFer  of  a  ...  Conference 
.  .  .  abovt  the  .  .  .  Controversies  betwixt 
the  Prelats  and  the  late  silenced  .  .  .  Mini- 
sters in  England,'  4to,  1606.  5. '  The  Divine 
Beginning  and  Institution  of  Christs  True 
Visible  or  Ministeriall  Church,'  8vo,  Leyden, 
1610.  6.  '  A  Plaine  and  Cleere  Exposition  of 
the  Second  Commandement,'  8vo  [Leyden  ?] 
1610 ;  another  edition  Middelburg,  1611. 




7.  'A  Declaration  and  plainer  opening  of 
certain  points  ...  in  a  Treatise  intituled 
"  The  Divine  Beginning," '  &c.,  12mo,  Mid- 
delburg,1611;  another  edit.  8vo,  1612.  8. 'An 
Attestation  of  many  .  .  .  Divines  .  .  .  that  the 
Church-governement  ought  to  bee  alwayes 
with  the  peoples  free  consent,'  incidentally 
replying  to  Downame  and  Bilson,  8vo 
[Geneva?],  1613.  To  Jacob  has  been  wrongly 
attributed  '  A  Counter-Poyson '  (1584  ?),  a 
reply  to  Richard  Cosin  [q.  v.]  ;  it  was  written 
by  Dudley  Fenner  [q.  v.j 

HENRY  JACOB  (1608-1652),  son  of  the 
above,  studied  at  Leyden ;  arrived  in  Oxford 
in  1628,  and  on  recommendations  made  by 
William  Bedwell  [q.  v.]  to  the  Earl  of  Pem- 
broke, the  chancellor,  was  created  B.A.  In 
1629  he  was  elected  probationer-fellow  of 
Merton  College ;  became  subsequently '  reader 
in  philology  to  the  juniors'  there ;  and  in  1641 
was  nominated  superior  beadle  of  divinity 
and  proceeded  bachelor  of  physic.  Selden 
befriended  him  and  learned  much  Hebrew 
from  him,  but  he  was  shiftless  and  always  in 
pecuniary  difficulties,  was  expelled  from  his 
fellowship  in  1648  by  the  parliamentary  com- 
missioners, and  died  at  Canterbury  5  Nov. 
1652.  He  was  buried  in  the  church  of  All 
Saints.  Henry  Birkhead  published  (Oxford, 
1652)  a  collection  of  his  Greek  and  Latin- 
verse  with  two  of  his  Oxford  lectures,  and 
Edmund  Dickinson  [q.  v.]  issued  as  his  own 
(Oxford,  1655)  Jacob's  '  Delphi  Phoenici- 
zantes '  (WooD,  Athena  Oxon.  ed.  Bliss,  iii. 

[Notes  kindly  communicated  by  E.  J.  Fyn- 
more,  esq. ;  Dexter's  Congregationalism  as  seen 
in  its  Literature,  passim  ;  will  of  Henry  Jacob, 
registered  in  P.  C.  C.  38,  Byrde ;  Wood's  Athenae 
Oxon.  (Bliss),  ii.  308-10,  iii.  329;  Brook's 
Lives  of  the  Puritans,  ii.  330-4;  Jacob  and 
Glascott's  Families  of  Jacob.pp.  6-7 ;  Hanbury's 
Historical  Memorials,  i.  292.]  G.  G. 

JACOB,  HILDEBRAND  (1693-1739), 
poet,  born  in  1693,  was  only  son  of  Colonel 
Sir  John  Jacob,  third  baronet,  of  Bromley, 
Kent,  by  his  wife  Lady  Catherine  Barry, 
daughter  of  the  second  Earl  of  Barrymore. 
He  was  named  after  his  mother's  brother, 
Hildebrand  Alington,  fourth  lord  Alington 
(d.  1722).  He  is  usually  described  as  of 
West  Wratting,  Cambridgeshire.  During 
1728  and  1 729  he  visited  Paris,  Vienna,  and 
the  chief  towns  of  Italy.  He  died,  in  the 
lifetime  of  his  father,  on  25  May  1739,  having 
married  Muriel,  daughter  of  Sir  John  Bland, 
bart.,  of  Kippax  Park,  Yorkshire,  by  whom 
he  left  a  son,  Hildebrand  (see  below),  and  a 

Jacob  published  anonymously  in  1720-1 
a  clever  but  indelicate  poem,  '  The  Curious 

Maid,'  which  was  frequently  imitated  and 
parodied.  '  The  Fatal  Constancy,'  a  tragedy, 
acted  five  times  at  Drury  Lane,  was  published 
in  1 723, 8vo.  '  Bedlam:  a  Poem,'  and '  Chiron 
to  Achilles:  a  Poem,'  appeared  in  1732,  4to ; 
they  were  followed  in  1734  by  a  'Hymn  to 
the  Goddess  of  Silence,'  fol.,  and  '  Of  the 
Sister  Arts :  an  Essay,'  8vo.  These  scattered 
writings  were  collected,  with  large  additions, 
in  1735,  in  1  vol.  8vo :  '  The  Works  of  Hilde- 
brand Jacob,  Esq.,  containing  Poems  on 
various  Subjects  and  Occasions,  with  the 
"  Fatal  Constancy,"  a  Tragedy,  and  several 
Pieces  in  Prose.  The  greatest  Part  never 
before  publish'd.'  In  the  dedicatory  epistle 
to  James,  earl  of  Waldegrave,  ambassador 
extraordinary  at  the  court  of  France,  Jacob 
states  that  he  published  the  book  because 
incorrect  copies  had  been  circulated,  and 
because  he  wished  to  convince  his  friends 
that  he  was  not  the  author  of '  some,  perhaps, 
less  pardonable  Productions  that  were  laid 
to  my  charge  here  at  home  while  I  had  the 
advantage  of  living  under  your  Lordship's 
protection  abroad.'  The  dedicatory  epistle 
is  followed  by  an  amusing  '  Dialogue,  which 
is  to  serve  for  preface,'  between  the  publisher 
and  author.  In  the  essay,  '  How  the  Mind 
is  rais'd  to  the  Sublime,'  Jacob  shows  himself 
to  have  been  an  enthusiastic  admirer  of  Mil- 
ton. <  A  Letter  from  Paris  to  R.  B  *  *  *  *, 
Esq.,'  gives  a  very  interesting  account  of  his 
travels  in  1728-9.  Jacob's  other  works  are 
'Donna  Clara  to  her  Daughter  Theresa:  an 
Epistle '  (verse),  1737,  fol. ;  and  '  The  Nest 
of  Plays,'  1738, 8vo,  consisting  of  three  sepa- 
rate comedies — '  The  Prodigal  Reformed,' 
'  The  Happy  Constancy,'  and  '  The  Trial  of 
Conjugal  Love' — which  were  acted  on  the 
same  night  at  Covent  Garden,  and  were  em- 
phatically damned. 

SlE    HlLDEBKAXD    JACOB    (d.   1790),    the 

poet's  son,  who  succeeded  to  the  baronetcy 
on  the  death  of  his  grandfather  in  1740,  is 
said  to  have  been  excelled  by  few  as  a  general 
scholar,  and '  in  knowledge  of  Hebrew  scarcely 
equalled.'  It  is  related  of  him  that  in  early 
life,  as  soon  as  the  fine  weather  set  in  and  the 
roads  were  clear,  he  used  to  start  off  with  his 
man,  '  without  knowing  whither  they  were 
going.'  When  it  drew  towards  evening  he  in- 
quired at  the  nearest  village  whether  '  the 
great  man  in  it  was  a  lover  of  books  and  had  a 
fine  library.  If  the  answer  was  in  the  negative, 
they  went  on  further ;  if  in  the  affirmative, 
Sir  Hildebrand  sent  his  compliments  that  he 
was  come  to  see  him,  and  then  he  used  to 
stay  till  time  or  curiosity  induced  him  to 
move  elsewhere'  (Gent.  Mag.  1790, p.  1055). 
In  this  way  he  travelled  through  the  greater 
part  of  England.  He  died  unmarried  at 




Malvern,  4  Nov.  1790,  aged  76,  and  was 
buried  at  St.  Anne's,  Soho. 

[Jacob  and  Glascott's  Hist,  and  Geneal.  Nar- 
rative of  the  Families  of  Jacob,  privately  printed, 
p.  42;  Baker's  Biog.  Dram.  1812;  Gent.  Mag. 
1790,  p.  1055;  Nichols's  Lit.  Auecd.  ii.  61,  83.] 

A.  H.  B. 

JACOB,  JOHN  (1765-1840),  topo- 
grapher. [See  under  JACOB,  EDWARD.] 

JACOB,  JOHN  (1812-1858),  brigadier- 
general,  fifth  son  of  Stephen  Long  Jacob, 
vicar  of  Woolavington-cum-Puriton,  Somer- 
set, by  his  wife  Eliza  Susanna,  eldest  daughter 
of  James  Bond,  vicar  of  Ashford,  Kent,  was 
born  at  Woolavington  on  11  Jan.  1812.  Wil- 
liam Stephen  Jacob  [q.  v.]  was  his  brother,  and 
Sir  George  le  Grand  Jacob  [q.  v.]  his  cousin. 
He  was  educated  at  home  by  his  father  until 
1826,  when  he  was  sent  to  Addiscombe  Col- 
lege. Havingobtained  a  commission  as  second 
lieutenant  in  the  Bombay  artillery  of  the  East 
India  Company's  service  on  11  Jan.  1828,  he 
went  to  India,  and  passed  the  first  seven  years 
of  his  service  with  his  regiment.  He  was  then 
entrusted  with  a  small  detached  command, 
and  later  was  employed  for  a  short  time  in 
the  provincial  administration  of  Guzerat.  He 
was  promoted  lieutenant  on  14  May  1836. 

On  the  outbreak  of  the  Afghan  war  in 
1838,  Jacob  went  to  Sind  with  the  Bombay 
column  of  the  army  of  the  Indus  under  the 
command  of  Sir  John  Keane,  and  in  1839 
commanded  the  artillery  in  the  expedition 
under  Major  Billamore  into  the  hill  country 
north  of  Cutchee.  This  was  the  first  expe- 
dition ever  undertaken  against  the  hill  tribes 
of  that  deadly  climate,  and  the  interesting  de- 
tails were  only  made  known  by  Jacob  in  1845, 
when  the  publication  of  Sir  William  Na- 
pier's '  History  of  the  Conquest  of  Sind  '  pro- 
voked the  'surviving  subaltern  of  Billa- 
more's'  to  correct  the  inaccuracies  of  the 
historian.  Soon  after  the  close  of  the  ex- 
pedition Jacob  made  a  reconnaissance  of  the 
route  from  Hyderabad  to  Nuggar  Parkur  in 
a  very  hot  season  and  at  considerable  risk. 
For  this  service  he  received  the  official  com- 
mendation of  the  Bombay  government. 

In  1839,  when  all  North-west  India  was 
in  a  ferment,  it  was  determined  to  raise  some 
squadrons  of  irregular  horse  for  service  on 
the  frontier,  and  in  1841  some  six  hundred 
men  stood  enrolled  as  the  Sind  irregular 
torse.  At  the  end  of  1841  it  was  decided  to 
augment  the  regiment.  Outram,  the  politi- 
cal agent  in  Sind  and  Baluchistan,  selected 
Jacob  for  the  command,  and  also  for  the 
political  charge  of  Eastern  Cutchee,  and  in 
an  official  letter  to  Jacob  of  9  Nov.  1842  was 
able  to  record  that  for  the  first  time  within 
the  memory  of  man  Cutch  and  Upper  Sind  | 

had  been  for  a  whole  year  entirely  free  from 
the  devastating  irruption  of  the  hill  tribes. 
This  result  he  ascribed  entirely  to  the  extra- 
ordinary vigilance  of  Jacob  and  the  strict 
discipline  enforced  by  him. 

At  the  end  of  1842  Sir  Charles  Napier 
arrived  in  Sind.  On  the  fields  of  Meanee, 
Dubba  or  Hyderabad,  and  Shah-dad-poor, 
Jacob's  irregular  horse  won  great  fame. 
Napier  called  him  'one  of  the  best  officers  he 
had  ever  met  in  his  life,'  and  in  his  despatch 
after  the  battle  of  Meanee  (fought  17  Feb. 
1843)  said  that  the  crisis  of  the  action  was 
decided  by  the  charge  of  Jacob's  horse  and 
the  9th  Bengal  cavalry.  Jacob,  he  said,  had 
rendered  '  the  most  active  services  long  pre- 
vious to  and  during  the  combat.  He  won  the 
enemy's  camp,  from  which  he  drove  a  body 
of  3,000  or  4,000  cavalry.'  To  Sir  William 
Napier  he  called  Jacob  '  the  Seidlitz  of  the 
Sind  army.'  At  Shah-dad-poor  Jacob,  with 
a  force  of  eight  hundred  men  of  all  arms, 
attacked  the  army  of  Shere  Mahomed,  eight 
thousand  strong,  and  utterly  defeated  and 
dispersed  it.  Jacob  also  served  at  the  capture 
of  Oomercote.  Although  Jacob  was  recom- 
mended for  promotion  and  honours,  neither 
came,  and  he  wrote  to  his  father  that  he  wished 
he  had  died  at  Meanee,  but  that  he  had  the 
consolation  of  knowing  that  in  the  eyes  of 
his  superiors  and  comrades  he  had  merited 
the  distinction  which  had  fallen  to  others, 
and  he  found  distraction  in  incessant  work. 

The  publication  of  Sir  William  Napier's 
'  History  of  the  Conquest  of  Sind,'  with  its 
studied  depreciation  of  Outram,  roused  Jacob 
to  enter  the  lists  for  his  friend  and  to  publish 
a  rejoinder,  which  led  to  a  complete  estrange- 
ment from  Sir  Charles  Napier.  When  Napier 
left  Sind  in  1847  Jacob,  who  had  been  made 
a  brevet  captain  on  11  Jan.  1843  and  hono- 
rary aide-de-camp  to  the  governor-general  on 
8  March  the  same  year,  was  appointed  political 
superintendent  and  commandant  of  the  fron- 
tier of  Upper  Sind.  On  10  Sept,  1850  he  was 
made  a  C.B.  for  his  services  in  1843 ;  he 
had  already  received  medals  for  Meanee  and 
Hyderabad.  In  1847  Jacob  achieved  a  suc- 
cess against  the  Boogtees  at  Shahpore,  and 
in  1852  was  given  the  command  of  the  troops 
at  Koree  for  service  in  Upper  Sind.  From  a 
few  troops  the  Sind  horse  had  expanded  until 
it  included  a  second  regiment,  the  Silidar, 
raised  by  Jacob,  and  the  whole  force  mustered 
1,600  of  the  best  horsemen  in  India.  Jacob 
trained  his  men  to  act  always  on  the  offensive. 
His  detachments  were  posted  in  the  open 
plain  without  any  defensive  works.  Patrols 
scoured  the  country  in  every  direction  on  the 
look-out  for  the  enemy,  which  was  no  sooner 
discovered  than  it  was  attacked  by  the  nearest 




detachment.  He  thus  struck  terror  into  the 
marauding  tribes,  and  prevented  their  incur- 
sion into  British  territory.  He  next  disarmed 
every  man  in  the  country  who  was  not  a  go- 
vernment servant,  and  he  succeeded  in  get- 
ting some  of  them  to  work  at  roads  and  canals. 
Good  roads  were  made  all  over  the  country, 
means  of  irrigation  multiplied  fourfold,  and 
security  generally  established  on  the  border. 
The  village  that  ten  years  before  did  not  con- 
tain fifty  souls  became  a  flourishing  town  of 
twelve  thousand  inhabitants,  and  in  1851, 
by  order  of  Lord  Dalhousie,  its  name  was 
changed  from  Kanghur  to  Jacobabad  in  honour 
of  the  man  who  had  made  it. 

Jacob,  who  from  subaltern  to  colonel  re- 
mained the  commandant  of  the  corps  which 
usually  went  by  his  name,  was  assisted  by 
only  four  European  officers,  two  to  each  regi- 
ment of  eight  hundred  men,  and  yet  the 
discipline  was  so  firm  and  the  devotion  so 
unquestioned  that  it  was  said  not  a  trooper 
in  the  corps  knew  any  will  but  that  of  his 
colonel.  Jacob's  theory  was  that  Europeans 
were  naturally  superior  to  Asiatics,  and  that 
the  natives,  so  far  from  resenting  such  ascend- 
ency, desired  nothing  better  than  to  profit  by 
it.  All  they  wanted  was  to  obey,  provided 
only  that  their  obedience  was  claimed  by  one 
clearly  competent  to  demand  it. 

In  1854  Jacob  was  entrusted  with  the  task 
of  negotiating  a  treaty  with  the  khan  of  Kelat, 
which  he  did  to  the  entire  satisfaction  of  the 
government  of  India.  On  13  April  1855  he 
was  promoted  lieutenant-colonel,  and  on  the 
departure  of  Bartle  Frere  on  furlough  to  Eu- 
rope in  1856  was  appointed  acting  commis- 
sioner in  Sind.  On  20  March  1857  Jacob  was 
appointed  aide-de-camp  to  the  queen,  with  the 
rank  of  colonel  in  the  army,  in  recognition  of 
his  services  in  Sind. 

When  war  was  declared  with  Persia,  Outram 
was  named  commander-in-chief,  and  Jacob 
received  from  his  old  friend  the  command  of 
the  cavalry  division.  He  arrived  in  Bushire 
in  March  1857,  and  was  appointed  to  the  com- 
mand at  that  place.  When  peace  followed 
the  fall  of  Mohumrah,  Jacob,  with  the  rank 
of  brigadier-general,  was  left  in  command  of 
the  entire  force  in  Persia  until  Bushire  was 
entirely  evacuated,  when  he  returned  to  India. 
His  services  in  Persia  were  favourably  men- 
tioned in  despatches,  and  in  the  '  Indian 
Government  Gazette '  of  7  Nov.  1857.  He 
landed  at  Bombay  on  15  Oct.,  and  proceeded 
at  once  to  the  north-west  frontier. 

Shortly  after  his  return  to  Sind  he  pub- 
lished his  scheme  for  the  reorganisation  of  the 
Indian  army  and  a  collected  edition  of  his 
various  tracts  on  the  same  subject.  Captain 
(now  Sir)  Lewis  Pelly,  a  member  of  Jacob's 

staff,  had  collected  and  edited  the '  Views  and 
Opinions  of  General  Jacob,'  and  in  1858  a 
second  edition,  1  vol.  8vo,  was  published  in 
London.  In  the  same  year  Jacob  was  au- 
thorised to  raise  two  regiments  of  infantry, 
to  be  called  'Jacob's  Rifles,' and  to  be  armed 
with  the  pattern  of  rifle  which  he  had  in- 
vented, and,  in  face  of  great  opposition,  suc- 
cessfully developed,  after  spending  much  of 
his  private  resources  on  experiments  with  it 
and  with  its  explosive  bullet.  Towards  the 
end  of  1858  he  was  surveying  in  the  districts 
when,  on  24  Nov.,  he  was  taken  ill,  and  at 
once  rode  into  Jacobabad,  a  distance  of  fifty 
miles.  He  arrived  on  28  Nov.,  and  died  of 
brain  fever  on  5  Dec.  1858,  surrounded  by 
all  the  officers  of  his  staff  and  of  the  Sind 
irregular  horse,  and  by  his  oldest  native 
officers.  He  was  buried  next  day,  mourned 
by  the  entire  population,  of  whom  it  is  esti- 
mated that  ten  thousand,  out  of  the  thirty 
thousand  inhabitants  to  which  Jacobabad  had 
grown,  were  present  at  the  ceremony. 

Jacob  was  unmarried,  and  did  not  visit  Eng- 
land in  the  thirty  years  after  he  first  set  foot 
in  India.  He  published  many  pamphlets  on 
military  organisation,  and  was  unceasing  in 
his  denunciations  of  the  lax  state  of  discip- 
line of  the  Bengal  army.  His  warnings  were 
received  with  indignation  and  resentment  at 
the  time,  but  were  too  fully  verified  in  the 
Indian  mutiny  before  he  died.  He  was  a 
soldier  of  a  rare  type.  A  brilliant  cavalry  leader 
and  swordsman,  the  inventor  of  a  greatly  im- 
proved rifle,  the  originator  of  a  military 
system,  his  achievements  in  the  field  were 
not  his  greatest  titles  to  public  gratitude. 
He  valued  the  military  art  only  as  the  instru- 
ment and  guarantee  of  civilisation  and  peace ; 
he  sketched  road  and  irrigation  systems,  and 
established  schemes  of  revenue  collection 
and  magistracy,  while  he  matured  his  mili- 
tary plans,  and  studied  with  care  the  internal 
politics  of  the  ill-known,  but  important, 
countries  beyond  the  north-western  frontier, 
throughout  which  his  name  was  held  in  respect. 
Jacob  was  a  man  of  indefatigable  energy, 
possessed  of  an  even  temper,  and  showing 
such  an  entire  forgetfulness,  amounting  even 
to  disdain,  of  self,  that  he  acquired  great  influ- 
ence over  all  with  whom  he  came  in  contact. 
A  bust  of  Jacob  was  placed  in  the  Shire 
Hall  of  his  native  county  at  Taunton. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  Jacob's  works : 
1.  Large  map  of  Cutchee  and  the  north-west 
frontier  of  Scinde,  London,  1848.  2.  Papers 
on  '  Sillidar  Cavalry,  as  it  is  and  as  it  might 
be,'  printed  for  private  circulation  only, 
Bombay,  8vo.  3.  '  A  few  Remarks  on  the 
Bengal  Army  and  Furlough  Regulations  with 
a  view  to  their  improvement,  by  a  Bombay 




Officer,'  1851 ;  reprinted  with  corrections, 
8vo,  Bombay,  1857.  4.  'Memoir  of  the  First 
Campaign  in  the  hills  north  of  Cutchee,  under 
Major  Billamore,  in  1839-40,  by  one  of  his 
surviving  Subalterns,'  with  appendix,  post 
8vo,  London,  1852.  5.  '  Record  Book  of  the 
Scinde  Irregular  Horse,'  printed  for  private 
use,  1st  vol.  fol.,  London,  1853 ;  2nd  vol., 
London,  1 856.  6. '  Papers  regarding  the  First 
Campaign  against  the  Predatory  Tribes  of 
Cutchee  in  1839-40,  and  affairs  on  the  Scinde 
Frontier.  Major  Billamore's  surviving  subal- 
tern versus  SirWilliam  Napier  and  the  "  Naval 
and  Military  Gazette," '  8vo,  London,  1854. 
7.  'Remarks  by  a  Bombay  Officer  on  a  pam- 
phlet published  in  1849  on  "  The  Deficiency 
of  European  Officers  in  the  Army  of  India, 
by  one  of  themselves." '  8.  '  Remarks  on  the 
Native  Troops  of  the  Indian  Army,'  London, 
1854.  9.  '  Notes  on  Sir  Charles  Napier's 
posthumous  work  "  On  the  Defects  of  the 
Government  of  India,"  '  8vo,  London,  1854. 
10.  '  On  the  Causes  of  the  Defects  existing 
in  our  Army  and  in  our  Military  Arrange- 
ment,' London,  1855.  11.  'Rifle  Practice 
with  Plates,'  1st  edit.  1855,  2nd  edit.  1856, 
3rd  edit.,  8vo,  London  and  Bombay,  1857. 
12.  'Letters  to  a  Lady  on  the  progress  of 
Being  in  the  Universe,'  for  private  circula- 
tion, 1855 ;  reprinted,  with  prefatory  apology 
and  addenda,  and  published  8vo,  London, 
1858.  13.  '  Tracts  on  the  Native  Army  of 
India,  its  Organisation  and  Discipline,  with 
Notes  by  the  Author,'  8vo,  London,  1857. 
14.  '  Notes  on  Sir  William  Napier's  Adminis- 
tration of  Scinde,'  8vo,  no  date. 

[Despatches ;  India  Office  Records ;  official  and 
private  correspondence  and  papers.]  E.  H.  V. 

JACOB,  JOSEPH  (1667P-1722),  sectary, 
born  of  quaker  parents  about  1667,  was  ap- 
prenticed to  a  linendraper  in  London,  and 
early  showed  a  keen  interest  in  politics.  In 
1688,  shortly  after  his  coming  of  age,  he 
showed  his  zeal  for  the  revolution  by  riding 
to  meet  William  of  Orange  on  his  progress 
from  Torbay.  On  the  passing  of  the  Tolera- 
tion Act  in  1689  he  avowed  himself  a  con- 
gregationalist,  and  studied  for  the  ministry 
under  Robert  Trail  (1642-1716),  a  Scottish 
presbyterian  minister  in  London.  As  a 
preacher  he  obtained  a  numerous  following. 
He  conducted  a  weekly  lecture  (1697)  in  the 
meeting-house  of  Thomas  Gouge  (1665?- 
1700)  [q.  v.],  but  this  was  soon  stopped  on 
the  ground  of  his  preaching  politics.  In  his 
farewell  sermon  he  satirised  Matthew  Mead 
[q.  v.]  and  other  leading  nonconformist  di- 
vines. He  carried  away  some  of  Gouge's 
hearers,  and  his  friends  built  him  (1698)  a 
meeting-house  in  Parish  Street,  Southwark. 

Here  he  introduced  the  then  novel  practice 
of  standing  to  sing ;  and  enforced,  on  pain  of 
excommunication,  a  strict  code  of  life.  Dress 
was  regulated  ;  wigs  were  not  allowed ;  the 
moustache  for  men  was  obligatory.  No  one 
was  permitted  to  marry  out  of  the  congrega- 
tion or  to  attend  the  worship  of  any  other 
church.  The  society  dwindled  away,  and 
the  meeting-house  was  given  up  in  1702. 
Jacob  then  hired  Turners'  Hall,  Philpot  Lane, 
Fenchurch  Street,  where  he  preached  politi- 
cal sermons,  introducing  many  personalities. 
Before  1715  he  removed  to  Curriers'  Hall, 
London  Wall,  near  Cripplegate,  sharing  the 
use  of  it  with  a  baptist  congregation.  H# 
died  on  26  June  1722,  aged  55.  The  inscrip- 
tion on  his  monument  in  Bunhill  Fields  de- 
scribed him  as  '  an  apostolic  preacher.'  He 
had  good  natural  capacity  and  some  learn- 
ing, but  his  eccentricities  prevented  his  exeiv 
cising  any  permanent  influence.  His  wife, 
Sarah  Jacob,  and  two  of  his  daughters  were 
buried  in  Bunhill  Fields.  He  published: 
1.  '  Two  Thanksgiving  Sermons,'  &c.,  1702, 
4to.  2.  '  A  Thanksgiving  Sermon,'  &c.,  1705, 

[Wilson's  Dissenting  Chxirches  of  London, 
1808,  i.  139  sq.,  236,  ii.  561  ;  James's  Hist. 
Litig.  Presb.  Chapels,  1867,  p.  690.]  A.  G. 

JACOB,  JOSHUA  (1805  P-1877),  leader 
of  the  '  White  Quakers,'  born  at  Clonmel, 
co.  Tipperary,  about  1805,  prospered  as  a 
grocer  in  Dublin.  A  birthright  member  of 
the  Society  of  Friends,  he  was  disowned  by 
that  body  in  1838.  He  then  formed  a  society 
of  his  own,  which  gained  adherents  at  Dublin, 
Clonmel,  Waterford,  and  Mountmellick, 
Queen's  County.  His  principal  coadjutor 
was  Abigail,  daughter  of  William  Beale  of 
Irishtown,  near  Mountmellick.  The  society 
held  a  yearly  meeting  of  Friends,  commonly 
called '  White  Quakers,'  in  Dublin,  on  1  May 
1843.  Its  nickname  was  suggested  by  the 
practice  of  wearing  undyed  garments,  a 
costume  previously  adopted,  in  1762,  by 
John  Woolman  (1720-1772)  [q.  v.]  Jacob 
protested  also  against  the  use  of  newspapers, 
bells,  clocks,  and  watches.  Funds  employed 
by  him  in  his  religious  experiment  were  said 
to  be  derived  from  the  property  of  some 
orphans,  whose  guardian  he  was.  A  chan- 
cery suit  to  recover  the  funds  went  against 
him,  and  he  was  imprisoned  for  two  years 
for  contempt  of  court.  From  his  prison  he 
issued  anathemas  against  the  chancellor 
(Sugden)  and  Master  Litton.  About  1849 
he  established  a  community  at  Newlands, 
Clondalkin,  co.  Dublin,  formerly  the  resi- 
dence of  Arthur  Wolfe,  viscount  Kilwarden 
[q.  v.]  The  members  of  this  establishment 



lived  in  common,  abstaining  from  flesh-food, 
and  making  bruised  corn  the  staple  of  their 
diet,  flour  being  rejected.  On  the  breaking 
up  of  the  Newlands  community,  Jacob  went 
into  business  again  at  Celbridge,  co.  Kildare. 
He  had  lived  apart  from  his  wife,  who  did 
not  share  his  peculiar  views.  On  her  death 
he  married  a  person  in  humble  life  who 
was  a  Roman  catholic,  and  at  Celbridge 
Jacob  brought  up  a  numerous  family  in  that 
faith.  He  died  in  Wales  on  15  Feb.  1877, 
and  was  buried  at  Glasnevin  cemetery, 
Dublin,  in  a  plot  of  ground  purchased  long 
previously  in  conjunction  with  Abigail  Beale, 
on  which  an  obelisk  had  been  erected. 

A  list  of  his  printed  writings,  undated  (ex- 
cept the  last),  but  all  (except  the  first)  issued 
in  1843,  is  given  in  Smith's 'Catalogue,' along 
with  other  publications  emanating  from  the 
-society:  1.  '  On  the  18th  of  the  3rd  month, 
1842  .  .  .  the  word  of  the  Lord  came,' 
£c.,  fol.  2.  'The  Beast,  False  Prophet,' 
&c.,  fol.  3.  « To  the  Police  of  Dublin,'  &c., 
Svo.  4.  '  Newspapers,  Mountebanks,'  &c. ,  fol. 
.5.  '  To  those  calling  themselves  Roman  Ca- 
tholics,' &c.,  fol.  6.  '  The  Sandy  Foundation,' 
&c.,  fol.  7.  '  Some  Account  of  the  Progress 
of  the  Truth,'  &c.,  Mountmellick,  1843,  Svo, 
3  vols.  issued  in  parts.  Other  tracts,  later  than 
the  above,  are  known  to  have  been  printed ; 
but  they  were  not  published,  and  their  circu- 
lation was  wholly  restricted  to  adherents. 

[Smith's  Catalogue  of  Friends'  Books,  1867, 
ti.  4  ;  Webb's  Compendium  of  Irish  Biographv, 
1878,  p.  260  ;  private  information.]  A.  G." 

JACOB,  ROBERT,  M.D.  (d.  1588), 
physician,  eldest  son  of  Giles  Jacob  of  Lon- 
don, was  entered  at  Merchant  Taylors' School 
on  21  Jan.  1563-4  {Register,  ed.  Robinson, 
i.  4).  He  matriculated  as  a  sizar  of  Trinity 
College,  Cambridge,  on  12  Nov.  1565,  pro- 
ceeded B.  A.  in  1569-70,  was  elected  a  fellow, 
•and  in  1 573  commenced  M.  A.  He  graduated 
M.D.  at  Basle,  and  was  incorporated  at  Cam- 
bridge on  15  May  1579.  He  became  phy- 
sician to  Queen  Elizabeth,  who  in  1581  sent 
him,  at  the  Czar  I  van's  request,  to  the  Russian 
court,  where  he  attended  the  czarina,  and 
acquired  a  reputation  which  still  survives. 
Jacob  recommended  Lady  Mary  Hastings 
to  the  czar  for  his  seventh  wife.  Happily 
for  the  lady  the  czar  died  before  the  conclu- 
sion of  the  negotiations,  which  were  opened 
in  1583  with  the  sanction  of  Elizabeth. 
Jacob  returned  to  England  with  Sir  Jerome 
Bowes  [q.  v.],  the  English  envoy  in  Russia, 
about  March  1584.  The  Russian  company 
charged  him  with  trading  on  his  own  account. 
On  21  May  1583  he  was  admitted  a  licentiate 
of  the  College  of  Physicians  in  London,  a 

candidate  on  12  Nov.  1585,  and  a  fellow  on 
15  March  1586.  In  the  latter  year  he  went 
out  to  Russia  a  second  time.  He  died  abroad, 
unmarried,  in  1588  {Probate  Act  Book, 
P.  C.  C.,  June  1588). 

[Hamel's  England  and  Russia ;  Eussia  at  the 
close  of  the  Sixteenth  Century,  ed.  Bond  (Hakl, 
Soc.),  pp.  292-3;  Cooper's  Athenae  Cantabr.  ii. 
76  ;  Munk's  Coll.  of  Phys.  1878,  i.  88-9  ; 
British  and  Foreign  Medico-Chirurgical  Review, 
October  1862,  p.  291 ;  will  registered  in  P.  C.  C. 
42,  Rutland.]  G.  G. 

JACOB,  WILLIAM  (1762  P-1851),  tra- 
veller and  miscellaneous  writer,  was  born 
about  1762.  For  some  years  he  carried  on 
business  in  Newgate  Street,  London,  as  a 
merchant,  trading  to  South  America.  He 
was  returned  as  M.P.  for  Rye,  Sussex,  to  par- 
liament in  the  tory  interest  in  July  1808,  and 
sat  till  the  dissolution  in  1812.  In  1809  and 
1810  he  spent  six  months  in  Spain,  and  the 
letters  he  wrote  from  that  country  were 
published  as  '  Travels  in  the  South  of  Spain,' 
4to,  London,  1811,  with  numerous  plates. 
He  was  elected  alderman  for  the  ward  of 
Lime  Street  in  1810,  but  resigned  his  gown 
in  the  following  year.  His  industry  in  col- 
lecting and  epitomising  returns  and  ave- 
rages connected  with  the  corn  law  question 
was  rewarded  by  his  appointment  in  1822  to 
the  comptrollership  of  corn  returns  to  the 
board  of  trade,  from  which  he  retired  on  a 
pension  in  January  1842.  He  died  on  17  Dec. 
1851,  aged  89  {Gent.  Mag.  new  ser.  xxxvii. 
523).  On  23  April  1807  he  was  elected 
F.R.S.  (THOMSON,  Hist,  of  Roy.  Soc.  App.  iv.) 

He  wrote  also :  1.  '  Considerations  on  the 
Protection  required  by  British  Agriculture, 
and  on  the  Influence  of  the  Price  of  Corn  on 
Exportable  Productions,'  8vo,  London,  1814. 
being  a  Sequel  to  "  Considerations  "...  To 
which  are  added,  Remarks  on  the  Publications 
of  a  Fellow  of  University  College,  Oxford, 
Mr.  Ricardo,  and  Mr.  Torrens,'  Svo,  London, 
1815.  3.  '  An  Inquiry  into  the  Causes  of 
Agricultural  Distress,'  Svo,  London,  1816 
(also  in  the  '  Pamphleteer,'  1817,  x.  395-418). 
4. '  A  View  of  the  Agriculture,  Manufacture, 
Statistics,  and  State  of  Society  of  Germany 
and  parts  of  Holland  and  France,  taken 
during  a  Journey  through  those  Countries  in 
1819,'  4to,  London,  1820.  5.  '  Report  on  the 
Trade  in  Foreign  Corn,  and  on  the  Agricul- 
ture of  the  North  of  Europe  ....  To  which 
is  added  an  Appendix  of  Official  Documents, 
Averages  of  Prices,'  &cv  2nd  edit.  Svo,  Lon- 
don, 1826.  6.  '  A  Report .  .  .  respecting  the 
Agriculture  and  the  Trade  in  Corn  in  some 
of  the  Continental  States  of  Northern  Europe/ 
dated  16  March  1828,  in  the  '  Pamphleteer,' 



1828,  xxix.  361-456.  7.  '  Tracts  relating  to 
the  Corn  Trade  and  Corn  Laws,  including 
the  Second  Report  ordered  to  be  printed  by 
the  two  Houses  of  Parliament,'  3  pts.  8vo, 
London,  1828.  8.  'An  Historical  Inquiry 
into  the  Production  and  Consumption  of  the 
Precious  Metals,'  2  vols.  8vo,  London,  1831 
(translated  into  German  by  C.  T.  Kleinschrod, 
2  vols.  8vo,  Leipzig,  1838).  Jacob  also  con- 
tributed numerous  articles,  mostly  on  agri- 
cultural and  economical  subjects,  to  the 
'  Encyclopaedia  Britannica,'  7th  edit. 

His  son,  EDWARD  JACOB  (d.  1841),  gra- 
duated B.A.  in  1816  at  Gonville  and  Caius 
College,  Cambridge,  as  senior  wrangler  and 
first  Smith's  prizeman.  He  was  subsequently 
elected  fellow  of  his  college,  proceeded  M.A. 
in  1819,  and  was  called  to  the  bar  at  Lin- 
coln's Inn  on  28  June  of  that  year.  He  prac- 
tised with  great  success  in  the  chancery  court, 
and  was  appointed  a  king's  counsel  on  27  Dec. 
1834.  He  died  on  15  Dec.  1841.  With  John 
Walker  he  edited  '  Reports  of  Cases  in  the 
Court  of  Chancery  during  the  time  of  Lord- 
chancellor  Eldon,  1819,  1820,'  2  vols.  8vo, 
1821-3,  and  by  himself  a  volume  of  similar 
reports  during  1821  and  1822,  published  in 
1828.  He  also  published  with  valuable  addi- 
tions a  second  edition  of  R.  S.  D.  Roper's 
'Treatise  of  the  Law  of  Property  arising 
from  the  relation  between  Husband  and 
Wife/  8vo,  1826. 

[Authorities  cited  in  the  text.]  G-.  G. 

1862),  astronomer,  sixth  son  of  Stephen  Long 
Jacob  (1764-1851),  vicar  of  Woolavington, 
Somerset,  brother  of  John  Jacob  (1812-1858) 
[q.  v.],  and  cousin  of  Sir  George  le  Grand 
Jacob  [q.  v.l,  was  born  at  his  father's  vicar- 
age on  19  Nov.  1813.  He  entered  the  East 
India  Company's  college  at  Addiscombe  as 
a  cadet  in  1828,  passed  for  the  engineers, 
and  completed  his  military  education  at 
Chatham.  For  some  years  after  his  arrival 
at  Bombay  in  1831  he  was  engaged  on  the 
survey  of  the  north-west  provinces,  and  es- 
tablished a  private  observatory  at  Poonah  in 
1842.  In  1843  he  came  to  England  on  fur- 
lough, married  in  1844,  and  returned  in  1845 
to  India,  but  withdrew  from  the  company's 
service  on  attaining  the  rank  of  captain  in 
the  Bombay  engineers.  He  now  devoted 
himself  to  scientific  pursuits,  and  presented 
to  the  Royal  Astronomical  Society  in  1848 
a  catalogue  of  244  double  stars,  observed  at 
Poonah  with  a  5-foot  Dollond's  equatoreal 
(Memoirs,  xvii.  79).  For  several  noted  bi- 
naries he  computed  orbits  (ib.  xvi.  320),  and 
the  triplicity  of  v  Scorpii  was  discovered  by 
him  in  1847  (Monthly  Notices,  xix.  322).  Ap- 

pointed in  December  1848  director  of  the 
Madras  Observatory,  he  published  in  the 
1  Madras  Observations '  for  1848-52  a  «  Sub- 
sidiary Catalogue  of  1,440  Stars  selected  from 
the  British  Association  Catalogue.'  His  re- 
observation  of  317  stars  from  the  same  col- 
lection in  1853-7  showed  that  large  proper 
motions  had  been  erroneously  attributed  to 
them  (Mem.  Royal  Astr.  Soc.  xxviii.  1).  The 
instruments  employed  were  a  5-foot  transit 
and  a  4-foot  mural  circle,  both  by  Dollond. 
The  same  volume  contained  998  measures  of 
250  double  stars  made  with  an  equatoreal  of 
6'3  inches  aperture  constructed  for  Jacob  by 
Lerebours  in  1850.  Attempted  determina- 
tions of  stellar  parallax  gave  only  the  osten- 
sible result  of  a  parallax  of  Ov-06  for  a  Her- 
culis  (ib.  p.  44 ;  Monthly  Notices,  xx.  252). 
From  his  measures  of  the  Saturnian  and 
Jovian  systems,  printed  at  the  expense  of 
the  Indian  government  (Mem.  Royal  Astr. 
Soc.  vol.  xxviii.),  he  deduced  elements  for 
the  satellites  of  Saturn  and  a  corrected  mass 
for  Jupiter  (Monthly  Notices,  xvii.  255,  xviii. 
1,  29) ;  and  he  noticed  in  1852,  almost  simul- 
taneously with  Lassell,  the  transparency  of 
Saturn's  dusky  ring  (ib.  xiii.  240).  His  plane- 
tary observations  were  reduced  by  Breen  in 
1861  (Mem.  Royal  Astr.  Soc.  xxxi.  83). 

The  climate  of  Madras  disagreed  with  him ; 
he  was  at  home  on  sick  leave  in  1854-5,  and 
again  in  1858-9.  A  transit-circle  by  Simms, 
modelled  on  though  smaller  than  that  at 
Greenwich,  arrived  from  England  in  March 
1858,  a  month  before  he  finally  quitted  the 
observatory,  of  which  he  resigned  the  charge 
on  13  Oct.  1859.  He  joined  the  official  ex- 
pedition to  Spain  to  observe  the  total  solar 
eclipse  of  18  July  1860  (Edinburgh  New 
Phil.  Journal,  xiii.  1).  His  project  of  erecting 
a  mountain  observatory  at  Poonah  five  thou- 
sand feet  above  the  sea  was  favourably  re- 
ceived, and  parliament  voted,  in  1862, 1,000/. 
towards  its  equipment.  He  engaged  to  work 
there  for  three  years  with  a  9-inch  equatoreal, 
purchased  by  himself  from  Lerebours,  and 
landed  at  Bombay  on  8  Aug.,  but  died  on 
reaching  Poonah  on  16  Aug.  1862,  in  his 
forty-ninth  year.  His  wife,  Elizabeth,  fourth 
daughter  of  Mathew  Coates,  esq.,  of  Gains- 
borough, survived  him.  By  her  he  had  six 
sons  and  two  daughters  (JACOB  and  GLAS- 
COTT,  Hist,  and  Genealogical  Narrative  of  the 
Families  of  Jacob,  privately  printed,  p.  22). 

Jacob's  high  moral  and  mental  qualities 
and  earnest  piety  won  him  universal  esteem. 
He  was  elected  a  fellow  of  the  Royal  Astro- 
nomical Society  in  1849.  The  results  of 
magnetical  observations  at  Madras  (1846- 
1850)  were  published  by  Jacob  in  1854 ; 
those  made  under  his  superintendence  (1851— 




1855)  by  Mr.  Pogson  in  1884.  Jacob  pub- 
lished in  1850  the  Singapore  meteorological 
observations  (1841-5),  and  in  1857  and  those 
made  at  Dodabetta  (1851-5).  While  in  Eng- 
land in  1855  he  wrote  a  pamphlet  on  the 
'  Plurality  of  Worlds,'  and  described  the  re- 
sults of  his  experience  in  the  computation 
of  stellar  orbits  for  the  Royal  Astronomi- 
cal Society  (Monthly  Notices,  xv.  205). 

[Monthly  Notices,  xxiii.  128  ;  Me"  moires  Cou- 
ronnes  par  i'Academie  de  Bruxelles,  xxm.  ii.  1 29, 
1873  (Mailly);  Andre  et  Kayet's  L'Astronomie 
Pratique,  ii.  84.]  A.  M.  C. 

JACOBSEN,  THEODORE  (d.  1772), 
architect,  was  a  merchant  in  Basinghall 
Street,  London,  and  belonged  to  a  wealthy 
family,  who  were  residing  near  the  Steelyard 
at  the  time  of  the  fire  of  London.  Jacobsen 
designed  the  Foundling  Hospital ;  the  plan 
was  approved  in  1742,  and  was  carried  out 
under  John  Home  as  surveyor.  He  be- 
came a  governor  of  the  hospital,  and  there 
is  a  portrait  of  him  still  there  by  Thomas 
Hudson.  Jacobsen  also  designed  the  Haslar 
Royal  Hospital  for  Sick  Soldiers  at  Gosport 
(see  Gent.  Mag.  1751,  xxi.  408,  for  an  en- 
graving of  this  hospital).  He  was  a  fellow 
of  the  Royal  Society,  the  Society  of  Anti- 
quaries, and  the  Society  of  Arts.  He  died 
on  25  May  1772,  and  was  buried  in  All 
Hallows  Church,  Thames  Street,  London. 

[Diet,  of  Architecture ;  Redgrave's  Diet,  of 
Artists.]  L.  C. 

JACOBSON,  WILLIAM  (1803-1884), 
bishop  of  Chester,  son  of  William  Jacobson, 
a  merchant's  clerk,  of  Great  Yarmouth,  Nor- 
folk, by  his  wife  Judith,  born  Clarke,  was 
born  on  18  July  1803.  His  father  died  shortly 
after  his  birth,  and  as  his  mother's  second 
husband  was  a  nonconformist,  he  was  sent 
when  about  nine  years  old  to  a  school  at 
Norwich  kept  by  Mr.  Brewer,  a  baptist,  father 
of  John  Sherren  Brewer  [q.  v.]  Thence  he 
went  to  Homerton  (nonconformist)  College, 
London,  and  in  1822-3  was  a  student  at 
Glasgow  University.  On  3  May  1823  he  was 
admitted  commoner  of  St.  Edmund  Hall, 
Oxford,  being,  it  is  said,  befriended  by  Daw- 
son  Turner  of  Yarmouth,  a  member  of  the 
Society  of  Friends  (  Times).  His  means  were 
small,  and  he  lived  a  life  of  great  self-denial. 
In  May  1825  he  was  elected  scholar  of  Lin- 
coln College,  and  graduated  B.A.  in  1827, 
taking  a  second  class  in  literce  humaniores. 
Having  stood  unsuccessfully  for  a  fellowship 
at  Exeter  College,  he  accepted  a  private  tutor- 
ship in  Ireland,  where  he  remained  until 
1829.  He  then  returned  to  Oxford,  obtained 
the  Ellerton  theological  prize,  was  elected  to 
a  fellowship  at  Exeter  on  30  June,  and  pro- 

ceeded M.A.  On  6  June  1830  he  was  or- 
dained deacon,  was  appointed  to  the  curacy 
of  St.  Mary  Magdalen,  Oxford,  and  was  or- 
dained priest  the  following  year.  In  1832 
he  was  appointed  vice-principal  of  Magdalen 
Hall,  where  he  did  much  to  encourage  in- 
dustry and  enforce  discipline.  With  a  view 
to  preparing  an  edition  of  the  '  Patres  Apos- 
tolici,  he  went  at  this  period  to  Florence, 
Rome,  and  elsewhere  to  consult  manuscripts. 
In  1836  he  was  offered  a  mastership  at  Harrow 
by  Dr.  Longley,  the  head-master,  afterwards 
archbishop  of  York ;  but  as  Longley  was  that 
year  made  bishop  of  Ripon,  nothing  came  of 
it.  He  offered  himself  as  Longley's  succes- 
sor at  Harrow,  but  was  not  appointed.  In 
1839  he  became  perpetual  curate  of  Iffle y,  near 
Oxford,  was  made  public  orator  of  the  uni- 
versity in  1842,  and  was  chosen  select  preacher 
in  1833,  1842,  and  1863,  but  did  not  serve 
on  the  last  occasion.  By  the  advice  of  Lord 
John  Russell,  then  prime  minister,  Jacobson 
was  in  1848  promoted  to  the  regius  professor- 
ship of  divinity  at  Oxford,  which  carried  with 
it  a  canonry  of  Christ  Church,  and  at  that 
time  also  the  rectory  of  Ewelme,  Oxfordshire. 
In  politics  he  was  a  liberal,  and  he  was  chair- 
man of  Mr.  W.  E.  Gladstone's  election  com- 
mittee at  Oxford  in  1865.  On  23  June  1865 
he  accepted  the  offer  of  the  see  of  Chester, 
and  was  consecrated  on  8  July. 

Jacobson  was  a  man  of  universally  acknow- 
ledged piety  and  of  simple  habits.  Although 
extremely  reserved  and  cautious,  he  never 
hesitated  to  act  in  accordance  with  his  sense 
of  right,  and  was  a  kind  and  considerate 
friend.  He  was  a  high  churchman  of  the 
old  scholarly  sort ;  the  Oxford  movement 
exercised  no  influence  on  him,  and  he  took  no 
part  in  it.  While  his  theological  lectures, 
given  when  he  was  divinity  professor  at  Ox- 
ford, were  replete  with  erudition,  those  at 
which  the  attendance  of  candidates  for  orders 
was  compulsory  were  unsuited  to  the  larger 
part  at  least  of  his  audience.  He  diligently 
performed  his  episcopal  duties,  and  in  the 
general  administration  of  his  diocese  he 
showed  tact  and  judgment ;  he  continued  to 
live  simply,  and  gave  away  his  money  libe- 
rally. In  his  charge  at  his  primary  visitation 
in  October  1868  (published)  he  spoke  with- 
out reserve  on  the  duty  of  rubrical  confor- 
mity. Although  personally  he  had  no  liking 
for  new  or  extreme  ritual,  he  made  it  clearly 
understood  that  he  would  discountenance 
prosecutions,  and  that  he  viewed  with  dis- 
pleasure laxity  and  defect  in  order.  His  call 
to  conformity  gave  offence  to  the  more  violent 
low  churchmen,  and  in  the  earlier  years  of 
his  episcopate  he  was  twice  mobbed  by 
j  '  Orangemen '  in  Liverpool  when  on  his  way 




to  consecrate  churches  intended  for  the  per-  ; 
formance  of  an  ornate  service.    He  promoted  , 
the  division  of  his  diocese  made  by  the  foun-  i 
dation  of  the  bishopric  of  Liverpool  in  1880.  j 
Failure  of  health  caused  him  to  resign  his 
bishopric  in  February  1884 ;  he  was  then  in  j 
his  eighty-first  year.     He  died  at  the  episco-  | 
pal  residence,  Deeside,  on  Sunday  morning, 
13  July  1884.  His  portrait,  painted  by  Rich- 
mond, has  been  engraved.     He  married,  on 
23  June  1836,  Eleanor  Jane,  youngest  daugh- 
ter of  Dawson  Turner.     By  his  wife,  who 
survived  him,  he  had  ten  children,  of  whom 
three  sons  and  two  daughters  survived  him. 

Jacobson  published  an  edition  of  Dean 
Alexander  Nowell's '  Catechismus,' with  Life, 
1835, 1844 ;  an  edition  of  the  extant  writings 
of  the  '  Patres  Apostolici,'  with  title  '  S.  de- 
mentis Romani,S.Ignatii.  .  .  quae  supersunt,' 
&c.,  2  vols.  1838, 1840, 1847, 1863,  a  work  of 
great  learning,  and  specially  important  with 
reference  to  the  genuineness  of  the  longer 
recension  of  the  Ignatian  epistles  f  see  under 
CTTKETON,WILLI  AM]  ;  an  edition  of  the  'Works 
of  Robert  Sanderson,'  bishop  of  Lincoln, 
6  vols.,  1854,  and  a  few  smaller  books,  ser- 
mons, and  charges.  He  also  wrote  annota- 
tions on  the  Acts  of  the  Apostles  for  the 
'  Speaker's  Commentary.' 

[Dean  Burgon's  Lives  of  Twelve  (rood  Men, 
ii.  238-303,  in  the  main  a  reproduction  of  the 
dean's  art.  in  the  Guardian  newspaper  of  30  July 
1884;  see  also  Guardian  of  13  Aug.  following; 
Saturday  Keview  of  19  July  1884 ;  Times  news- 
paper of  14  July  1884,  where  the  obituary  notice 
is  not  quite  accurate ;  Maurice's  Life  of  F.  D. 
Maurice,  i.  99,  179,  356.]  W.  H. 

JACOMBE,  THOMAS  (1622-1687),  non- 
conformist divine,  son  of  John  Jacombe  of 
Burton  Lazars,  near  Melton  Mowbray,  Lei- 
cestershire, was  born  in  1 622.  He  was  edu- 
cated at  the  free  school  of  Melton,  and  for  two 
years  under  Edward  Gamble  at  the  school  of 
Newark.  He  matriculated  at  Magdalen  Hall, 
Oxford,  in  the  Easter  term,  1 640,  and  when 
the  civil  war  broke  out  removed  to  St.  John's 
College,  Cambridge  (28  Oct.  1642),  where  he 
graduated  B. A.  in  1643 ;  shortly  after  signed 
the  covenant,  and  became  a  fellow  of  Trinity 
in  the  place  of  an  ejected  royalist,  completing 
his  M.A.  in  1647.  In  the  same  year  he  took 
presbyterian  orders,  became  chaplain  to  the 
Countess-dowager  of  Exeter,  widow  of  David 
Cecil,  third  earl,  and  received  the  living  of 
St.  Martin's,  Ludgate  Hill,  on  the  sequestra- 
tion of  Dr.  Michael  Jermyn.  He  was  ap- 
pointed by  parliament  an  assistant  to  the 
London  commissioners  for  ejecting  insuffi- 
cient ministers  and  schoolmasters,  and  in 
1659  he  was  made  one  of  the  approvers 
or  triers  of  ministers.  His  opinions,  how- 

ever, were  moderate,  and  upon  the  Restora- 
tion he  was  created  D.D.  at  Cambridge  by 
royal  mandate  dated  19  Nov.  1660,  along  with 
two  presbyterian  ministers,  William  Bates 
[q.  v.j  and  Robert  Wilde.  He  was  named 
on  the  royal  commission  for  the  review  of  the 
prayer-book  (25  March  1661),  and  was  treated 
respectfully  at  the  meetings.  He  was  on  the 
presbyterian  side,  and  took  a  leading  part  in 
drawing  up  the  exceptions  against  the  prayer- 
book.  Pepys  heard  him  preach  on  14  April 
1661  and  16  Feb.  1661-2.  He  was  ejected 
for  nonconformity  in  1662.  His  two  farewell 
sermons,  preached  on  St.  Bartholomew's  day, 
17  Aug.  1662,  were  published  separately  with 
a  portrait  (8vo,  1662),  again  in  a  collection  of 
other  sermons,  entitled  '  The  London  Mini- 
sters' Legacy,'  8vo,  1662,  and  in  'Farewell 
Sermons  of  some  of  the  most  eminent  of  the 
Nonconformist  Ministers,'  London,  1816. 
After  his  deprivation  Jacombe  held  a  con- 
venticle from  1672  in  Silver  Street,  and  was 
several  times  prosecuted.  He  was  protected 
by  his  old  patroness,  the  Countess-dowager  of 
Exeter.  Luttrell  says  that  the  '  fanatick  par- 
son' was  taken  into  her  house  (in  Little  Bri- 
tain) in  February  1684-5.  He  died  there  of  a 
cancer,  aged  66,  on  Easter  Sunday,  27  March 
1687.  The  countess's  respect  for  the  doctor  is 
spoken  of  by  W.  Sherlock  as  '  peculiar,'  and 
the  favours  she  conferred  on  him  as  extraordi- 
nary. Jacombe  was  buried  on  3  April  at  St. 
Anne's,  Aldersgate,  and  a  large  number  of  con- 
forming and  nonconforming  divines  attended 
his  funeral.  The  sermon  was  preached  by  Dr. 
W.  Bates.  Jacombe  had  collected  a  valuable 
library,  which  was  sold  after  his  death  for 
1,300£.  (see  the  catalogue,  Bibliotheca  Jacom- 
biana,  London,  1687,  4to).  Sherlock  calls 
Jacombe  '  a  nonsensical  trifler'  (A  Discourse 
of  the  Knowledge  of  Jesus  Christ,  1674);  but 
he  is  favourably  mentioned  by  Baxter  and 
Calamy.  S.  Rolle  in  his '  Prodromus '  speaks 
of  Jacombe  as  a  person  of  '  high  repute  for 
good  life,  learning,  and  excellent  gravity,' 
much  beloved  by  the  master  of  Trinity.  Pepys 
was  pleased  by  his  preaching. 

Jacombe's  chief  works  are  :  1.  '  Enoch's 
Walk  and  Change :  Funeral  Sermon  and  Life 
of  Mr.  Vines,  sometime  Master  of  Pembroke 
Hall,  Cambridge,  preached  at  St.  Laurence 
Jewry  on  7  Feb.  1655-6,'  London,  1656,  8vo. 
2. '  A  Treatise  of  Holy  Dedication,  both  per- 
sonal and  domestic,  recommended  to  the 
Citizens  of  London  on  entering  into  their 
new  Habitations  after  the  Great  Fire,'  Lon- 
don, 1668, 8vo.  3. '  Several  Sermons,  or  Com- 
mentary preached  on  the  whole  8th  Chapter 
of  Romans,'  London,  1672,  8vo.  4.  '  How 
Christians  may  learn  in  every  way  to  be  con- 
tent,' in  the  supplement  to  the '  Morning  Exer- 




cise  at  Cripplegate,'  London,  1674,  and  en- 
larged 1683, 8vo ;  republished,  first  by  T.  Case 
in  the  «  Crown  Street  Chapel  Tracts ''  (1827), 
and  in  a  collection  of  sermons  preached  by 
different  nonconformists  between  1659  and 
1689,  called  'The  Morning  Exercises/  by 
James  Nicholls,  London,  8vo,  1844.  5.  '  A 
Short  Account  of  W.  Whitaker,  late  Minister 
of  St.  Mary  Magdalen,  Bermondsey,' prefixed 
to  his '  Eighteen  Sermons,'  London,  8vo,  1674. 
6.  '  The  Covenant  of  Redemption  opened,  or 
the  Morning  Exercise  methodized,  preached 
at  St.  Giles'-in-the-Fields,  May  1659,'  Lon- 
don, 8vo,  1676.  7. '  The  Upright  Man's  Peace 
at  his  end,'  preached  at  Matthew  Martin's 
funeral, London,  1682.  8.  'Abraham's Death,' 
at  Thomas  Case's  funeral,  London,  1682. 
Wood  is  mistaken  in  assigning  to  him  a  share 
in  Poole's  '  Annotations.' 

Jacombe  had  subscribed  his  name  to  a 
letter  against  the  quakers,  which  called  forth 
a  pamphlet  by  W.  Penn,  entitled  'A  Just 
Rebuke  to  one-and-twenty  learned  Divines 
(so  called)  .  .  .,'  London,  1674. 

SAMUEL  JACOMBE  (d.  1659),  Thomas's 
younger  brother,  was  also  a  puritan  divine 
and  popular  preacher.  He  matriculated  at 
Queens  College,  Cambridge,  in  1642  -  3 
(WooD,  Athenee,  Bliss,  iv.  205),  graduated 
B.D.  21  June  1644,  and  became  a  fellow  of 
his  college  1  March  1648.  He  won  some 
reputation  as  a  preacher  at  Cambridge,  and 
was  made  one  of  the  university  preachers  by 
the  parliament.  He  left  Cambridge  for  Lon- 
don about  1653,  and  received  the  living  of  St. 
Mary  Woolnoth  in  1655.  He  died  12  June 
1659.  His  funeral  sermon  was  preached  by 
Simon  Patrick,  afterwards  bishop  of  Ely ;  it 
was  subsequently  published  under  the  title 
of  '  Divine  Arithmetic,  or  the  Right  Art  of 
Numbering  our  Days '  (London,  1659,  4to, 
1668,  1672),  and  dedicated  to  Thomas  Ja- 
combe. He  wrote  some  lines  on  the  death 
of  Vines  (see  funeral  sermon  above),  1656,  and 
published  them  with  other  elegies  and  a  ser- 
mon entitled  '  Moses,  his  Death,'  preached  at 
Christ  Church,  Oxford,  at  the  funeral  of  E. 
Bright,  23  Dec.  1656,  London,  1657,4to;  re- 
published  in  vol.  v.  of  the '  Morning  Exercises.' 
Another  of  Samuel's  numerous  discourses  on 
the  '  Divine  Authority  of  the  Scriptures '  is 
also  in  the  '  Morning  Exercises,'  and  has  been 
reprinted  in  the  reissues  of  that  work. 

[Kennett's  Register,  pp.  308,  403,  407,  502, 
505,  743,  852  ;  Palmer's  Nonconf.  Mem.  i.  160  ; 
Nichols's  Leicestershire,  ii.  270 ;  S.Baxter's  Biog. 
Collections,  1766,  vol.  ii.;  Newcourt's  Keperto- 
rium,  i.  416;  Neal's  Puritans,  ii.  776;  Brook's 
Puritans,  iii.  319;  Luttrell's  Relation,  i.  328; 
Dunn'sMemoirsofSeventy-fiveEminent  Divines, 
pp.  132-206.]  E.  T.  B. 

LANBRIHT  (d.  791),  archbishop  of  Can- 
terbury, was  consecrated  abbot  of  St.  Augus- 
tine's at  Canterbury  in  760,  and  was  regarded 
with  friendship  by  Eadbert,  king  of  Kent. 
When  foiled  in  his  attempt  to  secure  the 
body  of  Archbishop  Bregwin  [q.  v.]  for  burial 
in  his  monastery,  he  appealed  against  the 
claim  of  the  monks  of  Christ  Church.  His 
resolute  behaviour  excited  the  admiration  of 
his  opponents ;  they  knew  that  he  was  prudent 
and  able,  and  they  had,  it  is  said,  no  fancy 
for  defending  their  claim  at  Rome.  Accord- 
ingly they  elected  him  to  the  vacant  arch- 
bishopric, and  he  appears  to  have  been  con- 
secrated on  Septuagesima  Sunday,  2  Feb. 
766,  and  to  have  received  the  pall  from  Pope 
Paul  I,  probably  in  the  course  of  767.  In  or 
about  771  Offa,  the  Mercian  king,  began  to 
conquer  Kent ;  the  struggle  lasted  for  some 
years,  and  he  appears  at  first  to  have  tried 
to  win  Jaenbert  over  to  his  side,  for  in  774 
he  made  him  a  grant  of  land  at  Higham  in 
Kent.  It  is  evident  that  he  was  unsuccess- 
ful, and  having  established  his  superiority 
over  Kent,  he  formed  a  plan  for  destroying 
the  power  of  the  primatial  see  of  Canterbury 
and  transferring  the  primacy  to  a  Mercian 
metropolitan.  Jaenbert  vigorously  resisted 
his  scheme,  and  it  is  stated  on  highly  ques- 
tionable authority  that  he  invited  Charles  the 
Great  to  invade  England  (MATT.  PAEIS,  Vitee 
Offarum,  p.  978).  Offa  was  successful  at 
Rome,  and  in  786  Hadrian  sent  two  legates 
to  England,  who  after  an  interview  with 
Jaenbert  proceeded  to  Offa's  court,  and  in  the 
following  year  held  a  synod  at  Chelsea  (Ceal- 
chythe),  where  the  archbishop  was  forced  to 
give  up  a  large  portion  of  his  province  to  Hig- 
bert  [q.  v.lbishop  ofLichfield,  who  was  raised 
to  the  rank  of  an  archbishop.  By  this  arrange- 
ment only  the  dioceses  of  London,  Winches- 
ter, Rochester,  Selsey,  and  Sherborne  seem  to 
have  been  left  to  the  province  of  Canterbury. 
Jaenbert  had  also  to  complain  of  other  in- 
juries at  Offa's  hands.  It  is  said  that  his 
resistance  to  the  king's  scheme  cost  him  all 
the  possessions  of  the  see  which  lay  within 
the  Mercian  kingdom ;  but  this  is  perhaps 
founded  on  the  fact  that  Offa  continued  to 
withhold  from  him,  as  he  had  withheld  from 
Bregwin,  an  estate  granted  to  his  church  by 
Ethelbald  of  Mercia  [q.  v.]  Jaenbert  de- 
termined to  do  his  part  towards  restoring  to 
his  former  monastery  its  old  privilege  of  being 
the  burying-place  of  the  archbishops,  of  which 
it  had  been  deprived  in  the  cases  of  Cuthbert 
[q.  v.]  and  Bregwin,  his  immediate  predeces- 
sors. When,therefore,he  felt  that  his  end  was 
near,  he  had  himself  removed  to  St.  Augus- 

J  affray 


J  affray 

tine's,  and  there  died  on  11  or  12  Aug.  791 
(SrsiEON,  or  790 FLOE.  WIG.  and  Anglo-Saxon 
Chron.)  He  was  buried  in  the  monastery. 
Jaenbert  was  the  first  archbishop  of  Canter- 
bury of  whose  coins  specimens  have  been 

[Haddan  and  Stubbs's  Eccl.  Docs.  iii.  402- 
466 ;  Hook's  Lives  of  the  Archbishops,  i.  242- 
254 ;  Kemble's  Codex  Dipl.  i.  cxiii-clvii,  mxix 
(Engl.  Hist.  Soc.) ;  Anglo-Saxon  Chron.  ann. 

763,  764,  785,  790  (Rolls  Ser.);  Flor.  Wig.  ann. 

764,  790  (Engl.  Hist.  Soc.) ;   Symeon  of  Dur- 
ham, ii.  43, 53  (Rolls  Ser.)  ;  Hoveden,  i.  8  (Rolls 
Ser.) ;  William  of  Malmesbury's  Gesta  Regum, 
i.  c.  87  (Engl.  Hist.  Soc.) ;  Gesta  Pontiff,  p.  15 
(Rolls  Ser.);    Gervase,   ii.   346    (Rolls   Ser.); 
Ralph  de  Diceto,  i.  16,  124,  126;  Thorn,  cols. 
1773-5,2210, 2211  (Twysden);  Matt. Paris'sVitse 
Offarum,  p.  978,  Wats;  Elmham,  pp.  319,  335, 
Hardwick;   Hawkins's  Silver  Coinage,  p.   102, 
ed.  Kenyon;  Diet.  Chr.  Biog.,  art. '  Jaenbert,' ii. 
336,  by  Bishop  Stubbs.]  W.  H. 

1673),  director  of  the  chancellary  of  Scot- 
land and  a  quaker,  son  of  Alexander  Jaffray 
(d.  10  Jan.  1645),  provost  of  Aberdeen,  by 
his  wife  Magdalen  Erskine  of  Pittodrie,  was 
born  at  Aberdeen  in  July  1614.  His  educa- 
tion, which  began  in  1623  at  the  Aberdeen 
High  School,  was  desultory ;  he  was  at  several 
country  schools,  and  spent  part  of  a  session, 
1631-2,  at  Marischal  College,  Aberdeen, 
leaving  it  at  the  age  of  eighteen  to  marry  a 
girl  of  his  parents'  choice.  Shortly  after  his 
marriage  his  father  sent  him  to  Edinburgh, 
where  he  stayed  some  time  in  the  house  of 
his  relative  Robert  Burnet,  father  of  Gilbert 
Burnet  [q.  v.]  His  father  sent  him  in  1632 
and  1633  to  London,  and  in  1634  and  1635 
to  France.  At  Whitsuntide  1636  he  set  up 
housekeeping  in  Aberdeen,  his  wife  having 
hitherto  lived  with  his  parents.  He  was 
made  a  bailie  in  1642,  and  in  this  capacity 
committed  a  servant  cf  Sir  George  Gordon 
of  Haddo  to  prison  for  riot.  On  1  July  1643 
Gordon  attacked  Jaffray  on  the  road  near 
Kintore,  Aberdeenshire,  wounding  him  in 
the  head,  and  his  brother,  John  Jaffray,  in 
the  arm.  For  this  outrage  Gordon  was  fined 
twenty  thousand  merks,  five  thousand  of 
which  went  as  damages  to  the  Jaffrays.  On 
19  March  1644  Gordon,  who  had  joined  the 
rising  under  George  Gordon,  second  marquis 
of  Huntly  [q.  v.],  rode  into  Aberdeen  with 
sixty  horse,  captured  the  Jaffrays  and  others, 
and  confined  them,  first  at  Strathbogie, 
Aberdeenshire,  afterwards  at  Auchendoun 
Castle,  Banffshire.  They  were  released  in 
about  seven  weeks,  but  Jaffray's  wife  had  died 
at  Aberdeen,  partly  from  the  fright  caused 
by  the  violence  attending  her  husband's  cap- 

ture. Owing  to  the  troubles  of  the  times, 
Jaffray,  who  now  represented  Aberdeen  in 
the  Scottish  parliament,  and  had  been  no- 
minated (19  July  1644)  a  commissioner  for 
suppressing  the  rebellion,  took  refuge  in 
Dunnottar  Castle,  Kincardineshire ;  but,  leav- 
ing it  one  day,  he  was  taken  prisoner  with 
his  brother  Thomas,  and  committed  for  several 
weeks  to  the  stronghold  of  Pitcaple,  Aber- 
deenshire. Taking  advantage  of  the  laxity 
of  the  royalist  garrison,  the  Jaffrays  and 
another  prisoner  made  themselves  masters  of 
the  place  (September  1645),  holding  it  for 
twenty-four  hours,  till  they  were  relieved 
by  a  party  of  their  friends.  Thereupon  they 
burned  the  stronghold,  an  act  which  received 
the  approbation  of  the  Scottish  parliament 
on  19  Feb.  1649. 

Jaffray  appears  to  have  been  the  represen- 
tative of  Aberdeen  in  the  Scottish  parliament 
from  1644  to  1650.  He  sat  on  important 
committees,  and  exercised  what  he  after- 
wards considered  '  unwarranted  zeal '  in 
censuring  delinquents.  In  1649,  and  again 
in  1650,  he  was  one  of  six  commissioners  de- 
puted to  treat  with  Charles  II  in  Holland. 
On  the  second  occasion  he  blames  himself 
for  procuring  Charles's  adhesion  to  the  cove- 
nant, well  knowing  that  he  hated  it  in  his 
heart.  He  took  part  in  the  battle  of  Dun- 
bar  (3  Sept.  1650);  his  horse  was  shot  under 
him ;  and  he  was  severely  wounded  and  taken 
prisoner  ;  his  brother  Thomas  was  killed. 
During  the  five  or  six  months  which  elapsed 
before  his  exchange,  Jaffray  had  many  con- 
versations with  Cromwell  and  his  chaplain, 
John  Owen,  D.D.,  with  the  result  that  his 
views  on  questions  of  religious  liberty  were 
widened,  and  his  attachment  to  presbyterian- 
ism  diminished.  He  was  provost  of  Aberdeen 
(not  for  the  first  time)  in  1651,  and  con- 
ducted the  negotiations  with  Monck  whereby 
the  burgh  escaped  a  heavy  fine  after  its  sur- 
render on  7  Sept.  In  March  1652  he  was 
appointed  by  the  court  of  session  keeper  of 
the  great  seal  and  director  of  the  chancel- 
lary. He  accepted  the  latter  office  in  June, 
and  it  was  confirmed  to  him  by  Cromwell, 
with  a  salary  of  2001.,  by  letters  of  gift  at 
Whitehall,  2  March  1657,  and  at  Edinburgh, 
20  Nov.  1657.  In  June  1653  he  was  sum- 
moned from  Scotland,  with  four  others,  to 
sit  in  the  Little  parliament,  which  came  to 
an  end  on  12  Jan.  1654.  Jaffray  was  one  of 
some  thirty  members  who  remained  sitting 
till  a  file  of  musketeers  expelled  them,  yet 
Cromwell  gave  him  an  order  for  1,5001.  on 
the  commissioners  at  Leith,  to  reimburse  him 
for  his  share  in  the  outlay  connected  with 
the  bringing  over  of  Charles  II  from  Breda 
in  1650.  Returning  to  Scotland,  Jaffray 

J  affray 



divided  his  time  between  Aberdeen  and  Edin- 
burgh, where  the  duties  of  the  chancellary 
compelled  him  to  be  in  attendance  for  six 
months  in  the  year.  On  15  Nov.  1656  he 
removed  his  household  from  Aberdeen  to 
Newbattle,  near  Edinburgh ;  and  thence  on 
10  Nov.  1657  to  Abbey  Hill,  Edinburgh. 
When  the  Restoration  came,  Jaffray  was  called 
upon  for  his  bond  to  remain  in  Edinburgh 
till  the  parliament's  further  order,  or  forfeit 
20,000/.  Some  delay  in  finding  sureties  led 
to  his  imprisonment  in  the  Edinburgh  Tol- 
booth,  where  he  lay  from  20  Sept.  1660  till 
17  Jan.  1661,  when,  in  consequence  of  the 
infirm  state  of  his  health,  he  was  released 
on  subscribing  the  bond. 

Jaffray's  public  life  was  closed,  and  he  ap- 
pears henceforth  as  a  religious  leader.  Al- 
though he  did  not  actually  secede  from  the 
presbyterian  church,  and  permitted  the  bap- 
tism of  his  children,  he  had  lost  faith  in  its 
ordinances,  in  accordance  with  the  views  he 
h*ad  first  adopted  in  1650,  and  relied  much 
on  private  meditation,  which  he  recorded  in 
his  diary.  On  24  May  1652,  in  conjunction 
with  four  others,  three  of  them  clergymen,  he 
addressed  a  letter  from  Aberdeen  to  '  some 
godly  men  in  the  south,'  advocating  inde- 
pendency and  separation  from  the  national 
church.  Samuel  Rutherford  and  other  divines 
held  a  conference  with  the  signatories  to  this 
document.  By  1661  he  was  in  considerable 
sympathy  with  the  quakers,  and  joined  their 
body  at  Aberdeen  towards  the  end  of  1662, 
owing  to  the  preaching  of  William  Dews- 
bury  [q.  v.l  He  then  removed  to  Inverury, 
Aberdeenshire,  where  he  set  up  a  quaker 
meeting.  Returning  about  1664  to  Kings- 
wells,  near  Aberdeen  (an  estate  which  had 
been  in  his  family  since  1587),  he  was  sum- 
moned before  the  high  commission  court,  at 
the  instance  of  Patrick  Scougal,  bishop  of 
Aberdeen,  and  ordered  to  remain  in  his  own 
dwelling-house,  and  hold  no  meetings  there, 
under  a  penalty  of  six  hundred  merks.  His 
health  was  now  very  frail,  and  he  suffered 
from  quinsy.  On  11  Sept.  1668  he  was  taken 
to  Banff  Tolbooth  for  holding  a  religious 
meeting  at  Kingswells,  and  kept  in  gaol  for 
over  nine  months,  till  released  by  an  order 
of  the  privy  council.  His  infirm  health  dis- 
qualified him  from  rendering  active  service 
to  the  quaker  cause  in  Scotland,  but  his  ac- 
cession gave  impetus  to  the  movement,  which 
was  taken  up  by  George  Keith  (1640  P-1716) 
[q.  v.]  in  1664  and  by  Robert  Barclay  (1648- 
1690)  [q.  v.]  in  1667.  Jaffray  died  at  Kings- 
wells  on  7  May  1673,  and  was  buried  on 
8  May,  in  a  ground  attached  to  his  own 
house.  He  married,  first,  on  30  April  1632, 
Jane  Downe  or  Dune,  who  died  on  19  March 

1644,  and  was  mother  of  ten  children,  all 
of  whom  died  young  except  Alexander  (6. 
17  Oct.  1641,  d.  1672);  and  secondly,  on 
4  May  1647,  Sarah,  daughter  of  Andrew 
Cant  [q.  v.],  by  whom  he  had  five  sons  and 
three  daughters,  all  dying  young  except  An- 
drew (see  below), 'Rachel,  and  John. 

Jaffray  published  nothing  except '  A  Word 
of  Exhortation  by  way  of  Preface,'  &c.,  to 
George  Keith's  '  Help  in  Time  of  Need,'  &c., 
1665,  4to.  His  manuscript '  Diary '  was  dis- 
covered in  the  autumn  of  1827  by  John  Bar- 
clay. Part  of  it  was  in  the  study  of  Robert 
Barclay,  the  apologist,  at  Ury  House,  Kin- 
cardineshire,  the  rest  in  the  loft  of  a  neigh- 
bouring farmhouse.  It  was  admirably  edited, 
with '  Memoirs '  and  notes,  by  John  Barclay, 
1833,  8vo ;  reprinted  1834  and  1856. 

ANDREW  JAFFRAY  (1650-1726),  son  of 
the  above,  was  born  on  8  Aug.  1650.  He 
became  an  eminent  minister  among  the 
quakers,  and  died  on  1  Feb.  1726.  He  mar- 
ried Christian,  daughter  of  Alexander  Skene 
of  Skene,  by  whom  he  had  four  sons  and  six 
daughters.  He  published  '  A  Serious  and 
Earnest  Exhortation  ...  to  the  .  .  .  Inha- 
bitants of  Aberdeen,'  &c.  [1677],  4to. 

[Jaffray's  Diary,  1833;  Smith's  Catalogue  of 
Friends'  Books,  1867,  ii.  5  sq.]  A.  G-. 

JAGO,  RICHARD  (1715-1781),poet,  was 
the  third  son  of  the  Rev.  Richard  Jago  (born 
at  St.  Mawes  in  Cornwall  in  1679,  and  rector 
of  Beaudesert,  Warwickshire,  from  1709  until 
his  death  in  1741),  who  married  in  1711  Mar- 
garet, daughter  of  William  Parker  of  Henley- 
in-Arden.  He  was  born  at  Beaudesert  on 
1  Oct.  1715,  and  educated  at  Solihull  under 
the  Rev.  Mr.  Crumpton,  whom  he  afterwards 
described  as  a  '  morose  pedagogue.'  Shen- 
stone  was  at  the  same  school,  and  theirfriend- 
ship  lasted  unimpaired  for  life.  In  his  father's 
parish  he  also  made  the  acquaintance  of  So- 
merville,  the  author  of '  The  Chase.'  As  his 
father's  means  were  small,  he  matriculated  as 
a  servitor  at  University  College,  Oxford,  on 
30  Oct.  1732,  when  Shenstone  was  also  in 
residence  as  a  commoner.  He  graduated 
B.A.  in  1736,  and  M.A.  in  1739,  and  was 
ordained  in  1737  to  the  curacy  of  Snitter- 
field  in  Warwickshire.  In  1746  he  was  ap- 
pointed by  Lord  Willoughby  de  Broke  to 
the  small  livings  of  Harbury  and  Chesterton 
in  that  county.  As  he  had  seven  children, 
his  nomination  in  1754,  through  the  assist- 
ance of  Lord  Clare,  afterwards  Earl  Nugent, 
to  the  vicarage  of  Snitterfield,  proved  a  wel- 
come addition  to  his  resources.  These  three 
benefices  he  retained  until  1771,  when  he 
resigned  the  former  two  on  his  preferment, 
through  the  gift  of  his  old  patron,  Lord 


129     James  I  of  Scotland 

SVilloughby  de  Broke,  to  the  more  valuable 
•ectory  of  Kimcote  in  Leicestershire  (1  May 
L771).  Jago  continued,  however,  to  reside 
it  Snitterfield,  passing  much  of  his  time  in 
mproving  the  vicarage  house  and  grounds, 
md  there  he  died  on  8  May  1781.  He  was 
buried  in  a  vault  which  he  had  constructed 
for  his  family  under  the  middle  aisle  of  the 
zhurch,  and  an  inscription  to  his  memory 
was  placed  on  a  flat  stone,  which  has  since 
been  moved  to  the  north  aisle.  He  married 
in  1744  Dorothea  Susanna  Fancourt,  daugh- 
;er  of  John  Fancourt,  rector  of  the  benefice 
}f  Kimcote,  which  he  himself  afterwards  held. 
She  died  in  1751,  leaving  three  sons  and  four 
laughters ;  three  of  the  latter  survived  their 
father.  On  16  Oct.  1758  he  married  at  Ruge- 
ey  Margaret,  daughter  of  James  Under  wood, 
svho  survived  him,  but  left  no  issue. 

Jago's  pleasing  elegy,   'The  Blackbirds,' 
ariginally  appeared  in  Hawkesworth's  '  Ad- 
venturer,' No.  37,  13  March  1753,  and  was 
by  mistake  attributed  to  Gilbert  West.    Its 
author  thereupon  procured  its  insertion,  with 
Dther  poems  and  with  his  name,  in  Dodsley's 
;  Collection'  (vols.  iv.  and  v.),  when  the 
manager  of  a  Bath  theatre  (who  is  suggested 
in  Note»  and  Queries,  5th  ser.  v.  198-9,  to 
have  been  John  Lee)  claimed  it  as  his  own, 
alleging  that  Jago  was  a  fictitious  name  from 
'  Othello.'    This  piece  was  a  great  favourite 
with  Shenstone,  who  reports  in  his  letters 
(June  1754)  that  it  had  been  set  to  music  by 
the  organist  of  Worcester  Cathedral.     Jago 
published  in  1767  a  topographical  poem,  in 
bur  books,  'Edge  Hill,  or  the  Rural  Pro- 
spect delineated  and  moralized,'  a  subject 
vhich  did  not  present  sufficient  variety  for  a 
>oem  of  that  length,  but  it  has  been  praised 
or  the  ease  of  its  diction.     He  also  wrote : 
.  '  A  Sermon  on  occasion  of  a  Conversation 
aid  to  have  pass'd  between  one  of  the  In- 
abitants  and  an  Apparition  La  the  Church- 
ard  of  Harbury,'  1755.    2.  '  Sermon  at  Snit- 
3rfield  on  the  Death  of  the  Countess  of 
'oventry,'  1763.     3.  '  Labour  and  Genius : 
Fable,'  inscribed  to  Shenstone,  1768 ;  also 
i  Pearch's  « Collection/  iii.  208-18.    4.  'An 
ssay  on  Electricity,'  which  is  alluded  to  in 
lenstone's  letters,  but  apparently  was  never 
iblished.   Some  time  before  his  death  he  re- 
sed  his  poems,  which  were  published  in 
84  with  some  additional  pieces,  the  most 
portant  of  which  was '  Adam ;  an  Oratorio, 
mpiled  from  "Paradise  Lost,'"  and  with 
n'j  account  of  his  life  and  writings  by 
hn  Scott  Hylton  of  Lapal  House,  near 
ilesowen.     His  poems  have  appeared  in 
^ny  collections  of  English  poetry,  including 
>se  of  Chalmers,  vol.  xvii.,  Anderson,  vol. 
,  Park,  vol.  xxvii.,  and  Davenport,  vol.  Iv. 


Southey,  in  his  'Later  Poets'  (iii.  199-202), 
included  Jago's  ' Elegy  on  the  Goldfinches;' 
and  Mitford,  while  praising  his  '  taste,  feel- 
ing, and  poetical  talent,'  suggested  a  selection 
from  Shenstone,  Dyer,  Jago,  and  others. 
Shenstone  addressed  a  poem  to  him,  in- 
scribed a  seat  at  Leasowes  with  the  words 
'  Amicitise  et  meritis  Richardi  Jago,'  and  cor- 
responded with  him  until  death  (  Works,  iii. 
passim).  Many  of  his  letters,  essays,  and 
several  curiosities  which  were  formerly  his 
property,  have  passed  to  the  Rev.  W.  lago  of 
Bodmin.  An  indignant  letter  from  Jago  to 
Garrick  on  the  Stratford  jubilee  is  in  Gar- 
rick's  '  Correspondence,'  i.  367-8. 

[Gent.  Mag.  1781,  p.  242;  Colvile's  Warwick- 
shire Worthies,  pp.  458-62  ;  London  Mag.  1822, 
vi.  419-20;  Foster's  Alumni  Oxon. ;  Nichols's 
Lit.  Anecd.  iii.  50-1 ;  Shenstone's  Works  (1791 
edit.),  ii.  318,  iii.  passim ;  Mrs.  Houstoun's  Mit- 
ford and  Jesse,  pp.  227-31 ;  Old  Cross  (Coventry, 
1879),  pp.  369-74;  Boase  and  Courtney's  Bibl.  v 
Cornub.  iii.  1243 ;  Boase's  Collect.  Cornub. 
p.  411 ;  Maclean's  Trigg  Minor,  iii.  424.] 

W.  P.  C. 

JAMES  THE  CISTERCIAN  (Jl.  1270),  also 
called  JAMES  THE  ENGLISHMAN,  was  the  first 
professor  of  philosophy  and  theology  in  the 
college  which  Stephen  Lexington  [q.  v.],  ab- 
bot of  Clairvaux,  founded  in  the  house  of  the 
counts  of  Champagne  at  Paris  for  the  instruc- 
tion of  young  Cistercians.  He  supported  St. 
Thomas  Aquinas  in  contesting  the  immacu- 
late conception  of  the  Virgin  Mary,  and  is 
said  to  have  written :  1.  '  Commentaries  on 
the  Song  of  Songs.'  2.  '  Sermons  on  the  Gos- 
pels.' 3.  '  Lecturse  Scholastic*.' 

[Visch.  Bibl.  Script.  Ord.  Cist.  p.  142,  Douay, 
ed.  1649;  Tanner,  Bibl.  Brit.-Hib.  p.  426; 
Fabricius,  Bibl.  Lat.  Med.  Mvi,  iv.  5,  ed.  1754; 
Hist.  Litt.  de  la  France,  xix.  425.]  C.  L.  K. 

JAMES  I  (1394-1437),  king  of  Scotland, 
third  son  of  Robert  III  [q.  v.]  and  Annabella 
Drummond  [q.  v.],  was  born  at  Dunfermline 
shortly  before  1  Aug.  1394  (letter  from  his 
mother  to  Richard  II).  His  age  and  his 
father's  weak  health  and  feeble  character 
render  it  probable  that  his  education  was  en- 
trusted to  his  mother,  who  lived  chiefly  at 
Dunfermline  and  Inverkeithing.  After  her 
death,  in  1402,  he  was  sent  to  St.  Andrews, 
where  he  was  placed  under  the  care  of  Henry 
Wardlaw,  consecrated  bishop  in  1403.  The 
murder  of  his  only  surviving  brother  David, 
duke  of  Rothesay,  in  March  1402,  at  the  in- 
stigation of  his  uncle  Albany  [q.  v.]  and 
Archibald,  fourth  earl  of  Douglas  [q.  v.],  made 
it  necessary  that  he  should  be  in  safe  custody, 
and  no  better  guardian  could  have  been  found. 
In  1405  Wardlaw  received  as  guests  the  Earl 


of  Scotland 

of  Northumberland  and  his  grandson,  young 
Henry  Percy,  Hotspur's  son,  driven  into  exile 
after  the  defeat  of  Shrewsbury,  and  the  two 
boys  were  perhaps  for  a  short  time  educated 
together.  The  aged  and  infirm  king  Robert, 
apprehensive  that  Albany  might  treat  James 
like  his  brother,  determined  to  send  him  to 
France.  Embarking  at  the  Bass  Rock  along 
with  the  Earl  of  Orkney,  a  bishop  (according 
to  Walsingham),and  young  Alexander  Seton 
(afterwards  Lord  Gordon),  their  vessel  was 
intercepted  off  Flamborough  Head  by  an 
English  ship  of  Cley  in  Norfolk.  The  bishop 
escaped ;  the  prince,  Orkney,  and  Seton  were 
sent  to  Henry  IV  in  London,  who  released 
Orkney  and  Seton,  but  detained  James  and 
his  squire,  William  Gifford.  There  is  discre- 
pancy in  the  date  assigned,  both  by  earlier 
and  later  historians,  for  the  capture  of  James. 
The  '  Kingis  Quair,'  his  own  poem,  implies 
that  it  was  in  the  spring  of  1404,  when  he  was 
ten,  or  about  three  years  past  the  state  of  in- 
nocence, i.e.  the  age  of  seven.  Wyntoun  sug- 
gests 12  April  1405,  which  Pinkerton,  Irving, 
and  Professor  Skeat  in  his  edition  of  the 
'Kingis  Quair' adopt.  But  in  that  case  the 
capture  would  have  been  in  most  flagrant 
defiance  of  a  truce  which  had  been  agreed  to 
by  Henry  till  Easter  1405.  And  Walsing- 
ham,  the  St.  Albans  chronicler,  is  probably 
more  correct  in  assigning  the  event  to  1406. 

that  day  the  constable  was  ordered  to  deliver 
him  and  Griffin,  son  of  Owen  Glendower,  to 
Richard,  lord  de  Grey,  in  whose  charge  he  was 
placed  at  Nottingham  Castle,  where  he  re- 
mained from  12  June  1407  till  the  middle  of 
July.  He  was  then  removed  to  Evesham, 
where  he  continued  at  least  down  to  16  July 
1409.  In  1412  he  appears  to  have  visited 
Henry  IV,  and  there  is  a  holograph  letter  by 
him  in  the  same  year,  by  which  he  granted,  or 
promised,  lands  to  SirW.Douglas  of  Drumlan- 
rig,  dated  at  Croydon,  where  he  was  probably 
the  guest  of  his  kinsman,  Thomas  Arundel 
[q.  v.],  archbishop  of  Canterbury. 

after  his  father's  death  on  20  March  1413, 
was  to  recommit  James  to  the  custody  of  the 
constable  of  the  Tower,  along  with  the  Welsh 
prince  and  his  cousin,  Murdoch,  earl  of  Fife, 
who  had  been  a  prisoner  in  England  since  the 
battle  of  Homildon  Hill.  On  3  Aug.  the  three 
were  ordered  to  be  transferred  to  Windsor 
Castle.  Throughout  his  reign  HenryV  treated 
James  well,  hoping  through  his  influence  to 
detach  the  Scots  from  the  French  alliance. 
But  the  constable  of  the  Tower  continued  to 
receive  payments  for  his  expenses  down  to 
14  Dec.  1416.  On  22  Feb.  1417,  after  James 
was  twenty-one,  Sir  John  Pelham  was  ap- 
pointed his  governor,  with  an  allowance  of 
TOO/,  a  year,  and  leave  to  take  him  to  certain 

Northumberland,  who  came  to  St.  Andrews  i  places.  Windsor  was  henceforth  his  prin- 
before  the  prince  left,  certainly  did  not  reach  cipal  residence.  After  1419  there  are  traces 
Scotland  till  June  1405,  and  Bower  states  of  small  personal  payments  to  James  himself, 
that  Robert  III,  who  is  known  to  have  died  The  victory  of  Agincourt,  in  1415,  placed 
.on  4  April  1406,  barely  survived  the  news  of  another  illustrious  captive  in  Henry's  hands, 
his  son's  capture.  Mr.  Burnett  and  Mr.  W.  Charles  of  Orleans,  about  the  same  age  as 
Hardy  adopt  the  later  date,  and  place  the  James,  and,  like  him,  of  bright  intellect  and 
capture  about  14  Feb.  1406.  The  English  ]  poetic  tastes.  It  has  been  assumed  rather 
records  state  that  the  first  payment  to  the  than  proved  that  they  were  fellow-prisoners 
lieutenant  of  the  Tower  for  the  expenses  of  at  Windsor.  It  is  more  likely  that  they  were 
the  son  of  the  Scotch  king  was  on  10  Dec.,  j  kept  apart.  In  1420  Henry  was  engaged  in 
in  respect  of  cost  incurred  from  6  July  1406,  |  his  final  struggle  with  France,  and  during- 

but  the  entries  are  too  incomplete  to  prove 
there  was  no  earlier  payment. 

For  nineteen  years  the  life  of  James  was 
spent  in  exile  under  more  or  less  strict  ciis- 
tody.  His  ransom — always  an  item  in  the 
calculations  of  the  English  exchequer,  ex- 
hausted by  the  French  war — made  his  life 
safer  than  at  home  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
an  ambitious  uncle  and  turbulent  nobles. 
His  education  was  carefully  attended  to,  and 
improved  a  naturally  vigorous  mind.  He  be- 
came an  expert  in  all  manly  and  knightly 
exercises.  We  learn  from  the  recent  publi- 
cation of  English  and  Scottish  records  that 
he  was  at  first  confined  in  the  Tower  of  Lon- 
don, where  his  expenses  were  allowed  for  at 
the  rate  of  6s.  8d.  a  day  and  3s.  4d.  for  his 
suite,  from  6  July  1406  to  10  June  1407.  On 

May,  June,  and  July  James  received  sundry- 
sums  towards  his  equipment  for  the  French 
war.  He  sailed  from  Southampton  in  July, 
and  joined  Henry  at  the  siege  of  Melun. 
Henry  failed  to  detach  the  Scots  then  fighting 
for  France.  They  declined  to  acknowledge  a 
king  who  was  a  prisoner,  and  he  refused,  for 
the  same  reason,  to  claim  their  allegiance. 

Melun  capitulated  after  a  brave  resistance 
of  four  months,  and  James  suffered  the  igno- 
miny of  seeing  his  countrymen  who  had  taken 
part  in  the  defence  hanged  as  rebels.  He 
was  present  at  the  triumphal  entry  of  Henry 
into  Paris  on  1  Dec.  1420.  In  the  beginning 
ear  James  went  with  Henry 
e  appears  to  have  remained, 
during  Henry's  absence  in  England,  from 
3  Feb.  till  the  middle  of  June.  The  defeat  of 

of  the  following  y< 
to  Rouen,  where  h 

James  I  i, 

the  English  at  Beauge",  23  March  1421,  re- 
called Henry  to  France,  and  if  James  had  in 
the  interval  returned  to  England  he  must 
have  come  back  with  Henry.  During  the 
first  half  of  1422  notices  of  payments  to  him 
prove  that  he  was  at  Rouen.  After  Henry  V's 
death  he  returned  to  England. 

The  negotiations  for  his  release  had  gone 
on  without  intermission  from  the  time  of  his 
capture.  But  Albany  succeeded  in  procuring 
the  ransom  of  his  own  son,  Murdoch,  in  1416, 
and  as  the  return  of  James  would  have  put 
an  end  to  a  regency  which  was  actual  sove- 
reignty of  Scotland,  it  is  scarcely  likely  that 
he  wished  to  see  James  back  in  Scotland. 
Albany's  death  in  1420  at  once  improved  the 
prospects  of  his  liberation.  In  May  1421  it 
was  agreed  that  he  should  be  permitted  to 
return  to  his  own  kingdom  on  sufficient  hos- 
tages being  given,  and  on  Henry  V's  death 
the  negotiations  between  the  Duke  of  Bedford 
[q.  v.],  the  English,  and  Murdoch,  the  new 
Scottish,  regent,  began  in  earnest. 

Thomas  of  Myrton,  James's  chaplain,  who 
had  been  sent  to  Scotland  on  21  Feb.  1422, 
appears  to  have  been  the  envoy  who  smoothed 
the  way  for  the  subsequent  treaty.  In  the 
autumn  of  1423  English  and  Scottish  com- 
missioners met  at  Pontefract,  and  there  the 
basis  of  the  treaty  was  arranged :  a  payment 
of  sixty  thousand  marks  for  the  king's  release, 
in  instalments  of  ten  thousand  marks  a  year, 
for  which  hostages  were  to  be  given;  an 
agreement  that  the  Scottish  troops  should 
quit  France,  and  a  request  that  a  noble  Eng- 
lish lady  should  be  betrothed  to  James.  The 
treaty  was  signed  10  Sept.  in  the  chapter- 
house of  i  York.  On  24  Nov.  Myrton  was 
again  sent  to  Scotland,  probably  to  arrange  as 
to  the  hostages,  and  in  December  the  Scots 
agreed  that  the  four  principal  burghs,  Edin- 
burgh, Perth,  Dundee,  and  Aberdeen,  were 
to  become  sureties  for  payment  of  part  of  the 
stipulated  sum. 

The  condition  as  to  the  marriage  was  easiest 
fulfilled.  James  had  already  set  his  heart  on 
Jane  [q.  v.],  the  young  daughter  of  the  Earl 
of  Somerset.  The  marriage  was  celebrated  in 
the  church  of  St.  Mary  Overy  in  Southwark 
on  12  Feb.  1424,  and  the  banquet  in  the  ad- 
jacent palace  of  the  lady's  uncle,  the  Bishop 
of  Winchester.  Next  day  ten  thousand  marks 
of  the  ransom  were  remitted  as  Jane's  dowry. 
James  and  his  bride  set  out  at  once  for  Scot- 
land, and  on  28  March,  at  Durham,  the  host- 
ages, twenty-eight  of  the  principal  nobles  or 
their  eldest  sons,  were  delivered,  along  with 
the  obligations  of  the  four  burghs,  and  a  truce 
for  seven  years  from  1  May  1424  was  signed. 
On  5  April,  at  Melrose,  James  issued  letters 
under  his  great  seal  confirming  the  treaty, 

i  of  Scotland 

and  by  a  separate  deed  acknowledged  that  ten 
thousand  marks  were  to  be  paid  within  six 
months  of  his  entry  into  Scotland.  After 
spending  Easter  in  Edinburgh  he  was  crowned 
at  Scone,  on  21  May,  with  great  pomp  by 
Bishop  Wardlaw.  The  Duke  of  Albany,  as 
earl  of  Fife,  placed  him  on  the  throne.  The 
queen  was  crowned  with  him,  and  the  king 
showed  favour  to  her  English  followers. 
Walter,  elder  son  of  the  late  regent,  whose 
insubordination  and  profligacy  had  removed 
some  obstacles  to  James's  restoration,  was 
arrested  a  week  before  the  coronation  and 
sent  to  the  Bass.  Malcolm  Fleming  of  Cum- 
bernauld,  a  brother-in-law  of  the  regent, 
was  arrested  at  the  same  time,  but  soon  libe- 
rated. In  this,  as  in  subsequent  steps  taken  by 
James  to  regain  firm  possession  of  the  throne, 
his  object  was  to  strike  down  Albany  and  all 
his  kin.  He  returned  to  Perth  for  his  first 
parliament  on  26  May  1424.  A  series  of 
twenty-seven  acts  prove  his  legislative  ac- 
tivity. These  acts  appear  to  have  been  not 
merely  drafted  but  passed  by  the  lords  of  the 
articles,  a  committee  of  the  three  estates, 
not  then  first  instituted,  but  perhaps  reor- 
ganised, with  full  power  to  make  laws  dele- 
gated to  them  by  the  other  members  of  par- 
liament, who  were  allowed  to  return  home. 
The  privileges  of  the  church  were  confirmed  ; 
private  war  was  prohibited ;  forfeiture  de- 
clared the  penalty  of  rebellion ;  those  who 
abstained  from  assisting  the  king  were  to  be 
deemed  rebels ;  those  who  travelled  with 
more  than  a  proper  retinue  or  who  lay  upon 
the  land  were  to  be  punished ;  and  officers  of 
the  law  were  to  be  appointed  to  administer 
justice  to  the  king's  commons.  The  customs, 
both  great  and  small,  were  granted  to  the 
king  for  life;  the  process  of  'showing  of 
holdings '  was  to  be  used,  to  ascertain  who 
had  titles  to  their  lands  from  the  death  of 
Robert  I ;  taxes  were  imposed  to  provide  for 
the  king's  ransom ;  salmon,  an  important 
branch  of  revenue,  were  protected  by  various 
regulations  ;  gold  and  silver  mines  were  to 
belong  to  the  king ;  clerks  were  not  to  pass 
the  sea  without  leave  or  to  grant  pensions 
out  of  their  benefices ;  export  of  gold  and 
silver  was  taxed,  and  foreign  merchants  were 
to  spend  their  gains  in  Scotland;  archery 
was  encouraged, football  and  golf  prohibited; 
rooks  were  not  to  be  allowed  to  build,  and 
muirburn  after  March  forbidden ;  customs 
were  imposed  on  the  chief  exports ;  money 
was  to  be  coined  of  equal  value  to  that  of  Eng- 
land ;  hostelries  were  to  be  kept  in  towns ; 
and  the  burghs  were  to  provide,  partly  by 
loans  in  Flanders,  twenty  thousand  English 
nobles  towards  the  king's  ransom.  The 
royal  eye  was  directed  to  every  branch  of 


James  I 

government,  agriculture  and  trade,  peace  and 
war,  currency  and  finance,  church  and  state. 
Some  of  the  statutes,  as  that  relating  to  the 
coin,  were  never  carried  out ;  others  were  tem- 
porary; but  it  is  from  this  parliament  that 
the  Scottish  statute-book  known  in  the  courts 
dates.  For  the  first  time  since  Robert  the 
Bruce,  Scotland  had  effective  legislation, 
directed  by  the  king,  and  accepted  by  the 
clergy,  barons,  and  burghs.  Parliament  now 
became  annual.  James  had  learned  from  the 
Lancastrian  kings  the  value  of  a  national 
assembly  as  a  support  against  nobles  who 
were  petty  kings,  engaging  in  private  war, 
and  administering  private  law  in  their  own 
courts.  Several  of  the  statutes  of  this  and 
subsequent  parliaments  were  copied  from  the 
more  advanced  constitution  of  England. 

Before  the  end  of  1424  Duncan,  earl  of 
Lennox,  father-in-law  of  the  late  regent,  was 
arrested  and  imprisoned  at  Edinburgh.  A 
second  parliament,  at  Perth,  12  March  1425, 
continued,  and  a  third,  on  11  March  1426, 
repeated  the  same  politic  legislation.  The 
most  important  acts  provided  for  registra- 
tion of  infeftments,  or  titles  to  land,  in  the 
king's  register ;  prosecution  of  forethought 
felony  by  the  king's  officers ;  personal  attend- 
ance in  parliament  of  prelates,  barons,  and 
freeholders  ;  revision  of  the  old  books  of  law 
by  a  committee  of  the  three  estates ;  punish- 
ment of  heretics  with  the  aid  of  the  secular 
arm ;  prayers  to  be  said  by  the  clergy  on  behalf 
of  the  king  and  queen ;  a  judicial  committee 
or  sessions,  the  first  attempt  to  introduce  a 
central  court,  to  sit  thrice  a  year;  the  punish- 
ment of  idle  men,  and  the  regulation  of 
weights  and  measures. 

More  important  than  the  legislation  was 
the  coup  d'etat  by  which,  on  the  ninth  day 
of  the  parliament  of  1425,  the  late  regent, 
his  younger  son  Alexander,  with  other  nobles, 
including  Archibald,  earl  of  Douglas,  Wil- 
liam Douglas,  earl  of  Angus  [q.  v.],  George 
Dunbar,  earl  of  March,  twenty-six  in  all,  were 
arrested.  The  castles  of  Falkland  and  Doune, 
the  chief  seats  of  the  late  regent,  were  seized ; 
Isabella,  the  daughter  of  Lennox,  and  wife  of 
the  regent,  was  imprisoned,  while  her  hus- 
band was  sent  to  Caerlaverock.  James, 
youngest  son  of  the  regent,  the  only  one 
of  the  family  who  escaped,  raised  a  force  in 
the  highlands,  and,  aided  by  Finlay,  bishop 
of  Lismore,  burnt  Dumbarton  and  slew  Sir 
John,  the  Red  Stewart  of  Dundonald,  the 
king's  uncle,  but,  pursued  by  the  royal  forces, 
fled  by  way  of  England  to  Ireland,  from 
which  he  never  returned.  Meanwhile  the 
parliament,  adjourned  to  Stirling,  met  on 
18  May  1425,  to  pass  judgment  on  Albany 
and  his  kin.  An  assize  of  twenty-one  nobles 

z  of  Scotland 

and  barons,  with  Atholl,  the  king's  uncle,  as 
foreman,  sat  on  the  22nd,  in  presence  of  the 
king,  and  made  quick  work  of  the  charges. 
The  record  is  not  extant,  and  under  the  gene- 
ral term  robbery  (roboria)  of  one  of  the  chro- 
nicles (Extracta  ex  Chronicis  Scotice,  p.  220) 
must  be  understood  all  the  illegal  acts  of  the 
regency.  The  '  Book  of  Pluscarden '  calls 
their  crime  treason.  Walter  was  convicted, 
and  beheaded  on  the  day  of  trial;  his  father, 
his  brother  Alexander,  and  his  grandfather, 
Lennox,  on  the  following  day ;  and  at  the 
same  time  five  retainers  of  Albany  were 
hanged  and  their  quarters  sent  to  different 
towns.  Some  pity  for  the  victims  appears  in 
the  contemporary  chronicles.  This  startling 
victory  is  to  be  attributed  to  the  fact  that 
the  clergy  were  on  the  king's  side.  With  the 
exception  of  the  Bishop  of  Argyll  no  prelate 
supported  Albany.  James  conciliated  the 
bishops  by  a  strict  enforcement  of  the  law 
against  heresy,  a  copy  of  the  Lancastrian 
statute,  and  by  confirming  their  privileges. 
James  also  had  the  support  of  the  ablest  of 
the  smaller  barons,  the  natural  rivals  of  the 
older  nobles.  Moreover  he  had  gained  the 

!  commons  by  good  laws  and  impartial  justice. 

|  He  thus  initiated  the  constant  policy  of  the 
Stewart  kings — to  rely  on  the  clergy  and  the 
burghs  in  order  to  withstand  the  great  feudal 

The  chief  offices  in  the  n6w  administration 
were  bestowed  on  those  who  had  taken  a 
leading  part  in  James's  restoration.  Some 
of  the  new  officers,  however,  like  Lauder, 
bishop  of  Glasgow,  and  Sir  John  Forester  of 
Corstorphine,  the  chamberlain,  had  already 
served  under  the  regent.  The  heads  of  the 
house  of  Douglas — Archibald,  earl  of  Dou- 
glas, William  Douglas,  earl  of  Angus,  and 
James  Douglas  of  Balvenie — had  separated 
themselves  from  the  regent,  but  their  alle- 
giance to  James  was  doubtful,  and  had  to 
be  retained  by  fear.  The  strength  of  James 
lay  in  Lothian,  where  his  adherents  held  the 
castles  of  Dalkeith,  Dunbar,  the  Bass,  and 
Tantallon ;  in  the  south-west,  where  they 

j  held  Caerlaverock;  and  in  Fife,  where  Ward- 

!  law,  his  old  tutor  and  chief  adviser,  held  St. 
Andrews,  and  the  king  himself  held  Doune 
and  Falkland.  The  possession  of  Perth  and 
Dundee,  Edinburgh  and  Stirling,  gave  him 
control  of  the  chief  burghs.  The  regent's 
party  had  more  influence  in  the  less  civilised 
west,  the  country  of  Lennox,  and  in  the 

The  lowlands  being  now  safe,  and  the 
whole  line  of  Albany  cut  off,  the  lawless  con- 
dition of  the  highlands  urgently  called  for 
strong  measures.  James  summoned  a  parlia- 
ment in  the  spring  of  1427  to  Inverness,  where 

James  I 


of  Scotland 

he  had  repaired  the  royal  tower,  and  he  seized 
forty  chiefs  who  obeyed  the  summons.  Alex- 
ander Macgorrie  and  two  Campbells  were 
tried  and  executed.  The  rest  were  sent  to 
different  castles  throughout  the  kingdom, 
where  some  were  put  to  death,  though  the 
greater  number  were  afterwards  liberated, 
including  the  Lord  of  the  Isles,  whose 
mother,  however,  was  detained  till  her  death. 
On  his  return  south  he  held  in  July  another 
parliament,  chiefly  occupied  with  reforms  of 
the  civil  and  ecclesiastical  courts ;  ,and  in  the 
next  parliament,  of  March  1428,  he  made  an 
attempt  to  introduce  representation  of  the 
shires  and  a  speaker  on  the  English  model. 
But  this  change — another  blow  at  the  feudal 
aristocracy,  who  had  the  right  of  personal 
attendance — was  not  carried  out.  About 
the  end  of  1427,  or  early  in  1428,  Sir  John 
Stewart  of  Darnley,  constable  of  the  French 
army,  the  Archbishop  of  Rheims,  and  Alain 
Chartier  the  poet,  chancellor  of  Bayeux,  came 
to  ask  the  hand  of  the  infant  Princess  Mar- 
garet [q.  v.]  for  the  dauphin  Louis.  So  bril- 
liant an  offer  was  not  to  be  refused.  Scottish 
ambassadors  were  sent  to  France  to  arrange 
the  terms.  The  treaty  was  signed  by  James 
at  Perth  on  17  July  1428,  and  by  Charles  VII 
at  Chinon  in  November.  The  bride  being 
only  two  and  the  bridegroom  five  the  mar- 
riage was  postponed  till  they  reached  the  legal 
age ;  but  the  princess  was  to  be  sent  to  France, 
along  with  six  thousand  men,  as  soon  as  a 
French  fleet  arrived.  Charles  promised  her 
the  dowry  of  a  dauphiness,  or,  if  her  husband 
came  to  the  throne,  of  a  queen  of  France,  and 
conveyed  to  James  the  county  of  Saintonge 
and  castle  of  Rochefort. 

Margaret  did  not,  however,  go  to  France 
till  the  last  year  of  her  father's  life,  and  the 
Scottish  troops,  so  urgently  needed  to  sup- 
port Charles  against  the  English,  were  never 
despatched.  This  treaty  excited  the  jealousy 
of  the  English  court,  and  Cardinal  Beaufort 
was  sent  in  February  1429  to  James  at 
Dunbar  in  order  to  counteract  its  effects. 
He  succeeded  in  procuring  a  renewal  of  the 
truce  between  England  and  Scotland,  but 
not  in  breaking  off  the  treaty  with  France, 
though  possibly  in  delaying  its  execution, 
But  James  showed  no  favour  to  England. 
He  could  not  forget  his  enforced  exile.  He 
could  not  raise,  and  was  unwilling  to  pay 
his  ransom,  and  its  non-payment  became  a 
subject  of  frequent  remonstrance.  The  Eng- 
lish court  kept  firm  hold  of  the  hostages,  the 
sons  of  his  principal  nobles,  and  reasserted, 
if  English  writers  may  be  credited,  the  supe- 
riority of  England,  which  had  been  disowned 
as  the  result  of  the  war  of  independence. 
The  disorganised  state  of  France,  until  the 

enthusiasm  kindled  by  Joan  of  Arc  effected 
its  deliverance,  made  James  see  the  necessity 
of  fostering  other  alliances,  and  he  pursued 
a  foreign  policy  which  had  in  view  the  com- 
mercial and  political  interests  of  his  king- 
dom. In  1425  he  restored,  at  the  request  of 
a  Flemish  embassy,  the  staple  of  the  Scottish 
trade  to  Bruges,  from  which  it  had  been  re- 
moved to  Middelburg  in  Zealand,  and  four 
years  later  he  entered  into  a  commercial 
league  for  one  hundred  years  with  Philip  III, 
duke  of  Burgundy,  as  sovereign  of  Flanders. 
In  1426  a  Scottish  embassy  under  Sir  William 
Crichton  renewed  at  Bergen  the  alliance  with 
Denmark,  and  settled  the  long-standing  dis- 
pute as  to  the  payment  claimed  as  still  due 
for  the  Hebrides.  His  relations  with  the 
papal  see  were  not  so  amicable.  James,  as 
a  good  catholic,  sternly  suppressed  heresy, 
restored  the  estates  of  the  see  of  St.  Andrews, 
and  founded  a  Carthusian  monastery  at  Perth. 
But  he  was  also  a  church  reformer  and  a  Scot- 
tish patriot,  who  was  determined  to  tolerate 
neither  the  abuses  nor  the  encroachments  of 
the  church.  One  of  James's  early  acts  was 
to  pass  statutes  forbidding  the  clergy  to  cross 
the  sea  without  leave,  or  to  purchase  benefices 
at  Rome  (the  Scottish  equivalents  of  the  Eng- 
lish statutes  of  praemunire  and  provisors) .  In 
1425  he  issued  a  letter  to  the  abbots  and 
priors  of  the  orders  of  St.  Benedict  and  St. 
Augustine,  exhorting  them  to  reform  their 
convents,  whose  abuses,  he  declared,  threa- 
tened the  ruin  of  religion.  When  he  visited 
David  I's  tomb  at  Dunfermline  he  remarked 
that  David's  piety  made  him  useless  to  the 
commonwealth,whence  came  the  proverb  that 
David  was  a  '  sair  saint  for  the  crown.'  The 
parliament  of  1427  not  only  passed  a  strin- 
gent act  to  reform  procedure  in  the  church 
courts,  but  ordered  the  provincial  council 
then  sitting  to  accept  it  as  one  of  their 

Martin  V,  alarmed  at  these  incursions  of 
the  state  into  the  domain  of  the  church,  sum- 
moned in  1429  Cameron,  archbishop  of  Glas- 
gow, and  chancellor,  to  Rome ;  but  James 
sent  the  Bishop  of  Brechin  and  the  Arch- 
deacon of  Dunkeld  to  remonstrate  with  the 
pope,  and  inform  him  that  the  chancellor's 
absence  would  be  most  prejudicial  to  the 
kingdom.  Eugenius  IV,  the  successor  of 
Martin,  instead  of  yielding,  sent  William 
Croy ser,  archdeacon  of  Teviotdale,  as  a  nuncio, 
to  cite  his  own  bishop  to  Rome.  For  exe- 
cuting the  papal  citation  Croyser  was  tried  by 
an  assize  in  his  absence  (for  he  had  fled  back 
to  Rome),  and  deprived  of  all  his  benefices 
and  property  in  Scotland.  Eugenius  in  1435 
issued  a  bull  restoring  Croyser  to  his  bene- 
fices, and  denouncing  the  censures  of  the 

James  I 


of  Scotland 

church  on  all  who  recognised  the  sentence. 
The  conflict  between  church  and  state  had 
never  been  so  acute  since  Robert  the  Bruce 
refused  to  receive  a  papal  bull. 

The  highlands  again  claimed  the  king's 
attention  in  1429,  for  Alexander  of  the  Isles 
had  raised  the  clans  and  burnt  Inverness. 
James  surprised  him  in  Lochaber  and  put  i 
him  to  flight,  aided  by  the  dissensions  of  the 
clans.    The  Lord  of  the  Isles,  forced  to  seek 
the  royal  clemency,  appeared  before  James  at  i 
Holyrood  on  Palm  Sunday  without  arms,  ex- 
cept a  bare  sword,  which  he  offered  the  king,  | 
who  spared  his  life  on  the  intercession  of  the  | 
queen  and  barons,  but  sent  him  to  Tantallon. 
The  repair  of  the  castles  of  Urquhart  and  In- 
verness, and  acts  for  providing  arms,  men, 
and,  in  the  west  highlands,  ships  for  the  ; 
royal  service,  were  passed  in  the  parliament  | 
of  March  1430,  and  were  calculated  to  main- 
tain peace  in  the  highlands. 

The  same  year  was  marked  by  the  impor- 
tation into  Scotland  of  the  first  great  cannon, 
the  Lion,  from  Flanders.  Artillery  began  from 
this  time  to  be  the  special  care  of  the  Scottish 
kings,  and  gave  them  an  advantage  over  the 
barons.  In  1431  Donald  Balloch,  a  kinsman 
of  the  Lord  of  the  Isles,  having  defeated  the 
Earls  of  Mar  and  Caithness  at  Inverlochy, 
James  had  again  to  take  up  arms  in  person, 
and  Balloch  was  forced  to  fly  to  Ireland.  The 
statement  of  Boece  that  an  Irish  chief  sent  Bal- 
loch's  head  to  the  king  at  Dunstaffnage  is  not 
corroborated.  The  arrest  of  the  Earl  of  Dou- 
glas and  John,  lord  Kennedy,  both  nephews  of 
the  king,  shows  that  his  policy  had  roused  op- 
position beyond  the  highlands;  but  Douglas 
was  released  at  the  parliament  of  October 
1431.  This  parliament  granted  an  aid  to  re- 
press the  northern  rebels,  and  imposed  penal- 
ties on  those  who  had  not  joined  the  king's 
army  in  the  highlands.  In  1432  what  Bower 
calls  the  flying  pestilence  of  lollardism  re- 
appeared in  Scotland,  and  next  year  Paul 
Crawar,  a  missionary  of  the  Hussites,  was 
burnt  at  St.  Andrews.  James  rewarded  the 
diligence  of  Fogo,  the  inquisitor,  with  the 
abbacy  of  Melrose. 

Throughout  his  reign  James  pursued  his 
policy  of  destroying  the  power  of  the  great 
nobles.  One  chapter  of  his  legislation,  by 
which  he  protected  the  tillers  of  the  soil  in 
the  possession  of  their  holdings,  had  the  best 
results,  and  this  innovation  on  the  oppressive 
rules  of  the  feudal  law  became  an  integral 
part  of  the  law  of  Scotland.  But  his  whole- 
sale forfeiture  of  the  nobles'  estates  led  to  his 
own  ruin.  Immediately  after  his  return  to 
Scotland,  the  attainder  of  Albany  and  his 
sons  placed  the  earldoms  of  Fife,  Monteith, 
and  Ross  in  his  hands,  and  that  of  Lennox 

the  earldom  of  that  name,  and  by  1436  he  had 
gained  possession  of  the  earldom  of  March  in 
the  south,  of  Fife  in  the  east,  of  Lennox, 
Strathearn,  and  Monteith  in  the  central  high- 
lands, of  Mar  in  the  north-east,  and  Ross  in 
the  north.  The  only  great  earls  left  were 
Atholl  (his  uncle),  Douglas  (his  nephew), 
Crawford,  and  Moray,  and,  with  the  exception 
of  Atholl,  a  secret  and  fatal  foe,  none  were 
strong  enough  to  be  formidable  to  the  king. 

In  the  last  years  of  his  life  the  relations 
of  James  with  the  pope  became  less,  those 
with  England  more,  strained.  In  1433  he 
sent  eight  representatives  to  the  council  of 
Basle.  In  the  winter  of  1435  ^Eneas  Silvius 
Piccolomini,  afterwards  Pope  Pius  II,was  sent 
to  James  by  the  Cardinal  of  Santa  Croce,  and 
in  the  summer  of  1436  the  Bishop  of  Urbino 
followed,  as  a  nuncio  from  the  pope,  ostensibly 
to  reconcile  the  Scottish  court  with  the  papal 
see,  and  procure  the  repeal  of  the  sentence 
against  Croyser,  the  archdeacon ;  but  both 
envoys  probably  had  instructions  to  procure 
the  adhesion  of  James  to  the  treaty  of  Arras. 
JEne&s  Silvius  was  received  graciously. 
James  granted  his  requests  and  presented 
him  with  two  palfreys  and  a  pearl.  A  fanci- 
ful picture  of  his  reception  was  painted  by 
Pinturicchio  on  the  walls  of  the  library  of 
Siena  for  Cardinal  Piccolomini,  where  it 
may  still  be  seen. 

In  1430  Lord  Scrope  came  from  England 
to  negotiate  a  peace  on  the  basis  of  restoring 
to  Scotland  Berwick  and  Roxburgh,  and 
James  referred  the  matter  to  the  parliament 
of  Perth  in  October  1431.  The  debate  in 
presence  of  James,  which  Bower  reports, 
was  chiefly  conducted  by  the  clergy,  the 
Abbots  of  Scone  and  Inchcolm  contending 
that  peace  could  not  be  made  without  the 
consent  of  France;  while  Fogo,  abbot  of 
Melrose,  took  the  opposite  side.  No  terms 
could  be  agreed  on,  and  the  alliance  with 
France  continued.  In  1436  the  Princess 
Margaret  was  sent  with  a  great  retinue,  under 
|  the  conduct  of  the  Earl  of  Orkney,  to  fulfil 
her  engagement  to  the  dauphin.  On  10  Sept. 
;  1436  William  Douglas,  second  earl  of  Angus, 
defeated  at  Piperden  Robert  Ogle,  who  made 
'  a  raid  on  the  Scottish  borders  in  breach  of 
j  the  truce.  An  attempt  was  also  made  to  kid- 
nap the  king's  daughter  on  her  way  to  France. 
Thereupon  James  summoned  the  whole  forces 
of  his  kingdom  to  the  siege  of  Roxburgh  in 
October  1436,  but  returned  after  an  inglorious 
siege  of  fifteen  days.  There  can  be  little  doubt 
that  the  war  with  England  had  led  to  a  mu- 
tiny of  the  Scottish  barons,  and  that  James 
had  received  information  of  it.  After  a  short 
stay  in  Edinburgh,  where  he  held  his  last 
parliament,  James  went  to  Perth  to  keep 

James  I 


of  Scotland 

Christmas.  As  he  was  about  to  cross  the 
Forth  a  highland  woman  shouted,  '  An  ye 
pass  this  water  ye  shall  never  return  again 
alive.'  He  took  up  his  residence  in  the  cloister 
of  the  Black  Friars  at  Perth.  While  play- 
ing a  game  of  chess  with  a  knight,  nick- 
named the  'King  of  Love,'  James,  referring 
to  a  prophecy  that  a  king  should  die  that 
year,  said  to  his  playmate :  '  There  are  no 
kings  in  Scotland  but  you  and  I:  I  shall 
take  good  care  of  myself,  and  I  counsel  you  to 
do  the  same.'  A  favourite  squire  told  James 
he  had  dreamt  '  Sir  Kobert  Graham  would 
slay  the  king,'  and  he  received  a  rebuke  from 
the  Earl  of  Orkney.  James  himself  had  a 
dream  of  a  cruel  serpent  and  horrible  toad 
attacking  him  in  his  chamber. 

These  stories  were  not  written  down  till 
after  the  event,  but  enough  was  known  of 
Sir  Robert  Graham  to  lead  men  to  dream  or 
to  invent  stories  of  the  coming  danger.  In 
the  parliament  of  1435  Graham,  the  uncle 
and  tutor  of  Malise,  earl  of  Strathearn,  whose 
earldom  the  king  had  seized,  had  taken  hold 
of  James  in  the  presence  of  the  three  estates, 
and  said  that  he  arrested  him  in  their  name 
for  his  cruel  conduct  and  illegal  acts.  Graham 
relied  on  a  promise  that  the  lords  would 
support  him,  but  they  failed  to  keep  it,  and 
himself  being  arrested,  was  banished  to  the 
highlands,  where  he  openly  rebelled  and  a 
price  was  set  on  his  head.  Graham  then 
tried,  but  failed,  to  incite  the  nobles  to  revolt 
at  the  parliament  of  Edinburgh  in  October 
1436,  but  succeeded  in  procuring  a  secret 
promise  of  assistance  from  Atholl,  the  king's 
uncle,  and  Sir  Robert  Stewart,  Atholl's 
grandson,  a  young  man  in  great  favour  with 
the  king,  who  had  made  him  his  chamberlain, 
and  at  Roxburgh  constable  of  the  army.  The 
object  of  Graham  and  his  friends  was  to  place 
the  crown  on  the  head  either  of  Atholl  or  his 
grandson.  On  the  night  of  20  Feb.  1437,  when 
James  and  his  courtiers,  Atholl  and  his  grand- 
son among  the  rest,  were  amusing  themselves 
with  chess  and  music,  reading  romances  and 
hearing  tales  told,  the  highland  woman  who 
had  already  warned  James  again  appeared  in 
the  courtyard  and  asked  an  audience,  but 
the  king  put  her  off  till  the  morning.  About 
midnight  he  drank  the  parting  cup,  and  the 
courtiers  left.  Robert  Stewart,  the  last  to 
leave,  tampered  with  the  bolts,  so  that  the 
doors  could  not  be  made  fast.  While  James 
was  still  talking  with  the  queen  and  her 
ladies  round  the  fire,  the  noise  of  horses 
and  armed  men  was  heard.  James,  suspect- 
ing it  was  Graham,  wrenched  a  plank  from 
the  floor  with  the  tongs,  and  hid  himself 
in  a  small  chamber  below.  Catherine  Dou- 
glas, afterwards  called  '  Bar-lass,'  one  of  the 

queen's  maids,  heroically  barred  the  door  of 
the  house  with  her  arm,  which  was  broken 
by  the  incursion  of  Graham  and  his  followers. 
James's  hiding-place  was  soon  discovered. 
After  two  of  the  band  were  thrown  down  by 
the  king,  Graham  thrust  a  sword  through 
his  body.  Those  who  saw  the  corpse  reported 
that  there  were  no  less  than  sixteen  wounds 
in  the  breast  alone.  The  alarm  spread  to  the 
king's  servants  and  the  town,  and  the  con- 
spirators, who  could  not  have  effected  their 
object  without  the  aid  of  traitors  in  the  king's 
household,  fled.  Before  a  month  had  elapsed 
all  the  leaders  were  caught,  and  within  forty 
days  tortured  and  executed  with  a  barbarity 
which  was  deemed  unusual  even  in  that  age. 
The  king  was  buried  in  the  convent  of  the 
Carthusians,  where  his  pierced  doublet  was 
long  kept  as  a  relic.  His  heart  was  sent  to 
the  Holy  Land  and  brought  back  in  1443 
from  Rhodes  by  a  knight  of  St.  John,  and 
presented  to  the  Carthusians.  The  highly 
coloured  and  circumstantial  narrative  of  his 
death  translated  from  Latin  into  English  by 
John  Shirley  about  1440  is  nearly  contem- 
porary, and  has  been  accepted  by  historians. 
Yet  it  omits  the  heroic  act  of  Catherine 

Affectionate  and  somewhat  melancholy  in 
his  youth,  James  was  as  a  king  decided,  stern, 
severe,  even  cruel  to  enemies  and  breakers  of 
the  law,  yet  amiable  and  playful  with  friends, 
and,  though  regardless  of  the  interests,  even 
the  rights,  of  the  great  lords,  was  zealous  for 
those  of  the  people.  The  story  that  he  shod 
with  horseshoes  the  chief  who  had  done  the 
same  to  a  poor  woman,  is  consistent  with  the 
retributive  justice  of  his  time  and  his  own  cha- 
racter. His  attempts  to  reform  the  Scottish 
on,  or  even  in  advance  of,  the  model  of  the 
English  constitution  of  the  fifteenth  century 
led  to  his  ruin;  but  he  left  a  monarchy  with 
a  stronger  hold  on  the  loyalty  of  the  nation, 
and  a  nation  freer  from  feudal  tyranny. 
Though  James  only  lived  to  see  the  marriage 
of  his  eldest  daughter,  that  union  led  to  the 
marriage  of  her  sisters  with  foreign  princes, 
and  forged  new  links  in  the  connection  be- 
tween Scotland  and  Europe.  It  was  said  of 
him  by  Drummond  that,  while  the  nation 
made  his  predecessors  kings,  he  made  Scotland 
a  nation.  His  children  were :  Margaret  [q.v.], 
afterwards  wife  of  Louis  the  Dauphin,  subse- 
quently Louis  XI ;  Elizabeth,  or  Isabel,  be- 
trothed in  1441  to  Francis,  count  of  Montfort, 
whom  she  married  in  1442,  when  he  had  be- 
come by  his  father's  death  Duke  of  Bretagne ; 
Alexander  and  James,  twins,  born  16  Oct. 
1430,  of  whom  the  former  died  young  and 
the  latter  succeeded  his  father  as  James  II ; 
Joan  or  Janet,  who,  although  dumb,  married 

James  I  of  Scotland      136    James  II  of  Scotland 

James  Douglas,  lord  Dalkeith ;  Eleanor,  mar- 
ried in  1449  Archduke  Sigismund  of  Austria ; 
Mary,  who,  while  still  a  child,  was  married 
in  1444  to  Wolfram  von  Borselen,  lord  of 
Camp-Vere  in  Zealand,  and,  in  right  of  his 
wife,  earl  of  Buchan  in  Scotland ;  and  Anna- 
bella,  betrothed  in  1444  to  Philip,  count  of 
Geneva,  second  son  of  Amadeus,  duke  of 
Savoy,  the  anti-pope  Felix  of  the  council 
of  Basle,  but  who  married  George  Gordon, 
second  earl  of  Huntly  [q.  v.]  His  love  for  his 
wife  never  wavered.  Almost  alone  of  Scottish 
kings,  he  had  no  mistress  and  no  bastards. 

In  person  James  was  short  and  stout, 
broad-shouldered,  narrow- waisted,  but  well- 
proportioned  and  agile.  '  Quadratus,'  or 
square-built,  is  the  term  which  ^Eneas  Sil-  I 
vius  used  and  Scottish  historians  accept  as 
appropriate,  though  Major  explains  that  he 
might  have  been  fat  for  an  Italian  but  not 
for  a  Scotsman.  A  portrait  in  the  castle  of 
Kielberg,  near  Tubingen,  is  wrongly  said,  by 
Pinkerton,  in  whose  'Iconographia'  it  is  en- 
graved, to  represent  James  I.  It  is  a  picture 
of  James  II.  From  an  engraving  of  James  I 
in  John  Johnstone's  'Icones  '  later  portraits 
have  been  taken.  In  this  he  appears  as  a 
man  prematurely  old,  with  grey  hair,  sunken 
cheek,  and  a  double-pointed  beard.  His  hair 
is  said  by  Drummond  of  Hawthornden  to  have 
been  auburn.  His  stoutness  did  not  interfere 
with  his  activity,  for  he  excelled  in  all  games, 
the  use  of  the  bow,  throwing  the  hammer, 
and  wrestling.  Nor  was  he  less  skilled  in 
music,  playing  all  the  instruments  then  com- 
mon, and  having  a  good  voice. 

Theimaginationwhichinspiredthe '  Kingis 
Quair '  did  not  desert  him  on  his  return  home, 
and  he  composed  verses  both  in  Latin  and 
the  vernacular,  though  the  subjects  of  his 
poems,  alluded  to  by  Major  under  the  names 
'  Yas  Sen '  and  '  At  Beltane,'  have  not  been 
identified.  The  manuscript  of  the '  Quair '  was 
discovered  by  Lord  Woodhouselee  in  the 
Bodleian  Library  in  Oxford  in  1783,  and 
published  by  him  in  the  same  year.  The 
best  edition  is  that  edited  by  Professor  Skeat 
for  the  Scottish  Text  Society.  The  ascription 
of  '  Christ-is  Kirk  on  the  Green,' '  Peebles  to 
the  Play,'  and  the '  Ballade  of  Guid  Counsale ' 
to  his  authorship  has  not  been  established, 
though  the  last  is  accepted  as  his  by  Professor 
Skeat,  on  the  authority  of  the  colophon  in 
\  The  Gud  and  Godly  Ballads,'  1578,  and  the 
internal  evidence  of  the  earliest  manuscript 
of  the  close  of  the  fifteenth  century.  His 
love  of  learning  was  shown  by  his  favour  for 
St.  Andrews.  He  was  its  nominal  founder 
during  his  exile,  and  after  his  return  sought 
out  its  best  students  foroffices  in  church  and 
state,  attended  their  disputations,  and  con- 

firmed their  privileges.  He  was  no  pedant, 
and  encouraged  the  introduction  of  foreign 
musicians  and  actors,  as  well  as  of  artisans, 
from  Flanders  to  teach  his  subjects.  While 
he  repressed,  on  political  grounds,  the  trade 
with  England,  he  fostered  that  with  France, 
the  Low  Countries,  and  Scandinavia. 

[Bower  is  the  contemporary  authority  for  the 
whole  life,  Wyntoun  for  the  few  years  prior  to 
his  capture.  The  Acts  of  Parliament  are  of  more 
than  usual  importance,  and  the  Exchequer  Rolls 
and  Great  Seal  Registers  are  useful  supplemen- 
tary records.  For  his  life  in  England  the  various 
English  records  collected  by  Mr.  Bain  in  vol. 
iii.  of  the  Documents  relating  to  Scotland,  pub- 
lished in  the  Scottish  Record  Series.  Pinkerton's 
History  and  Mr.  Burnett's  Preface  to  the  Ex- 
chequer Rolls  are  the  best  modern  histories ; 
the  latter  correct,  and  indeed  supersede,  Tytler 
and  Burton.  The  King's  Tragedy,  by  D.  G.  Ros- 
setti,  is  a  modern  poetic  version  of  the  prose 
narrative  of  the  death  of  James  by  Shirley, 
printed  by  the  Maitland  Club  and  as  an  appendix 
to  Pinkerton.  Gait's  Spaewife  is  a  novel  founded 
on  the  same  story.]  JE.  M. 

JAMES  II  (1430-1460),  king  of  Scotland, 
son  of  James  I  [q.  v.]  and  Jane  [q.  v.],  was 
born  on  16  Oct.  1430,  and  succeeded  to  the 
throne  of  Scotland  on  his  father's  murder  on 
21  Feb.  1437.  He  was  crowned  at  Holyrood,. 
in  the  parliament  of  Edinburgh,  on  25  March 
1437.  An  act  of  this  parliament  revoked 
alienations  of  crown  property  since  the  death 
of  the  late  king,and  prohibited  them,  without 
the  consent  of  the  estates,  till  the  king's  ma- 
jority. The  queen  retained  the  custody  of 
James  and  his  sisters.  Archibald,  fifth  earl 
of  Douglas  [q.  v.],  was  regent  or  lieutenant 
of  the  kingdom ;  John  Cameron,  bishop  of 
Glasgow,  appears  to  have  continued  chan- 
cellor. The  chief  power  was  in  the  hands  of 
two  of  the  lesser  barons,  Sir  William  Crich- 
ton  [q.  v.]  and  Sir  Alexander  Livingstone 
[q.  v/]  The  queen,  afraid  of  the  growing  posi- 
tion of  the  former,  removed  the  king  to> 
Stirling  in  the  beginning  of  1439,  concealing 
him,  it  is  said,  in  a  chest  when  she  left  Edin- 
burgh Castle  ostensibly  for  a  pilgrimage  to 
White  Kirk.  She  placed  herself  and  her  son 
under  the  protection  of  Livingstone,  and  a 
general  council  at  Stirling,  on  13  March  1439-, 
passed  measures  to  strengthen  the  hands  of 
Douglas,  as  lieutenant  of  the  king,  against 
Crichton.  But  Livingstone  made  terms 
with  his  rival  under  conditions  which  led  to 
Crichton  superseding  Cameron  as  chancellor, 
while  Livingstone  retained  Stirling  and  the 
custody  of  the  king. 

The  death  in  1439  of  the  Earl  of  Douglas, 
and  the  queen's  marriage  to  James  Stewart,  the 
knight  of  Lome,  in  the  same  year,  afforded 

James  II 


of  Scotland 

an  opportunity  and  a  pretext  to  Livingstone 
to  seize  the  persons  of  the  queen  and  her  new 
husband,  who  were  placed  in  strict  ward  in 
Stirling  Castle  on  3  Aug.  They  were  released 
on  4  Sept.  only  by  making  a  formal  agree- 
ment to  resign  the  custody  of  James  to  the 
Livingstones,  by  giving  up  her  dowry  for 
his  maintenance,  and  confessing  that  Living- 
stone had  acted  through  zeal  for  the  king's 
safety.  The  barons  soon  fell  out.  Crichton 
kidnapped  the  king  in  Stirling  Park,  and 
brought  him  back  to  Edinburgh  Castle.  His 
next  act  was  to  kidnap  and  execute  William, 
sixth  earl  of  Douglas  [q.  v.]  Four  days  after, 
Fleming,  the  old  baron  of  Cumbernauld, 
brother-in-law  of  Murdoch,  the  regent  in  the 
reign  of  James  I,  an  ally  of  the  house  of 
Douglas,  was  executed.  The  great  rivals  to 
the  Stewarts,  the  Douglases,  whose  estates 
were  partly  forfeited  to  the  crown,  partly 
divided  between  the  male  and  female  heirs, 
were  rendered  for  a  time  powerless.  But  in 
1443  William  Douglas  (1425  P-1452)  [q.  y.] 
became  eighth  earl,  and  soon  after  the  chief 
companion  of  the  king.  On  20  Aug.  1443 
Douglas,  in  the  king's  name,  besieged  and 
razed  to  the  ground  Barnton,  near  Edin- 
burgh, the  seat  of  Sir  George  Crichton,  the 
admiral,  brother  of  the  chancellor.  A  coun- 
cil-general at  Stirling  on  4  Nov.,  at  which 
James  for  the  first  time  presided  in  person, 
outlawed  both  Sir  William,  the  chancellor, 
and  Sir  George,  and  deprived  them  of  their 
offices.  Douglas  was  allowed,  by  marrying 
his  cousin,  the  Fair  Maid  of  Galloway,  to 
reunite  the  female  to  the  male  fiefs  of  his 
house.  Three  years  of  civil  war  followed,  in 
which  the  rivals  harried  each  other's  lands. 
The  king,  or  Douglas  in  his  name,  held,  with 
the  aid  of  Livingstone,  Linlithgow  and  Stir- 
ling, where  James  continued  to  live,  while 
Crichton  maintained  himself  in  the  castle  of 
Edinburgh.  The  marriage  of  the  king's  sister 
Mary  to  the  Lord  of  Camp-Vere,  the  be- 
trothal at  Stirling  of  his  sister  Annabella 
to  Philip,  a  son  of  the  Duke  of  Savoy, 
and  the  death  of  his  mother  at  D  unbar  on 
15  July  1445,  appear  to  have  had  no  imme- 
diate influence  on  his  life.  His  two  other 
sisters  were  sent  about  the  same  time  to 
the  court  of  France,  where  they  arrived 
shortly  after  the  death  of  their  eldest  sister, 
Margaret  [q.  v.],  the  wife  of  the  dauphin.  On 
14  June  a  parliament  met  at  Perth,  but  ad- 
journed apparently  to  the  town  tolbooth  at 
H^lyrood  while  Douglas  besieged  Edinburgh 
Castle  for  nine  weeks.  Crichton  capitulated 
on  good  terms,  his  offences  being  condoned ; 
and  then,  or  shortly  after,  on  the  death  of 
Bruce,  bishop  of  Glasgow,  in  1447,  he  again 
became  chancellor.  A  sentence  of  forfeiture 

pronounced  in  the  castle  of  Edinburgh  agaii 
James,  earl  of  Angus,  on  1  July  1445  pro\ 


that  the  king  must  have  been  by  that  date  in 
possession  of  the  castle.  Before  Christmas 
he  had  retired  to  Stirling,  where  he  kept  the 
festival.  During  1446  and  1447  the  compro- 
mise between  the  factions  of  Crichton,  Living- 
stone, and  Douglas  continued,  and  the  chief 
offices  of  state  remained  in  their  hands,  or 
in  those  of  members  of  their  families. 

In  1447  Mary  of  Gueldres  was  recom- 
mended by  Philip  the  Good  as  a  suitable, 
bride  for  James.  The  negotiations  began  in 
July  1447,  when  a  Burgundian  envoy  came 
to  Scotland,  and  were  concluded  by  an  em- 
bassy under  Crichton  the  chancellor  in  Sep- 
tember 1448.  Philip  settled  sixty  thousand 
crowns  on  his  kinswoman,  and  her  dower  of 
ten  thousand  was  secured  on  lands  in  Strath- 
earn,  Athole,  Methven,  and  Linlithgow.  A 
tournament  took  place  before  James  at  Stir- 
ling, on  25  Feb.  1449,  between  James,  mas- 
ter of  Douglas,  another  James,  brother  to 
the  Laird  of  Lochleven,  and  two  knights  of 
Burgundy,  one  of  whom,  Jacques  de  Lalain,. 
was  the  most  celebrated  knight-errant  of  the 
time.  The  marriage  was  celebrated  at  Holy- 
rood  on  3  July  1449.  A  French  chronicler, 
Mathieu  d'Escouchy,  gives  a  graphic  account 
of  the  ceremony  and  the  feasts  which  fol- 
lowed. Many  Flemings  in  Mary's  suite  re- 
mained in  Scotland,  and  the  relations  between. 
Scotland  and  Flanders,  already  friendly  under 
James  I,  consequently  became  closer. 

In  Scotland  the  king's  marriage  led  to  his 
emancipation  from  tutelage,  and  to  the  down- 
fall of  the  Livingstones.  In  the  autumn  Sir 
Alexander  and  other  members  of  the  family 
were  arrested.  At  a  parliament  in  Edin- 
burgh on  19  Jan.  1450,  Alexander  Living- 
stone, a  son  of  Sir  Alexander,  and  Robert 
Livingstone  of  Linlithgow  were  tried  and 
executed  on  the  Castle  Hill.  Sir  Alexan- 
der and  his  kinsmen  were  confined  in  dif- 
ferent and  distant  castles.  A  single  member 
of  the  family  escaped  the  general  proscription 
— James,  the  eldest  son  of  Sir  Alexander,  who, 
after  arrest  and  escape  to  the  highlands,  wa3 
restored  in  1454  to  the  office  of  chamber- 
lain to  which  he  had  been  appointed  in  the 
summer  of  1449.  The  parliament  sat  from 
19  Jan.  1450  to  the  end  of  the  month.  Its 
acts  show  that  the  influence  of  the  Douglas 
party,  with  whom  Crichton  the  chancellor 
was  now  reconciled,  was  dominant ;  but  also 
that  the  estate  of  the  church,  headed  by 
Kennedy,  bishop  of  St.  Andrews,  the  king's 
cousin,  and  Turnbull,  the  new  bishop  of  Glas- 
gow, was  rising  into  power,  and  that  the  king 
himself  could  no  longer  be  treated  as  a  cipher. 
Several  statutes  of  his  father's  reign  were  rer 

James  II 


of  Scotland 

enacted,  and  eighteen  added,  the  most  impor- 
tant of  which  provided  for  the  proclamation  of 
a  general  peace  throughout  the  realm ;  the 
penalties  of  rebellion  and  treason,  and  of  tres- 
pass by  officers  in  the  execution  of  their  offices ; 
the  endurance  of  leases,  notwithstanding  sale 
or  mortgage  of  the  lands,  and  against  spolia- 
tion or  harrying  of  crops  and  cattle — enact- 
ments much  needed  in  favour  of  the  poor 
labourers  of  the  ground ;  against  sorners  and 
masterful  beggars ;  against  the  building  of 
towers  and  fortalices:  for  the  administra- 
tion of  civil  and  criminal  justice,  the  revi- 
sion of  the  laws,  and  the  preservation  of  the 
purity  of  the  coinage.  Before  the  parlia- 
ment rose  a  special  charter  was  granted,  at 
the  request  of  the  queen  and  the  bishops, 
giving  the  latter  the  right  of  disposing  of 
their  goods  by  testament.  A  series  of  char- 
ters of  lands  in  favour  of  the  Earl  of  Dou- 
glas were  confirmed.  Crichton  the  chancellor 
and  his  brother  the  admiral  also  received 
considerable  grants  of  land. 

This  legislation  proves  that  James  was  pre- 
pared to  govern  in  his  father's  spirit,  as  a 
ling  of  the  nation  against  breakers  of  the 
law,  however  powerful.  In  November  he 
had  some  quarrel  with  the  Earl  of  Douglas. 
During  Douglas's  absence  in  Rome  James 
seized  and  demolished  Douglas  Craig,  one  of 
his  castles,  besieged  others,  and  forced  his 
vassals  to  swear  fealty  to  the  crown.  Douglas, 
on  his  return  in  1451,  made  peace  with 
James,  and  at  the  parliament  of  Edinburgh 
on  25  June  obtained  a  re-grant  of  his  estates. 
In  spite  of  these  favours,  he  intrigued  with 
the  English  court,  and  in  the  autumn  the  ex- 
istence of  a  bond  between  Douglas  and  the 
Earls  of  Crawford  and  of  Ross  against  all 
men,  not  excluding  the  king,  was  discovered. 
The  lawless  acts  of  Douglas  forced  James  to 
take  decisive  measures  against  his  too  power- 
ful vassal.  Douglas  was  induced,  by  a  safe- 
conduct  under  the  privy  seal,  to  visit  the 
king  at  Stirling  on  21  Feb.  1452.  James  re- 
ceived him  well,  entertaining  him  at  dinner 
and  supper  on  the  following  day,  Shrove 
Thursday.  But  after  supper,  at  seven  o'clock, 
James  led  him  to  an  inner  chamber,  chal- 
lenged him  with  the  existence  of  the  bond 
•with  the  earls,  charged  him  to  break  it,  and 
on  Douglas's  refusal  stabbed  him  with  a  knife. 
On  17  March  James,  the  brother  and  heir  of 
the  murdered  earl,  with  a  band,  rode  through 
Stirling  and  denounced  the  murderer.  James 
•was  then  at  Perth,  on  his  way  against  the 
Earl  of  Crawford.  Before  they  met,  Craw- 
ford had  been  defeated  at  Brechin  Muir  by 
the  Earl  of  Huntly  on  17  May.  'Far  more 
were  with  the  Earl  of  Huntly  than  with 
the  Earl  of  Crawford,  because  he  displayed 

the  king's  banner ' — a  significant  proof  that 
James,  like  his  father,  was  more  popular  than 
the  great  earls.  On  12  June  1452,  in  a  par- 
liament at  Edinburgh,  James  denied  having 
given  a  safe-conduct  to  Douglas.  The  estates 
absolved  the  king  of  breach  of  faith,  and  de- 
clared Douglas  had  been  justly  put  to  death. 
The  earl's  brothers,  however,  posted  a  letter  of 
defiance  on  the  door  of  the  parliament  hall. 
The  Bishop  of  St.  Andrews,  Crichton,  and 
other  barons  who  joined  in  the  declaration 
received  grants  of  land,  and  several  of  them 
were  raised  to  the  dignity  of  peers.  It  is 
noted  by  the  chronicler  that  some  of  the 
grants  of  land  were  made  by  the  king's  privy 
council,  and  not  by  parliament.  The  Earl 
of  Crawford,  who  had  joined  the  bond  with 
Douglas,  was  attainted  in  the  same  session. 
Immediately  afterwards  the  king,  having  as- 
sembled his  feudal  levy  on  Pentland  Muir 
to  the  number  of  thirty  thousand,  marched 
south,  and  wasted  the  Douglas  lands  in 
Peebles,  Selkirk,  and  Dumfries.  The  raid, 
however,  led  to  the  submission  of  James,  the 
new  earl  of  Douglas  [see  DOUGLAS,  JAMES, 
1426-1488].  In  the  spring  of  1453  James 
led  his  forces  north  of  the  Tay,  and  received 
an  equally  speedy  submission  from  the  Earl  of 
Crawford,  who  died  soon  after.  As  James  had 
already  made  terms  with  Ross,  the  formidable 
confederacy  of  the  three  earls  was  dissolved, 
and  the  crown  was  strengthened  by  the  new 
nobility  against  any  attempt  to  revive  it. 
The  deaths  in  1454  of  Crichton  the  chancel- 
lor, of  his  son  (lately  created  earl  of  Moray), 
and  of  his  brother  forced  James  to  rely  still 
more  upon  himself,  and  upon  Bishop  Ken- 
nedy as  his  principal  adviser.  But  the  Earl 
of  Douglas  was  still  intriguing  with  the  Eng- 
lish. In  the  beginning  of  March  1455  James 
resolved  anew  to  crush  the  Douglases.  After 
demolishing  their  castle  of  Inveravon,  James 
passed  to  Lanark,  where  he  defeated  Dou- 
glas. He  then  wasted  with  fire  and  sword 
Douglasdale,  Avondale,  and  the  lands  ot 
Lord  Hamilton  in  Lanark,  and  returned  to 
Edinburgh.  From  Edinburgh  he  went  south 
to  the  forest  of  Ettrick  with  a  host  of  low- 
landers,  destroying  the  castles  of  all  who 
would  not  take  the  oath  of  fealty.  Coming 
back  to  Edinburgh,  he  laid  siege  to  the 
castle  of  Abercorn,  on  the  Forth,  in  the  first 
week  of  April,  when  Lord  Hamilton,  act- 
ing on  the  advice  of  his  uncle,  Sir  James 
Livingstone,  came  and  made  his  submission, 
in  return  for  which  he  was  appointed  sheriff 
of  Lanark.  Before  the  end  of  the  month 
Abercorn  was  taken  by  escalade.  Meantime 
men  '  wist  not  wheare  the  Douglas  was.'  On 
1  May  his  three  brothers,  the  Earls  of  Or- 
monde and  Moray  and  Lord  Balvenie,  were 

James  II 


of  Scotland 

signally  defeated  at  Arkinholm,  now  Lang- 
holm,  on  the  Esk,  by  the  king's  lowland 
forces.  The  head  of  Moray  was  brought  to 
James  at  Abercorn ;  Ormonde  was  captured 
and  executed.  Douglas  Castle  and  other 
strongholds  surrendered,  and  Threave,  the 
chief  seat  of  the  earl,  in  Galloway,  alone  re- 
mained untaken.  Against  it  James  directed 
the  whole  strength  of  his  artillery,  including 
the  great  bombard,  perhaps  Mons  Meg,  which 
he  had  imported  from  Flanders.  The  Earl  of 
Orkney  at  first  commanded  the  siege,  but 
James  went  in  person  before  the  surrender 
of  the  castle. 

Parliament  met  at  Edinburgh  on  9  June 
1456,  and  Douglas,  his  mother  the  Countess 
Beatrice,  and  his  three  brothers  were  at- 
tainted, and  their  whole  estates  forfeited. 
The  sentences  show  that  the  rebellion  ex- 
tended from  Threave  in  Galloway  to  Darn- 
away  in  Elgin,  and  included  the  fortification 
of  castles  in  nearly  every  county.  The  fol- 
lowing parliament  of  4  Aug.  passed  an  act 
of  attainder,  which,  besides  uniting  to  the 
crown  the  earldoms  of  Fife  and  Strathearn, 
forfeited  in  his  father's  reign,  renewed  the 
grant  of  the  whole  customs ;  declared  the 
king's  right  to  the  royal  castles  of  Edin- 
burgh, Stirling,  Dumbarton,  Inverness,  and 
Urquhart,  and  annexed  the  forfeited  Douglas 
lordship  of  Galloway  and  castle  of  Threave, 
and  the  lordship  of  Brechin,  which  the  Earl 
of  Crawford  had  held,  as  well  as  a  number 
of  highland  baronies,  several  of  them  in  Ross. 
By  these  great  accessions  of  territory  James 
became  more  powerful  than  any  former  king, 
and  for  the  short  remainder  of  his  reign  was, 
in  fact,  almost  an  absolute  monarch  in  Scot- 
land. Parliament  was  summoned  to  Stirling 
on  13  Oct.,  for  the  third  time  in  1455,  a 
proof  how  greatly  the  king  relied  on  its 
support.  The  parliament  of  Stirling  was 
almost  exclusively  occupied  with  measures 
to  secure  the  kingdom  against  the  English, 
with  whom  war  had  already  broken  out 
in  the  course  of  the  summer,  as  a  sequel 
of  the  suppression  of  the  Douglas  rebellion. 
In  November  an  embassy  under  the  Bishop 
of  Galloway  was  sent  to  France  pressing  for 
immediate  assistance,  and  suggesting  that 
the  French  should  attack  Calais,  and  the 
Scots  Berwick,  simultaneously.  Henry  VI, 
or  those  who  governed  in  his  name,  addressed, 
on  26  July  1455,  a  threatening  letter  to 
James, '  asserting  himself  to  be  king  of  Scots,' 
and  announcing  the  intention  of  the  English 
king  to  chastise  him  for  his  rebellion.  The 
falsehoods  as  to  Scottish  homage  collected  by 
Edward  I  were  about  this  time  resuscitated, 
and  added  to  by  the  forgeries  of  John  Hardyng 
[q.  v.]  and  Palgrave's '  Documents  illustrating 

the  History  of  Scotland,'  pp.  cxcvi-ccxxiv. 
James  answered  these  threats  by  a  raid  in 
the  autumn  of  1456,  advancing  as  far  as  the 
Cale  or  Calne,  a  tributary  of  the  Teviot.  In- 
terrupted by  what  Boece  calls  the  fraudu- 
lent promise  of  the  English  ambassadors, 
who  appear  to  have  represented  themselves 
as  having  authority  from  the  pope  to  prohibit 
wars  between  Christian  powers,  James  re- 
treated, but  returned  within  twenty  days,  and 
ravaged  Northumberland  with  fire  and  sword, 
destroying,  according  to  the  '  Auchinleck 
Chronicle,'  seventeen  towers  and  fortalices, 
and  remainingin  England  six  days  and  nights. 
Between  26  Sept.  and  1  Oct.  he  was  hunting 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  Loch  Freuchie,  north 
of  Glenalmond.  On  19  Oct.  he  was  back  again 
in  Edinburgh,  where  the  parliament  made 
further  provision  for  the  defence  of  the  realm. 
Regulations  were  also  laid  down  as  to  the 
pestilence  in  burghs  and  the  administration 
of  justice  in  certain  places  by  a  committee  of 
the  three  estates.  It  is  noticeable  that  the 
two  last  acts  seem  to  have  passed,  at  the 
king's  instance,  with  the  special  consent  of 
the  clergy.  The  burghs  probably  at  the  same 
time  imposed  on  themselves  a  large  tax,  to 
be  paid  in  Flemish  money,  and  raised  it  by  a 
Flemish  loan.  These  measures  for  self-de- 
fence were  the  more  necessary  as  the  French 
king,  Charles  VII,  though  making  professions 
of  attachment  to  James,  had  pleaded  the  more 
urgent  necessities  of  his  own  kingdom,  and 
declined  to  aid  in  the  English  war. 

On  6  July  1457  a  truce  was  concluded 
between  James  and  Henry  VI,  to  last  till 
6  July  1459  by  land,  and  28  July  by  sea. 
It  was  important  for  James  to  have  time  to 
reduce  the  northern  parts  of  his  kingdom  to 
order,  and  for  Henry  that  Scotland  should 
preserve  at  least  an  armed  neutrality  in  view 
of  the  probable  renewal  of  Yorkist  intrigues. 
There  are  no  charters  under  the  great  seal 
between  25  July  1457  and  30  April  1458, 
i  which  may  perhaps  correspond  to  the  period 
James  spent  in  the  highlands.  While  there 
he  was  busily  occupied  with  building  castles ; 
he  repaired  that  of  Inverness,  completed  the 
great  hall  of  Darnaway  which  Archibald  Dou- 
glas, the  earl  of  Moray,  had  begun,  and  placed 
that  castle  under  the  charge  of  the  sheriff  of 
Elgin.  About  the  same  time  he  gave  a  life- 
rent  right  of  Glenmoriston  and  Urquhart, 
with  the  custody  of  its  castle,  to  the  young 
Earl  of  Ross.  Ross's  half-brother,  Celestine, 
was  made  keeper  of  the  castle  of  Redcastle, 
and  his  ally,  Malcolm  Mackintosh,  chief  of 
the  clan  Chattan,  was  gratified  with  gifts  of 
land  and  the  commutation  of  a  fine.  These 
favours  were  granted  through  the  influence 
of  Lord  Livingstone,  Ross's  father-in-law, 

James  II 


of  Scotland 

now  chamberlain,  who,  on  the  king's  coming 
south  to  Linlithgow, .  received  an  extensive 
charter  of  lands  in  three  counties,  and  his 
hereditary  castle  of  Callendar. 

In  the  spring  of  1458  the  marriages  of 
James's  sisters,  Annabella  and  Joanna,  the 
former  to  George  Gordon,  heir  of  the  Earl 
of  Huntly,  and  the  latter,  though  dumb, 
to  James  Douglas,  third  lord  Dalkeith,  who 
was  created  earl  of  Morton,  still  further 
strengthened  the  crown. 

The  most  important  parliament  of  his 
reign  was  held  in  Edinburgh  on  6  March 
1458.  It  formally  instituted  a  supreme  and 
central  court  for  civil  justice,  although  it 
was  still  to  meet  at  three  places,  Edin- 
burgh, Perth,  and  Aberdeen,  and  provided 
that  the  judges,  representatives  of  the  three 
estates,  were  to  pay  their  own  expenses, 
apart  from  what  could  be  recovered  as 
fines.  Annual  circuits  of  the  justiciary 
court  were  also  to  be  held,  for  the  good  of 
the  commons,  and  abuses  of  their  extensive 
jurisdiction  by  the  lords  of  regality  to  be 
put  down.  The  chamberlain  ayres,  which 
sat  in  the  burghs,  were  to  be  reformed,  be- 
cause '  the  estates,  and  specially  the  poor 
commons,'  had  been  sorely  grieved  by  their 
procedure,  and  the  extortion  of  fines  by  the 
royal  constables  or  their  deputies  suppressed. 
Other  statutes  showed  an  anxious  desire  on 
the  part  of  James  to  remedy  abuses  and  to 
protect  the  poorer  classes  against  the  great 
lords  and  his  own  officers.  Another  chapter 
of  legislation  related  to  the  tenure  of  land, 
and  although  it  did  not  first  introduce  the 
tenure  called  '  feu  farm,'  gave  legal  security 
to  the  farmers  who  took  feus  against  the 
casualty  of  ward,  and  greatly  encouraged  that 
useful  modification  of  feudal  holding.  Its 
short  preamble,  that  it  was  expedient  that 
the  king  should  set  an  example  to  other  land- 
owners, was  carried  out  in  practice,  for  we 
find  many  charters  of  feu  granted  by  James, 
especially  in  Fife.  There  were  also  statutes 
for  the  reform  of  coinage,  of  weights  and 
measures,  of  gold  and  silver  work,  and  to  pre- 
vent adulteration  by  goldsmiths.  A  com- 
mission was  instituted  for  the  reformation  of 
hospitals.  The  smaller  freeholders,  under  207. 
rent,  were  relieved  from  attendance  at  par- 
liament, which  was  deemed  a  burden,  not  a 
privilege.  Better  provision  was  made  for  the 
promulgation  of  the  statutes  by  the  sheriffs 
and  commissioners  of  burghs.  It  is  clear  from 
the  tenor  of  the  acts  of  this  parliament  that 
James  II  is  entitled,  as  much  as  his  father,  to 
the  character  of  a  reformer.  In  February 
1459  a  further  prolongation  was  concluded 
of  the  truce  with  England,  for  seven  years,  to 
6  July  1468  by  land,  and  to  28  July  by  sea. 

Towards  the  end  both  of  1458  and  1459  par- 
liaments were  held  at  Perth,  but  nearly  all 
the  acts  of  these  last  two  parliaments  of  the 
i  reign  appear  to  have  been  destroyed  or  lost, 
No  records  of  either  kingdom  are  extant  to 
I  support  the  probable  statement  of  Boece  that 
[  Douglas  and  Northumberland  made,  in  1459, 
an  unsuccessful  raid  on  the  Scottish  border; 
or  that  of  Bishop  Leslie,  that  Henry  VI  sent 
ambassadors  to  treat  with  James,  and  offered 
to  restore  to  Scotland  the  counties  of  North- 
umberland, Cumberland,  and  Durham,  as 
the  price  of  his  help  against  the  Duke  of 
York.  It  is  certain  that  James  threw  his 
whole  influence  on  the  Lancastrian,  and 
Douglas  on  the  Yorkist,  side.  His  maternal 
uncle,  the  Duke  of  Somerset,  was  killed  fight- 
ing for  Henry  at  the  battle  of  St.  Albans, 
and  after  the  defeat  and  capture  of  Henry 
himself  at  Northampton  in  July  1460,  his 
wife  and  son  fled  to  Scotland.  A  renewal 
of  the  war  with  England  followed.  James 
brought  his  whole  lowland  forces  to  besiege 
Roxburgh,  and  the  artillery  which  had  been 
specially  prepared  for  use  against  the  Eng- 
lish castles.  Reinforced  by  the  highlanders 
under  the  Earl  of  Ross  and  the  Lord  of  the 
Isles,  he  reduced  the  town  and  was  on  the 
eve  of  taking  the  castle,  when  on  Sunday, 
3  Aug.  1460,  while  he  was  watching  the 
discharge  of  a  bombard,  a  wedge  flew  out, 
killed  him  on  the  spot,  and  wounded  the 
Earl  of  Angus,  who  stood  near.  His  wife 
courageously  prosecuted  the  siege,  and  the 
castle  was  soon  after  taken.  The  young 
prince  was  brought  to  Kelso,  and  crowned 
in  its  abbey,  while  the  corpse  of  James  was 
carried  to  Holyrood,  and  was  buried  there. 
He  was  only  thirty  years  of  age  at  his  death. 
He  left  three  sons  (James  III,  Alexander 
Stewart,  duke  of  Albany  (d.  1485)  [q.  v.], 
and  John  Stewart,  earl  of  Mar  (d.  1479) 
[q.  v.])  and  two  daughters,  one  of  whom  was 
afterwards  married  to  Thomas,  master  of 
Boyd,  created  earl  of  Arran,  and  after  his 
forfeiture  to  Lord  Hamilton,  who  succeeded 
to  the  Arran  earldom. 

James  was  a  vigorous,  politic,  and  singu- 
larly successful  king.  He  was  popular  with 
the  commons,  with  whom,  like  most  of  the 
Stewarts,  he  mingled  freely, both  in  peace  and 
war.  His  legislation  has  a  markedly  popular 
character.  He  does  not  appear  to  have  in- 
herited his  father's  taste  for  literature,  which 
descended  to  at  least  two  of  his  sisters;  but 
the  foundation  of  the  university  of  Glasgow 
in  his  reign,  by  Bishop  Turnbull,  perhaps 
shows  that  he  encouraged  learning;  and  there 
are  also  traces  of  endowments  by  him  to  St. 
Salvator's,  the  new  college  of  Archbishop  Ken- 
nedy at  St.  Andrews.  He  possessed  in  a  high 

James  III 


of  Scotland 

degree  his  father's  restless  energy.  A  blemish, 
a  red  mark  on  one  side  of  his  face,  gained  him 
the  name  of  the  '  Fiery  Face,'  and  appears  to 
have  been  deemed  by  contemporaries  an  out- 
ward sign  of  a  fiery  temper.  The  manner  of 
the  death  of  Douglas  leaves  a  stain  on  his 
memory ;  but  it  was  an  age  of  violence  and 
treachery,  against  which  violence  and  trea- 
chery were  regarded  as  lawful  weapons. 

A  portrait  of  James  II  in  the  castle  of 
Kielberg,  near  Tubingen,  was  engraved  for 
George  von  Ehingen's  '  Itinerarium,'  1660, 
and  in  Pinkerton's  '  Iconographia,'  where  it 
is  erroneously  described  as  a  picture  of 
James  I. 

[There  is  no  contemporary  historian  except 
the  brief  Chronicle  printed  by  Mr.  Thomas 
Thomson  from  the  Asloan  MS.  in  the  Auchin- 
leck  Library.  John  Major  and  Hector  Boece 
•were  born  shortly  after  his  death,  and  their  his- 
tories, and  the  later  history  of  Lindsay  of  Pit- 
ccottie,  supplement  the  imperfect  contemporary 
records.  The  Records  of  Parliament  and  the  Ac- 
counts of  Exchequer  are,  however,  more  than 
usually  valuable  in  estimating  the  character  of 
the  reign,  and  as  a  check  on  the  frequently  un- 
trustworthy statements  of  Boece.]  JE.  M. 

JAMES  III  (1451-1488),  king  of  Scot- 
land, son  of  James  II  [q.  v.]  and  Mary  of 
Gueldres,  was  born  10  July  1451,  and  became 
king  in  his  ninth  year.  He  was  crowned  on 
Sunday,  10  Aug.  1460,  in  the  abbey  of  Kelso. 
The  queen-mother  retained  the  chief  power, 
whether  or  not  she  was  formally  regent.  Her 
chief  counsellors  were  Kennedy,  archbishop 
of  St.  Andrews,  and  James  Lindsay,  provost 
of  Lincluden,  keeper  of  the  privy  seal,  and  the 
usual  changes  of  a  new  reign  were  made  in 
the  custody  of  the  principal  royal  castles. 
Parliaments  were  held,  but  their  records  have 
not  been  preserved.  The  continuance  of  the 
English  war,  as  well  as  large  building  opera- 
tions at  the  palace  of  Falkland,  the  new  castle 
of  Ravenscraig,  near  Dysart,  and  the  Trinity 
College  ChurchmEdinburgh,showthequeen- 
mother  to  have  been  a  vigorous  ruler.  She  was 
supported  by  the '  young  lords,'  but  opposed  by 
the  older  nobles.  When  after  the  de  tea  oi  Tow- 
ton,  on 29 March  1461, Henry  VI,  !iis  wife,  and 
son,  with  several  of  the  Lancastrian  nobles, 
came  to  Scotland  as  refugees,  she  received 
them  hospitably,  and  the  surrender  of  Berwick 
to  Scotland  was  arranged.  Edward  IV  re- 
taliated by  stirring  up  the  rebellion  of  the 
Earl  of  Ross,  who  exercised  almost  royal  au- 
thority in  his  highland  domains,  and,  though 
frequently  summoned,  did  not  appear  in  par- 
liament. In  July  1 462  the  households  of  the 
queen-mother  and  the  young  king  were  sepa- 
rated, and  parliament  declared  that  James 
should  '  aye  remain  with  the  queen,'  but 

that  she  was  not  to  meddle  with  the  profits 
of  his  estates.  In  December  1463  Edward  IV 
ratified  the  truce  with  Scotland,  and  extended 
it,  on  3  June  1464,  for  fifteen  years.  In  spite 
of  the  truce,  the  king's  brother,  the  Duke  of 
Albany,  was  seized  when  on  his  voyage  to 
Guelderland,  but  was  released  on  the  inter- 
cession of  Bishop  Kennedy.  On  20  June  1465 
a  marriage  was  proposed  between  James  and 
an  English  subject,  and  although  this  was 
not  carried  out,  the  truce  was  prolonged  for 
fifty-four  years  on  1  June  1466. 

Mary  of  Gueldres  died  on  16  Nov.  1463, 
and  Bishop  Kennedy  on  10  May  1466.  The 
nobles  tried  as  usual  to  take  advantage  of  a 
royal  minority.  Three  of  them  usurped  the 
chief  power :  Lord  Kennedy,  brother  of  the 
bishop  and  uncle  of  the  king,  became  keeper 
of  Stirling  Castle ;  Robert,  son  of  Malcolm 
Fleming  of  Cumbernauld,  who  had  been 
steward  of  the  household  of  James  II ;  and 
Sir  Alexander  Boyd,  governor  of  Edinburgh 
Castle,  to  whom  the  young  king's  military 
training  was  entrusted.  On  10  Feb.  1456 
these  nobles  entered  into  an  agreement,  by 
which  Fleming  undertook  to  maintain  Boyd 
and  Kennedy  as  custodians  of  James.  On 
9  July  of  the  same  year  the  king  was  seized, 
while  attending  an  audit  of  the  exchequer  at 
Linlithgow,  by  a  party  of  nobles  headed  by 
Boyd,  with  the  connivance  of  Kennedy,  and 
taken  to  Edinburgh  Castle,  where  a  parlia- 
ment was  held  in  his  name  on  9  Oct.  On 
the  fifth  day  of  its  session  a  mock  trial  was 
acted.  Boyd  came,  begged,  and  received  the 
pardon  of  the  boy-king,  who,  with  the  con- 
currence of  the  estates,  made  his  captor  go- 
vernor of  the  persons  of  himself  and  of  his 
brothers,  Albany  and  Mar,  and  gave  him  the 
custody  of  the  royal  castles.  This  was  con- 
firmed by  a  writ  under  the  great  seal,  and  on 
26  April  1467  the  eldest  son  of  Boyd,  Thomas, 
was  created  earl  of  Arran  and  married  to 
the  king's  sister.  The  Boyds  monopolised 
offices  and  power,  but  do  not  appear  to  have 
been  oppressive  rulers. 

In  the  parliament  of  Stirling,  in  January 
1468,  the  project  for  the  marriage  of  James 
with  Margaret,  daughter  of  Christian  of 
Denmark,  which  had  been  suggested  by 
Charles VII  of  France  before  James  II's  death, 
was  resumed,  and  an  embassy,  for  whose  cost 
3,0001.  was  raised,  was  despatched  to  Copen- 
hagen. The  marriage  treaty  was  signed  on 
8  Sept.,  and  Arran,  who  took  a  principal  part 
in  the  negotiation,  went  home  to  procure  its 
ratification.  Denmark  agreed  to  abrogate 
her  claim  to  an  annual  payment  demanded 
from  the  kings  of  Scotland  since  1263  on  ac- 
count of  the  Danish  cession  to  Alexander  III 
of  the  Hebrides,  and  promised  the  payment 

James  III 


of  Scotland 

of  sixty  thousand  Rhenish  florins,  for  which 
the  Orkney  and  Shetland  Isles,  at  the  time 
nominally  under  Denmark's  suzerainty,  were 
pledged  to  James.  The  ambassadors  returned 
with  the  bride,  and  the  marriage  was  cele- 
brated with  great  pomp  at  Holyrood  in  July 
1469.  During  Arran's  absence  the  Boyds,  his 
kinsmen,  had  fallen  into  discredit.  Arran 
fled  to  Denmark  with  his  wife.  His  father, 
Lord  Boyd,  escaped  to  England.  In  the 
parliament  of  Edinburgh  in  November  1469 
the  queen  was  crowned,  the  Boyds  were  for- 
feited for  treason,  and  their  lands  annexed 
to  the  principality  of  Scotland.  Although 
only  in  his  eighteenth  year,  and  his  bride  in 
her  twelfth,  James  now  undertook  the  go- 
vernment, and  there  is  nothing  to  show  that 
any  one  of  the  nobles  or  bishops  acquired  a 
controlling  influence. 

In  the  autumn  of  1470  James  and  the 
queen  went  north,  by  way  of  Aberdeen,  as 
far  as  Inverness.  On  6  May  1471  he  held  a 
parliament  in  Edinburgh,  which  passed  acts 
prohibiting  the  procuring  of  Scottish  benefices 
at  Rome,  and  making  provision  for  the  de- 
fence of  the  kingdom.  The  queen's  jointure 
was  settled,  and  William  Sinclair,  earl  of 
Caithness,  received  a  grant  of  Ravenscraig 
in  Fife,  in  compensation  for  the  cession  of  his 
rights  in  Orkney,  which,  with  Shetland,  was 
annexed  to  the  crown.  In  1474  Edward  IV 
proposed  the  betrothal  of  James's  infant  son, 
afterwards  James  IV  [q.  v.],  with  his  daugh- 
ter Cecilia  [q.  v.]  The  English  king  agreed 
to  pay  a  dowry  of  twenty  thousand  marks, 
as  well  as  five  hundred  more  as  compensation 
for  Bishop  Kennedy's  great  barge,  the  St. 
Salvator,  which  had  been  plundered  when 
wrecked  on  the  sands  of  Bamborough.  In 
1474  James  proposed  that  his  sister  Margaret 
should  marry  the  Duke  of  Clarence,  and  his 
brother  Albany  the  widowed  Duchess  of  Bur- 
gundy, sister  of  Edward  IV.  But  Edward, 
on  making  terms  with  France,  waived  these 
proposals,  and  stopped  the  instalments  of  his 
daughter's  dowry.  At  the  parliament  of 
Edinburgh  on  1  Dec.  1475,  the  Earl  of  Ross, 
whose  share  in  the  rebellion  of  1462  remained 
unpunished,  was  forfeited  for  treason  in  ab- 
sence, appeared  before  James  in  parliament 
at  Edinburgh  on  15  July  1476,  and  sur- 
rendered all  his  estates,  but  received  them 
back,  with  the  important  exception  of  the 
earldom  of  Ross.  He  was  also  created  a  lord 
of  parliament,  with  the  title  of  Lord  of  the 
Isles,  and  the  succession  to  his  estates  was 
settled,  failing  legitimate,  on  his  illegitimate 
children.  On  7  Feb.  1478  James,  who  had 
now  reached  what  the  Scots,  following  the 
Roman  law,  called  the  perfect  age  of  twenty- 
five,  revoked,  as  was  usual,  all  alienations  of 

crown  property  to  its  prejudice,  and  specially 
of  any  of  the  royal  castles.  He  also  entrusted 
the  queen  with  the  custody  of  the  prince  and 
of  Edinburgh  Castle  for  a  period  of  five  years. 

Up  to  this  time  James's  reign  had  been  sin- 
|  gularly  fortunate.  The  civil  wars  in  Eng- 
land had  enabled  him  to  recover  Berwick  and 
Roxburgh.  His  marriage  had  completed  the 
boundaries  of  Scotland  by  the  addition  of 
the  northern  islands.  The  fall  of  the  Boyds 
had  brought  into  the  hands  of  the  crown 
Arran  and  Bute,  as  well  as  their  Ayrshire 
estates.  The  highlands  had  been  reduced 
by  the  submission  of  the  Lord  of  the  Isles 
and  the  annexation  of  the  earldom  of  Ross. 
The  skilful  diplomacy  of  Patrick  Graham 
fa.  v.],  the  successor  of  Kennedy  in  the  see  of 
St.  Andrews,  had  procured  for  Scotland  the 
coveted  archiepiscopal  pall,  which  freed  the 
Scottish  church  from  the  claims  of  supremacy 
asserted  by  the  Archbishop  of  York  over 
the  southern  sees,  and  by  the  Archbishop  of 
Drontheim  over  the  sees  of  Orkney  and  the 
Western  Isles. 

It  is  difficult  to  fix  the  exact  date  or  the 
precise  causes  of  the  misfortunes  which  fol- 
lowed. Like  his  contemporary,  Louis  XI, 
James  adopted  as  favourites  new  men  from 
the  lower  ranks ;  but  he  had  none  of  the  tena- 
city of  purpose  which  enabled  the  French 
king  to  succeed  in  this  policy.  The  earliest 
of  his  favourites  appears  to  have  been  William 
Schevez  [q.  v.],  his  physician  and  an  astro- 
loger, who  was  installed  in  the  archbishopric 
of  St.  Andrews  in  1478.  Another  favourite 
was  Robert  Cochrane  [q.  v.],  well  known  as 
an  architect.  The  royal  family  was  divided 
against  itself.  His  brothers — Albany,  who 
was  three,  and  Mar,  who  was  six  years  his 
junior — were  more  popular  than  James. 
They  took  part  in  the  martial  exercises  of  the 
period,  which  James  neglected  for  the  more 
effeminate  pursuits  of  music,  literature,  and 
architecture.  The  estates  seem  from  the  first 
to  have  distrusted  James.  In  the  parliament 
of  July  1476  a  committee,  consisting  of  the 
king's  brothers,  Albany  and  Mar,  most  of 
the  prelates,  great  barons,  and  representatives 
of  the  burghs,  were  invested  with  almost  regal 
powers.  The  king's  jealousy  of  Albany  and 
Mar  led,  in  1479,  to  the  arrest  of  Mar,  whose 
death,  it  was  suspected  through  foul  play, 
quickly  followed.  Cochrane  succeeded  to  the 
vacant  earldom.  The  accusation  of  witch- 
craft made  against  Mar,  and  the  burning  of 
several  witches  who  were  charged  with  melt- 
ing a  wax  image  of  the  king,  are  among  the 
first  references  to  this  crime  in  Scottish  his- 
tory. Albany  was  arrested  soon  after  Mar, 
and  placed  in  the  castle  of  Edinburgh,  from 
which  he  escaped  to  Leith,  and  thence  to 

James  III 


of  Scotland 

France.  He  was  received  with  favour  by 
Louis  XI  of  France,  lie  married  Anne  de  la 
Tour,  daughter  of  the  Count  of  Boulogne 
and  Auvergne,  and  subsequently  came  over 
to  England.  Edward  IV  had,  in  violation 
of  the  existing  truce,  shown  himself  the 
active  enemy  of  Scotland.  In  June  1481  he 
concluded  an  alliance  with  the  Lord  of  the 
Isles  and  Donald  Gorme,  another  highland 
chief,  and  showed  marked  favour  to  the 
exiled  Earl  of  Douglas  [see  DOUGLAS,  JAMES, 
1426-1488].  In  the  Scottish  parliament  of 
March  1482  extensive  preparations  were  au- 
thorised for  the  defence  of  the  kingdom 
against  Edward,  who  retaliated  by  a  treaty 
with  Albany,  and  conferred  on  him  the  dis- 
honourable title  of '  Alexander,  King  of  Scot- 
land by  the  gift  of  the  King  of  England.' 

To  carry  out  this  treaty,  Gloucester,  with 
an  English  army,  accompanied  by  Albany, 
and  secretly  abetted  by  the  Earl  of  Angus  and 
other  Scottish  nobles,  marched  to  the  border. 
In  July,  James,  having  assembled  his  feudal 
army,  to  the  number  of  about  fifty  thousand, 
at  the  Borough  Muir  of  Edinburgh,  marched 
to  Lauder,  where  mutiny  broke  out.  The 
barons  hanged  Cochrane  and  other  favourites, 
and  sent  the  king  to  Edinburgh  Castle. 

Meantime,  the  town,  and  in  August  1482 
the  castle,  of  Berwick  was  retaken  by  the 
English  army.  The  border  burgh  never  again 
became  Scottish.  Gloucester  and  Albany  at 
once  marched  to  Edinburgh.  Then,  by  a 
sudden  and  inexplicable  change,  Albany  and 
James  were  reconciled,  through  the  media- 
tion of  the  Archbishop  of  St.  Andrews  and 
Lord  Avondale,  the  chancellor.  Albany  re- 
ceived a  remission  for  his  treasonable  treaty 
with  Edward  IV,  and  in  the  parliament  of 
December  1482  was  appointed  lieutenant- 
general  of  the  kingdom.  Gloucester  was 
ignored  and  returned  home.  Edward  IV  was 
offered  the  restoration  of  the  dowry,  so  far 
as  paid,  of  the  Princess  Cecilia;  but  this 
was  never  carried  out,  and  fruitless  negotia- 
tions were  set  on  foot  for  the  marriage  of 
Princess  Margaret  of  Scotland  with  Anthony, 
lord  Rivers.  On  11  Feb.  1483  Edward 
entered  into  a  new  treaty  with  Albany  to 
aid  him  in  acquiring  the  Scottish  crown, 
and  promised  him  one  of  his  daughters  in 
marriage.  This  fresh  treason  became  known 
to  James  and  his  Scottish  council,  but  in- 
stead of  leading,  as  might  have  been  an- 
ticipated, to  proceedings  against  Albany,  an 
indenture  was  entered  into  between  him  and 
the  king,  signed  at  Dunbar  on  19  March  1483, 
by  which,  among  other  provisions,  James 
granted  Albany  a  full  remission  for  all '  trea- 
son and  other  misdeeds.'  Albany  renounced 
his  obligations  to  Edward  IV,  engaged  not  to 

come  within  six  miles  of  the  king  without 
special  leave,  and  surrendered  his  office  of 
lieutenant-general,  retaining  that  of  warden 
of  the  middle  marches.  He  further  promised 
to  endeavour  to  procure  peace  with  England. 

Albany,  however,  with  the  aid  of  Lord 
Crichton,  instead  of  carrying  out  the  pro- 
visions of  this  agreement,  fortified  Dunbar 
Castle,  and  sent  Sir  James  Liddale  to  renew 
his  alliance  with  the  English  king.  The 
death  of  Edward  IV,  on  9  April  1483,  did  not 
put  a  stop  to  Albany's  treasonable  plots,  and1 
on  27  June  he  was  at  last  forfeited  by  parlia- 
ment, and  a  similar  doom  was  then,  or  shortly 
after,  pronounced  against  Liddale,  Crichton, 
and  others  of  his  followers.  Preparations 
were  at  once  made  by  James  for  the  siege  of 
Dunbar,  and  the  siege  was  begun,  though  it 
was  prosecuted  slowly.  Richard  III  on  his 
accession  at  first  favoured  Albany,  but  the 
security  of  his  own  crown  made  it  necessary 
for  him  to  temporise  by  receiving  at  the  end 
of  1483  an  embassy  sent  by  James,  which  suc- 
ceeded in  concluding  a  truce  for  three  years, 
at  Nottingham,  on  21  Sept.  1484.  On  St. 
Magdalene's  day  (22  July  of  the  latter  year) 
Albany  and  the  banished  Earl  of  Douglas 
made  an  unsuccessful  raid  on  Lochmaben. 
Douglas  was  taken  prisoner  and  sent  to- 
London,  and  Albany  himself  with  difficulty 
escaped  to  France,  where  he  was  killed  in 
a  tournament  in  1485.  In  or  before  June 
1486  Dunbar  surrendered.  The  same  year, 
probably  on  14  July,  Queen  Margaret  diedr 
and  her  death  facilitated  the  plot  by  which 
the  leading  nobles,  who  had  never  become 
really  friendly  to  the  king,  procured  his  son 
(afterwards  James  IV)  as  the  head  of  the 
rebellion,  in  Albany's  place. 

The  death  of  Richard  III,  on  22  Aug, 
1485,  led  to  a  treaty  in  November  1487  by 
which  the  new  monarch,  Henry  VII,  engaged 
to  marry  one  of  the  sisters  of  his  queen  to- 
the  Scottish  heir-apparent,  another  to  his 
brother,  the  Marquis  of  Ormonde,  and  the 
widow  of  Edward  IV  to  James  himself. 
Once  more  these  matrimonial  projects  mis- 
carried, owing,  it  is  said,  to  James's  demand 
of  the  surrender  of  Berwick  as  a  condition  of 
his  assent.  But  the  quarrel,  which  had  now 
reached  a  crisis,  between  him  and  his  own 
nobles  is  a  more  probable  cause.  James  had 
continued  to  favour  men  of  inferior  rank,  his 
chief  favourites  now  being  Hommyl  the 
tailor  and  Ramsay,  lord  Bothwell.  He  had  de- 
preciated the  currency,  and  had  wasted  money 
over  building,  particularly  at  Stirling,  where 
a  royal  hall  was  built  and  a  royal  chapel  en- 
dowed on  a  scale  of  more  than  ordinary  mag- 
nificence. To  obtain  funds  for  this  James  pro- 
cured the  pope's  sanction  to  the  annexation 

James  III 


of  the  revenues  of  the  monastery  of  Colding- 
ham,  which  alienated  its  patrons,  the  power- 
ful border  family  of  the  Humes.    The  chronic 
enmity  of  the  great  feudal  houses  to  the 
sovereign,  combined  with  the  incapacity  of 
James  III,  fully  accounts  for  the  extent  of 
the  revolt.     Its  heads  were  Angus  (Bell  the 
Cat),  Lords  Gray  and  Hume,  and  later  the 
Earl  of  Huntly,  Erroll,  the  Earl-Marischal, 
and  Lord  Glamis,  chiefly,  it  may  be  observed, 
the  lowland  nobles.    Most  of  the  northern 
barons,  the  Earls  of  Crawford,  Atholl,  Mon- 
teith,  Rothes,  and  others,  and  in  the  west 
Lords  Kilmaurs  and  Boyd,  remained  faith- 
ful to  James.  The  king  showed  special  favour 
to  Crawford,  and  tried  to  detach  Angus  and 
obtain  his  aid  in  arresting  the  rebels  at  a 
parliament  or  general  council  in  Edinburgh 
in  January  1488;  but  that  stubborn  earl  re- 
fused to  comply,  disclosed  the  king's  design 
to  the  nobles,  and  James  himself  had  to  seek 
safety  by  flight  to  the  north.     Crossing  the 
Forth  in  a  ship  of  Sir  Andrew  Wood,  and 
summoning  the  barons  of  Fife,  Strathearn, 
and  Angus  to  his  standard,  he  proceeded  to 
Aberdeen.  He  then  returned  to  Perth,  where 
he  was  joined  by  his  uncle,  the  Earl  of  Atholl, 
Huntly,  Crawford,  and  Lindsay  of  the  Byres, 
Tvho  led  a  thousand  horse  and  three  thousand 
Infantry  raised  in  Fife.  Ruthven  also  brought 
•a  force  of  three  thousand  men  of  all  arms. 
When  he  reached  Stirling,  James  was  at  the 
head  of  an  army  of  thirty  thousand  men.    In 
May  he  met  the  rebels  under  Hepburn,  lord 
Hailes,  at  Blackness  on  the  Forth.  The  barons 
had  also  raised  their  whole  forces,  and  James, 
a  timid  general,  rather  than  risk  an  engage- 
ment, entered  into  a  pacification,  by  the  terms 
of  which  Atholl  was  delivered  as  a  hostage. 
It  was  felt  on  both  sides  that  this  was  a  mere 
suspension  of  hostilities.  James  created  Craw- 
ford duke  of  Montrose,  and  Kilmaurs  earl 
of  Glencairn,  as  a  reward  for  their  services; 
and  his  second  son  was  made  duke  of  Ross, 
-with  the  probable  intention  of  substituting 
him  for  his  brother  as  heir  to  the  crown. 
Envoys  were  despatched  to  France,  England, 
and  Rome,  urgently  begging  for  assistance. 
The  castle  of  Edinburgh  was  fortified,  and 
the  royal  treasure  deposited  in  it.   The  rebels 
on  their  side  were  not  idle ;  they  increased 
their  forces,  and  treated  the  king's  heralds 
-with  derision.     They  gained  over  Shaw  of 
'Sauchie,  the  governor  of  Stirling,  in  whose 
custody  the  young  prince  James  was,  :ud, 
adopting  the  prince's  standard  as  their  own, 
led  him  with  them  to  Linlithgow.     J.ihies 
determined  to  attempt  to  gain  possession  of 
Stirling  Castle,  but  Shaw  refused  to  admit 
him,  and  on  11  June  1488  the  two  hosts  con- 
fronted  each  otheronthe  plain  through  which. 

the  Sauchie  burn  flows,  about  a  mile  south  of 
the  field  of  Bannockburn.  The  battle  which 
followed,  the  most  celebrated  in  the  early 
civil  wars  of  Scotland,  traversed  partly  the 
same  ground  as  that  on  which  Bruce  had  won 
his  famous  victory.  The  rebels  were  superior 
in  numbers,  and  their  archers  and  spearmen 
gained  the  first  advantage,  which  was  at 
once  turned  into  a  victory  by  the  flight  of  the 
king.  Glencairn,  Ruthven,  and  Erskine  are 
the  only  nobles  named  as  having  been  killed. 
James  himself  fled  to  Miltoun,  called  Beton's 
Mill,  where  he  imprudently  revealed  his  iden- 
tity to  a  woman  drawing  water  at  the  well, 
by  telling  her  in  his  craven  fear, '  I  was  your 
king  this  morning.'  She  called,  according  to 
the  traditionary  story,  for  a  priest,  and  one 
of  Lord  Gray's  men  assumed  that  character. 
When  asked  by  the  fallen  monarch  to  shrive 
him,  the  soldier  replied  he  would  give  him  a 
short  shrift,  and  despatched  him  with  his 
sword.  The  stories  that  he  survived  the 
fatal  day  were  the  rumours  of  the  camp  or 
the  gossip  of  the  country-side. 

James  was  buried  beside  his  wife  at  Cam- 
buskenneth,  where  masses  were  said  for  a 
time  for  his  soul,  and  a  monument  has  re- 
cently been  restored  by  Queen  Victoria.  He 
was  only  thirty-six  years  of  age,  but  had 
been  nominally  king  for  twenty-eight  years. 
He  left  three  sons  :  James  IV  [q.  v.],  who 
succeeded  ;  James  Stewart,  duke  of  Ross 
(1476-1504)  [q.  v.],  afterwards  archbishop 
of  St.  Andrews ;  and  John,  earl  of  Mar.  Al- 
though pity  was  felt  for  his  fate  at  the  time, 
and  one  later  historian  has  tried  to  defend 
his  character,  ne  was  quite  unfit  to  rule  over 
Scotland.  It  may  be  that  his  opponents  among 
the  nobles,  whose  accounts  have  chiefly  come 
down  to  our  time,  exaggerated  his  weaknesses 
of  character  into  vices.  He  had  a  share  of 
the  culture  of  his  race,  and  was  a  lover  of 
letters,  music,  painting,  and  architecture.  His 
legislation,  though  it  is  difficult  to  say  how 
far  he  deserves  personal  credit  for  it,  was,  so 
far  as  it  has  been  preserved,  a  continuation 
of  that  of  his  father  and  grandfather — more 
favourable  to  the  commons  than  to  the  nobles. 
He  was  not  so  fortunate  as  they  were  in  his 
counsellors.  The  murder  of  one  brother  and 
the  treason  and  exile  of  another  were  avenged 
by  the  rebellion  of  his  son.  He  is  said  to 
have  been  pious.  He  was  certainly  supersti- 
tious, and,  according  to  Lesley,  immoral  in 
his  relations  with  women,  but  there  is  no 
record  of  his  having  left  bastards. 

Besides  the  imaginary  portrait  in  the  pos- 
session of  the  Marquis  of  Lothian,  attributed 
to  George  Jameson  [q.  v.],  there  is  a  three- 
quarters  length  picture  by  an  unknown  artist, 
now  the  property  of  F.  Mackenzie  Fraser  of 

James  IV  i 

Castle  Fraser.  The  portrait  contained  in  the 
fine  altarpiece,  perhaps  by  Van  der  Goes,  now 
at  Holy  rood,  was  apparently  painted  for 
Trinity  College  Church,  the  foundation  of 
Mary  of  Gueldres,  and  represents  him  kneel- 
ing at  the  altar  with  his  son,  James  IV,  be- 
hind him.  The  features  betray  a  weak  and 
effeminate  character.  He  may  be  in  some 
points  compared  to  Louis  XI,  and  in  others 
to  Henry  VI,  but  he  had  not  the  wicked 
ability  of  the  French  nor  the  genuine  piety 
of  the  English  monarch.  Nor  had  he,  as 
they  both  had,  the  excuse  of  an  insane  taint. 
[Boece's  History  becomes  more  nearly  contem- 
porary, and  is  of  more  value  than  in  earlier  por- 
tions. Major's  History  is  tantalisingly  brief. 
Lindsay  of  Pitscottie  is,  as  always,  too  good  a 
story-teller  to  be  quite  trustworthy  as  a  his- 
torian. The  full  publications  both  of  the  Ex- 
chequer and  Treasurer's  Accounts  in  the  Lord 
Clerk  Register  Series  by  Mr.  Burnett  and  Mr. 
Dickson  are  of  the  greatest  value,  and  enable 
this  reign  to  be  told  in  a  manner  impossible 
either  to  Tytler  or  Burton.  Some  of  the  Eng- 
lish records  are  also  important,  especially  the 
letters  of  Richard  III  and  Henry  VII  in  the 
Eolls  Series,  edited  by  Mr.  Gairdner.]  JE.  M. 

JAMES  IV  (1473-1513),  king  of  Scot- 
land, eldest  son  of  James  III  [q.  v.]  and  Mar- 
garet, daughter  of  Christian  I  of  Denmark, 
was  born  on  17  March  1473.  His  betrothal  at 
Edinburgh  on  18  Oct.  1474  to  the  Princess  Ce- 
cilia [q.  v.],  third  daughter  of  Edward  IV, 
and  a  proposal  in  1487  for  his  marriage  to  a 
sister-in-law  of  Henry  VII,  both  came  to 
nothing.  The  prince  was  placed  at  the  head 
of  the  rebels  at  Sauchieburn,  where  his  father 
was  killed  (11  June  1488).  He  was  crowned 
at  Scone  in  the  last  week  of  June.  A  chap- 
lain at  Cambuskenneth  was  paid  to  say  masses 
for  his  father's  soul.  James  performed  the 
somewhat  ostentatious  penance  of  wearing  an 
iron  belt,  if  we  may  credit  his  portraits,  out- 
side his  doublet,  and  never  forgave  himself 
for  his  father's  death.  The  leaders  of  what 
could  no  longer  be  called  a  rebellion  succeeded 
to  the  great  offices  of  state.  The  Earl  of 
Argyll  became  again  chancellor ;  Alexander, 
master  of  Home  [q.v.],  replaced  David,  earl  of 
Crawford  [q.  v.],  as  chamberlain ;  Knollis,  pre- 
ceptor of  Torphichen,  succeeded  the  abbot  of 
Arbroath  as  treasurer;  Lords  Lyle  [q.v.]  and 
Glamis  were  appointed  justiciars  south  and 
north  of  the  Forth.  The  Earl  of  Angus  [q.  v.] 
as  guardian  of  the  king,  Home,  who  soon  be- 
came warden  of  the  east  marches,  and  Patrick 
Hepburn,  lord  Hailes  [q.  v.],  warden  of  the 
middle  and  west  marches,  created  earl  of 
Bothwell  and  high  admiral,  were  the  nobles 
in  whose  hands  the  chief  power  rested.  Before 
parliament  met  two  staunch  adherents  of  the 


late  king,  the  Earl  of  Crawford  and  Sir  An- 
drew Wood,  were  conciliated  by  a  pardon 
and  regrant  of  their  estates. 

After  his  coronation  James  came  on  26  June 
from  Perth  to  Stirling,  attended  his  father's 
obsequies  at  Cambuskenneth,  and  after  pre- 
siding over  the  audit  of  exchequer  on  7  July, 
went  to  Edinburgh.  On  3  Aug.  he  was  at 
Leith  to  see  the  Danish  ships  which  had 
brought  his  uncle,  Junker  Gerhard,  count  of 
Oldenburg,  who  was  hospitably  entertained 
till  the  end  of  the  year.  On  5  Aug.  he  went 
to  Linlithgow,  where  the  players  acted  be- 
fore him,  and  next  week  to  Stirling,  on  his 
way  to  a  hunt  in  Glenfinlas,  from  which  he 
returned  to  the  justice  ayre  at  Lanark  on 
21  Aug.  On  the  14th  he  went  to  Perth,  from 
which  he  returned  next  day  to  Edinburgh  to 
prepare  for  the  meeting  of  parliament.  In 
this  parliament,  which  met  on  6  Oct.,  all 
grants  by  James  III  prior  to  2  Feb.  1488  were 
rescinded,  and  several  of  the  late  king's  sup- 
porters were  forfeited ;  but  the  Earl  of  Bu- 
chan  was  pardoned,  and  a  declaration  made 
that  the  sons  of  those  who  fell  on  the  side  of 
James  HI  at  Sauchie  should  succeed  to  their 
estates  as  if  their  ancestors  had  died  in  the 
king's  peace. 

A  singular  debate,  the  first  distinctly  re- 
corded in  a  Scottish  parliament,  is  entered  in 
the  minutes  as  'The  Debate  and  Cause  of  the 
Field  of  Stirling,'  ending  with  a  declaration 
of  the  three  estates,  which  laid  the  whole 
blame  for  the  slaughter  at  the  battle  upon 
James  III  and  his  '  perverse  council.'  Em- 
bassies were  to  be  sent  to  the  pope,  and  to  the 
kings  of  France,  Spain,  and  Denmark,  with  a 
copy  of  the  Act  of  Indemnity  under  the  great 
seal,  and  were  at  the  same  time  to  search  for  a 
wife  for  the  new  king.  James,  although  only 
fifteen,  began  at  once  to  attend  audits  of  ex- 
chequer and  circuits  of  justiciary,  as  well  as 
to  preside  in  parliament.  Pitscottie  gives  a 
graphic  account  of  the  trial  of  Lord  Lindsay 
of  the  Byres  before  the  king  in  person.  James 
kept  Yule  at  Linlithgow,  returning  to  Edin- 
burgh before  14  Jan.  1489,  when  an  adjourned 
session  of  parliament  met.  During  the  next 
two  months  he  went  on  circuit,  both  in  the 
south  and  north,  returning  on  1  April  to 
Edinburgh,  where  he  kept  Palm  Sunday,  but 
came  to  Linlithgow  for  Easter.  He  took  part 
from  May  to  July,  and  again  in  October,  in 
the  suppression  of  a  rebellion  headed  by  the 
Earl  of  Lennox  and  Lord  Lyle  in  the  west, 
and  by  Lord  Forbes  [q.  v.]  in  the  north,  who 
carried  the  bloody  shirt  of  James  III  as  his 
standard.  The  insurrection  was  not  crushed 
till  December.  But  on  28  July  James  had 
returned  to  Edinburgh  to  meet  the  Spanish 
ambassadors.  He  received  them  at  Linlith- 


James  IV 


of  Scotland 

gow  in  the  middle  of  August,  and  they  pre- 
sented him  with  a  sword  and  dagger,  pro- 
bably those  afterwards  taken  at  Flodden,  and 
still  preserved  in  the  English  Heralds'  Col- 
lege. They  received  in  return  six  hundred 
crowns.  The  object  of  the  embassy,  which 
had  already  negotiated  a  marriage  between 
Arthur,  the  eldest  son  of  Henry  VII,  and  the 
Princess  Katherine,  was  by  a  similar  offer  to 
detach  Scotland  from  the  French  alliance ; 
but  De  Puebla,  its  chief,  exceeded  his  instruc- 
tions, offering  James  the  hand  of  an  infanta 
instead  of  an  illegitimate  daughter  of  Ferdi- 
nand of  Aragon,  for  which  he  was  repri- 
manded, yet  told  to  '  put  off  the  Scotch  king 
with  false  hopes '  lest  he  should  renew  the 
French  alliance. 

James  kept  his  Yule  in  1489  at  Edin- 
burgh. By  a  prudent  policy  the  leaders  of 
the  recent  rebellion,  Lennox,  Huntly,  the 
Earl-Marischal,  Lyle,  and  Forbes,  were  par- 
doned. During  the  same  year  his  atten- 
tion was  directed  to  the  defence  of  the  east 
coast  from  the  attacks  of  English  pirates, 
and  found  in  Andrew  Wood  [q.  v.]  of  Larg, 
who  became  one  of  his  chief  counsellors,  an 
admiral  able  to  cope  with  the  marauders.  The 
king  saw  the  political  importance  of  the  navy, 
and  throughout  his  reign  the  equipment  of 
vessels  of  war  and  the  encouragement  of 
trading  and  fishing  craft  were  kept  steadily 
in  view.  On  3  Feb.  1490  parliament  met  at 
Edinburgh,  by  which  the  principal  rebels  were 
forfeited,  though  afterwards  pardoned.  A 
mutilated  document  in  the  English  records 
of  that  year  casts  light  on  a  plot  otherwise 
unknown  for  the  delivery  of  the  persons  of 
'  James,  king  of  Scotland,  now  reigning,  and 
his  brother,  at  least  the  king,'  to  Henry  VII. 
The  parties  to  this  plot,  which  was  in  the 
shape  of  a  bond  for  payment  of  2661. 13s.  4<Z., 
were  Sir  John  Ramsay,  Patrick  Hepburn, 
Lord  Both  well  [q.  v.],  and  Sir  Thomas  Todd, 
a  Scottish  knight. 

In  the  parliament  which  met  on  28  April 
1491  important  acts  were  passed  for '  wapen- 
schaws,'  or  musters  of  the  forces,  in  each 
shire,  the  practice  of  archery,  the  holding 
of  justice  ayres,  and  the  reform  of  civil 
and  criminal  procedure.  But  the  king's 
marriage  chiefly  interested  the  parliament. 
Embassies  were  despatched  to  find  a  wife  in 
France,  Spain,  or  any  other  part.  The  en- 
voys paid  repeated  visits  to  France  without 
result,  and  subsequently  the  Emperor  Maxi- 
milian was  requested  to  bestow  on  James 
his  daughter  Margaret,  but  as  the  lady  was 
already  betrothed  to  the  infant  of  Spain,  that 
negotiation  failed.  James  was,  perhaps,  not 
so  eager  for  a  marriage  as  his  advisers.  His 
illegitimate  connections  were  numerous.  His 

intrigue  with  Marion  Boyd,  daughter  of 
Archibald  Boyd  of  Bonshaw,  commenced 
soon  after  his  accession,  for  its  result  was  the 
birth,  at  least  as  early  as  1495,  of  Alexander 
Stewart,  afterwards  archbishop  of  St.  An- 
drews, as  well  as  of  a  daughter,  Catherine. 
Marion  Boyd  appears  to  have  been  succeeded 
as  royal  mistress-in-chief  by  Janet,  daughter 
of  John,  lord  Kennedy,  and  a  former  mistress 
of  Archibald  Douglas,  fifth  earl  of  Angus 
[q.  v.],  who  became,  by  the  king,  the  mother  of 
James,  born  in  1499,  and  created  earl  of  Moray 
on  20  June  1501.  This  connection  lasted  at 
least  till  1  June  1501,  when  the  castle  and 
forest  of  Darnaway  were  granted  to  her  for 
life,  under  certain  conditions.  She  received 
grants  from  the  king  down  to  1505  (Exche- 
quer Soils,  pp.  xii,  xliii).  In  February  1510 
she  surrendered  lands  conveyed  to  her  in 
1498  by  her  earlier  lover  Angus,  receiving  in 
exchange  all  the  lands  of  Bothwell  under 
a  decree  arbitral  confirmed  by  the  king  (ib. 
p.  xlviii).  This  transaction  perhaps  gave 
rise  to  the  assertion,  which  appears  scarcely 
credible,  that  she  married  Angus  after  being 
discarded  by  the  king.  The  best  beloved  of 
the  king's  mistresses  was  Margaret,  daughter 
of  Lord  Drummond,  who  was  high  in  his 
favour  from  May  1496  to  1501,  the  date  of 
her  death  [see  DRtrMMOXD,  MABGAEET].  In 
1497  her  only  child,  Lady  Margaret  Stewart, 
was  born.  The  poem  of  Tayis  Banks,'  if  the 
work  of  her  royal  lover,  is  proof  of  James's 
affection.  Masses  were  at  the  king's  cost 
sung  for  her  soul  at  Cambuskennethand  other 
places  till  the  close  of  the  reign.  A  fifth  lady 
of  noble  birth,  Isabel  Stewart,  daughter  of 
Lord  Buchan,  is  mentioned  as  the  mother  of 
a  daughter,  Jean,  by  James,  while  Dunbar, 
who  entreated  the  king  to  release  himself  by 
marriage  from  such  entanglements,  hints  at 
more  vulgar  and  forgotten  amours. 

In  the  autumn  of  1493  James  visited  the 
Western  Isles  and  received  the  homage  of 
the  chiefs,  whose  head,  John,  lord  of  the 
Isles,  had  been  forfeited  in  the  parliament 
which  met  in  May  of  that  year.  He  was  at 
Dunstaffnage  in  August,  and  on  his  return 
south  made  the  pilgrimage  to  Whithern  in 
Galloway,  which  became  an  annual  custom. 
In  October  he  paid  his  first  visit  to  St. 
Duthac's  at  Tain,  which  divided  with  Whit- 
hern  the  honour  of  being  the  principal  resort 
of  the  royal  pilgrim.  His  frequent  pilgrim- 
ages to  these  and  other  shrines,  as  well  as  his 
external  devotion  to  the  offices  of  religion, 
have  been  cited  as  proof  that  he  was  a  good 
catholic.  Like  the  penance  of  the  iron  belt, 
his  admission  to  the  offices  of  a  lay  canon  of 
the  cathedral  of  Glasgow,  and  a  lay  brother 
of  the  Friars  Observant  at  Stirling,  and  his 

James  IV 


of  Scotland 

benefactions  to  these  friars,  from  whom  he 
chose  his  confessor,  are  evidence  of  intervals 
of  penitence,  intermingled  with  acts  of  sin, 
which  indicate  a  singularly  unstable  cha- 
racter. In  May  1494  he  again  paid  a  short 
visit  to  the  Isles,  and  returned  to  Glasgow 
in  July.  Probably  it  was  on  the  occasion  of 
this  visit  that  the  prosecution  of  the  lollards 
of  Kyle  in  Ayrshire,  before  the  king  and 
his  council  at  the  instance  of  Robert  Blaca- 
der  [q.  v.],  the  archbishop,  took  place,  of 
which  Knox  has  preserved  a  graphic  account 
in  his  '  History.'  If  the  trial  was  really  al- 
lowed to  end  by  a  series  of  jocular  answers 
to  the  inquisitor,  James  cannot  have  been  a 
virulent  persecutor  of  heretics  ;  there  were 
mo  martyrs  in  his  reign.  At  Glasgow  he 
raised  an  expedition,  which  met  him  at  Tar- 
bert  in  Kintyre  on  24  July ;  he  repaired  the 
castle  of  Tarbert  and  took  the  castle  of  Dun- 
averty,  which  he  garrisoned.  But  as  soon 
as  he  left  it  was  recaptured  by  John  of  Isla, 
and  its  captain  hung  in  sight  of  the  royal  fleet. 
John  Mackian  of  Ardnamurchan  recovered 
Dunaverty  in  September,  and  John  of  Isla  and 
four  of  his  sons  were  sent  to  Edinburgh  and 
executed.  In  1495  he  prepared  a  new  expe- 
dition to  the  still  disturbed  Western  Isles. 
At  Easter  he  was  in  Stirling,  busy  with  pre- 
parations for  his  personal  equipment,  and  on 
5  May,  along  with  the  lords  of  the  west, 
«ast,  and  south,  he  came  to  Dumbarton.  Em- 
barking at  Newark  Castle,  on  the  Ayrshire 
coast,  he  sailed  to  Ardnamurchan,  where,  at 
the  castle  of  Mingary,  he  received  the  sub- 
mission of  some  of  the  island  chiefs.  Before 
the  end  of  June  he  returned  to  Glasgow, 
where  O'Donnel,  chief  of  Tyrconnel  in  Ulster, 
visited  him  and  renewed  an  old  league. 

The  adroit  monarchs  of  Castile  and  Ara- 
gon  kept  dangling  before  the  eyes  of  James 
the  hope  of  a  Spanish  match,  and  the  nego- 
tiations for  this  purpose  form  a  consider- 
able part  of  the  external  affairs  of  Scotland 
during  the  next  three  years.  On  20  Nov. 
1495  Perkin  "Warbeck  [q.  v.]  came  to  Stir- 
ling. His  claim  to  be  the  Duke  of  York, 
son  of  Edward  IV,  first  put  forward  in  1491, 
was  useful  to  James,  now  at  enmity  with 
Henry  VII.  James  knew  nothing  of  his  real 
antecedents,  but  Warbeck  brought  strong 
credentials,  and  as  early  as  March  1492 
James  had  heard  of  him  from  the  Earls  of 
Desmond  and  Kildare,  who  forwarded  letters 
from  Perkin  himself  (  Treasurer's  Accounts,  i. 
190).  James  allowed  him  1,2001.  a  year,  for 
which  a  special  tax  was  levied,  introduced 
him  to  the  principal  nobility,  and  soon  after 
gave  him  the  hand  of  Lady  Katharine  Gor- 
don, daughter  of  the  Earl  of  Huntly,  grand- 
daughter of  James  I,  and  one  of  the  beauties 

of  the  Scottish  court,  in  marriage.  The  mar- 
riage, which  took  place  with  much  ceremony 
in  January,  appears  proof  that  James  at  this 
time  believed  in  Perkin's  pretensions.  Prepa- 
rations were  at  once  made  for  a  war  to  assist 
his  claims,  and  Perkin  remained  in  constant 
attendance  at  the  royal  court.  James  had  kept 
Yule  (1495)  at  Linlithgow,  and  two  days  be- 
fore had  received  at  Stirling  the  Spanish  am- 
bassadors, Martin  de  Torre  and  Garcia  de 
Herrera,  who  had  come  with  instructions  to 
detach  James  from  Perkin  and  secure  his 
alliance  with  Henry  VII,  to  whose  eldest  son, 
Arthur,  the  infanta  of  Spain  had  been  already 
contracted  in  marriage.  Unfortunately  the 
astute  monarchs  of  Spain  outwitted  them- 
selves by  instructing  their  ambassadors  to 
keep  James  in  play  by  offering  him  an  infanta 
as  a  bride,  an  offer  they  never  intended  to 
fulfil.  Their  letters  disclosing  this  duplicity 
fell  into  his  hands  before  their  arrival,  and 
they  were  naturally  received  with  coolness. 
He  waived  their  proposals,  but  agreed  to  seno. 
to  Spain  the  Archbishop  of  Glasgow,  with  one 
of  the  Spanish  ambassadors,  and  if  a  marriage 
could  be  concluded  to  consent  to  peace  with 
England.  In  March  1496  he  went  his  usual 
pilgrimage  to  St.  Duthac's,  but  returned  to 
spend  Easter  at  Stirling,  where  Perkin  was 
still  in  his  company.  In  June  or  July  1496 
another  ambassador  of  Spain,  Don  Pedro  de 
Ayala,  arrived  at  Stirling,  where  he  was  hos- 
pitably received.  He  described  James  as  a 
most  accomplished  sovereign,  knowing  all 
the  languages  of  Europe,  Spanish  included, 
which  seems  little  likely ;  a  devoted  son  of 
the  church,  attending  all  its  services,  con- 
fessing to  the  Friars  Observant,  and  full  of 
warlike  spirit,  only  .too  rash  in  exposing  his 
own  person;  a  wise  administrator,  taking 
counsel  from  others,  but  in  the  end  acting  on 
his  own  opinion.  Ayala  gives  contradictory 
accounts  as  to  James's  disposition  to  marry. 
The  Spanish  monarchs,  unable  to  fulfil  the 
hope  they  had  held  out  of  an  infanta,  now 
suggested  that  Henry  VII  should  offer  James 
his  own  daughter,  and  this  device  was  first 
broached  by  Richard  Foxe  [q.  v.],  bishop  of 
Durham,  who  was  sent  to  Scotland  early  in 
September  1496,  but  failed  to  persuade  James 
of  the  sincerity  of  the  offer  or  to  abandon  Per- 
kin. On  2  Sept.  1496  Ramsay,  a  spy  in  the 
English  interest, was  present  at  a  council  of  the 
Scottish  king,  when  Perkin  agreed  that  on  ob- 
taining the  English  throne  he  would  restore 
Berwick  and  other  northern  districts  (the 
seven  sheriffdoms)  to  Scotland,  as  well  as 
pay  fifty  thousand  marks.  Ramsay  notes  the 
extent  of  the  preparations  for  the  war,  and 
alleges  that  it  was  opposed  by  the  leading 
nobles  and  the  king's  brother,  the  Duke  of 

L  2 

James  IV 


of  Scotland 

Ross.  Ramsay  was  also  present  at  the  recep- 
tion of  Monipenny,  Sieur  de  Concressault, 
with  letters  from  France,  and  of  Roderic  de 
Lalain  from  Flanders,  with  two  small  ships 
and  six  score  men.  The  French  king  is  said 
by  Ramsay  to  have  offered  a  hundred  thou- 
sand crowns  for  the  surrender  of  Perkin,  and 
Lalain  to  have  refused  to  speak  to  the  adven- 
turer, saying  his  embassy  was  only  to  the 
king.  But  a  spy  wishing  to  please  his  em- 
ployer is  a  bad  authority.  Meanwhile  James 
was  eager  to  set  out,  and  after  summoning 
his  troops  to  meet  him  at  Ellem  Kirk  on  the 
borders  on  15  Sept.,  and  reviewing  his  artil- 
lery at  Restalrig  on  the  12th  and  14th,  when 
he  made  offerings  at  Holyrood  and  ordered 
masses  to  be  sung  at  Restalrig  Church,  he 
marched,  with  Perkin,  to  Haddington  on  the 
14th,  and  from  that  across  the  Lammermuir 
to  Ellem  Kirk,  which  he  reached  on  the  19th. 
A  proclamation  issued  in  the  name  of  Ri- 
chard IV,  king  of  England,  met,  to  James's 
disappointment,  with  no  response  from  the 
English  borderers,  and  Perkin,  pretending 
that  he  disliked  to  shed  the  blood  of  his 
own  subjects,  recrossed  the  Tweed  to  Cold- 
stream.  After  a  raid  on  the  Northum- 
brian border  and  a  fruitless  siege  of  the 
house  of  Heiton,  James  himself  tired  of 
the  expedition  and  returned  to  Edinburgh 
by  8  Oct.  After  spending  some  time  in 
sport,  he  again  came  south  to  Home  Castle 
on  the  east  marches,  where  he  conferred 
on  21  Nov.  with  Hans,  his  master-gunner, 
probably  the  Fleming  much  employed  by 
the  monarchs  of  that  age  in  casting  guns. 
Henry  VII  had,  in  a  council  at  Westmin- 
ster, received  a  subsidy  for  war  with  the 
Scots,  and  James  was  preparing  for  defence 
and  retaliation.  In  the  middle  of  December 
he  was  at  Dunglas,  another  castle  of  Lord 
Home's,  on  the  confines  of  Haddington  and 
the  Merse.  His  Yule  was  kept  at  Melrose. 
In  preparation  for  the  renewal  of  war  with 
England,  wapenschaws  were  held  in  January 
and  February  1497,  the  artillery  repaired, 
Dunbar  fortified,  and  Sir  Andrew  Wood  ap- 
pointed its  captain.  On  14  Feb.  James  sent 
letters  to  the  sheriffs  ordaining  a  muster  of 
the  lieges  for  forty  days  from  6  April.  Be- 
fore Easter  he  had  returned  to  Stirling,  where 
he  received  the  Spanish  ambassadors,  who 
tried  in  vain  to  induce  him  to  give  up  Perkin 
and  desist  from  the  English  war.  On  23  May 
he  visited  Dunbar  to  inspect  the  fortifications. 
His  visit  was  marked  as  usual  by  gifts  to 
churches.  The  English,  encouraged  by  the 
delay,  commenced  hostilities,  but  were  de- 
feated by  the  Master  of  Home  at  Duns  early 
in  June.  On  12  June  James  was  at  Melrose, 
where  his  artillery  and  feudal  levy  met  him, 

apparently  not  insufficient  number,  for  an- 
other summons  was  issued  for  Lauder  on  the 
26th.  But  neither  monarch  was  ready  for  a 
campaign.  The  defence  of  the  English  border 
was  left  to  the  energetic  Bishop  of  Durham, 
who  was  able  to  ward  off  an  assault  by  James 
on  his  castle  of  Norham,  and  summoning- 
Thomas  Howard,  second  duke  of  Norfolk 
[q.v.],then  Earl  of  Surrey,  a  retaliatory  raid 
was  made  on  Ay  ton  Castle,  which  was  taken. 
James,  according  to  the  English  historians, 
though  in  sight  of  the  smoke  of  the  English 
guns,  declined  a  general  engagement  or  a 
single  combat  with  Surrey,  who  retreated 
across  the  border  before  the  end  of  August. 
Foxe  had  indeed  received  on  12  July  from  his 
sovereign  instructions  which  show  through 
their  diplomatic  verbiage  how  anxious  Henry 
was  for  peace.  Foxe  was  in  the  first  place  to 
demand  Perkin's  surrender,  and  to  represent 
that  the  terms  offered  by  the  Earl  of  Angus 
and  Lord  Home  at  Jenninghaugh,  a  short 
time  before,  could  not  be  entertained ;  but 
if  this  was  declined  he  was  to  propose  a 
meeting  between  the  two  kings  at  Newcastle. 
A  duplicate,  and  no  doubt  secret,  copy  of  the- 
instructions  provided  that,  if  the  meetingwas 
refused,  Foxe  was  to  be  content  with  the. 
offers  made  at  Jenninghaugh,  as  the  English 
army  was  not  sufficiently  prepared  to  march 
north  (GA.IRDJTEE,  Letters  of  Richard  III 
and  Henry  VII,  i.  110).  Meantime  Perkin, 
with  his  wife  had  gone  by  way  of  Ireland  to 
Cornwall,  and  he  was  captured  at  Exeter  on 
5  Oct.  The  return  to  Scotland  of  the  Spanish 
ambassador,  Ayala,  seems  to  have  converted 
James  to  the  side  of  peace,  and  he  consented 
to  close  the  enmity  between  the  two  nations 
by  marrying  Henry  VII's  daughter  Margaret. 
Henry  persuaded  his  council  to  consent  to 
the  alliance  by  the  argument  that,  if  a  unions 
followed,  the  lesser  would  be  subordinate  to* 
the  greater  kingdom,  citing  the  precedent  of 
Normandy  and  England.  Foxe,  a  good  diplo- 
matist, arranged  the  treaty  of  Ayton,  which 
provided  for  a  truce  of  seven  years,  from 
30  Sept.  1497.  The  truce  was  threatened 
almost  as  soon  as  made  by  a  quarrel  over  a 
game  between  some  Scottish  and  English 
youths  at  Norham,  but  on  5  Dec.  Ayala,  who- 
had  gone  to  London,  negotiated  with  William 
Warham  its  conversion  into  a  peace  for  the- 
joint  lives  of  the  two  monarchs;  it  was  rati- 
fied by  James  at  St.  Andrews  on  10  Feb.  1498. 
On  21  Feb.  1498  he  started  from  Stirling- 
on  an  expedition  to  the  still  unsettled  Western 
Isles.  He  passed  through  Glasgow  toDuchalr 
where  his  mistress,  Marion  Boyd,  and  her  son, 
the  future  archbishop,  resided,  and  thence  ta 
Ayr,  whence  he  sailed  to  Campbelton,  a  new 
castle  on  the  shores  of  Loch  Kilkerran,  now 

James  IV 


of  Scotland 

called  the  Bay  of  Campbelton.  He  received 
there  the  homage  of  Alexander  Macleod  of 
Dunvegan  and  Torquil  Macleod  of  the  Lews, 
and  attempted  to  suppress  the  feud  between 
the  Clan  Huistean  of  Sleat  and  the  Clan- 
ranald  of  Moydart.  Remaining  only  a  week 
in  Kintyre,  he  returned  to  Duchal,  where  on 
16  March,  having  now  completed  his  twenty- 
fifth  year,  he  executed  a  revocation  of  all 
grants  in  his  minority.  In  April  1499  he  made 
Archibald  Campbell,  second  earl  of  Argyll 
£q.  v.],  lieutenant  of  the  Isles,  and  gave  vari- 
ous grants  to  him  and  other  chiefs  who  had 
been  serviceable,  and  thus  strengthened  the 
royal  authority  in  the  outlying  parts  of  the 
highlands  and  isles.  In  1499  a  plague,  still 
more  fatal  during  1500,  caused  a  suspension 
of  the  royal  activity. 

On  28  July  1500  Henry  obtained  a  papal 
dispensation  for  James's  marriage  with  Mar- 
garet. James  and  Margaret  Tudor  were  re- 
lated only  in  the  fourth  degree  through  the 
marriage  of  James  I  with  Joan  Beaufort,  the 
great-grandmother  of  James,  whose  brother 
John,  duke  of  Somerset,  was  the  great-grand- 
father of  Margaret.  In  October  1501  pleni- 
potentiaries went  to  England  to  conclude  the 
marriage,  and  on  24  Jan.  1502  the  treaty  was 
agreed  to  at  Richmond.  When  it  was  con- 
firmed by  James  by  oath  on  the  evangels  and 
<the  mass  on  10  Dec.  the  title  of  king  of 
France  had  been  entered  in  the  titles  of 
Henry;  but  James  on  the  same  day  executed 
,-a  notarial  instrument  declaring  that  this  was 
*  by  inadvertence,'  and  signed  a  copy  in  which 
the  objectionable  title  was  cancelled.  Mar- 
garet, attended  by  the  Earl  of  Surrey  and  a 
large  suite,  left  Richmond  on  27  June  1503, 
and  reached  the  border  before  the  end  of  July. 
On  3  Aug.  James  met  her  at  Dalkeith.  Next 
<day  he  paid  a  private  visit,  and  found  Mar- 
garet at  cards.  She  left  her  game,  and  to 
show  her  accomplishments  danced  a  bass 
dance  with  Lady  Surrey  while  James  played 
on  the  harpsichord  and  lute.  At  leaving,  to 
«how  his  agility,  he  leapt  on  his  horse  without 
a,  stirrup.  On  the  7th  she  made  her  entry 
into  Edinburgh,  and  the  marriage  was  cele- 
brated at  Holyrood  on  the  8th.  It  was  accom- 
panied and  followed  by  festivities  of  all  kinds, 
but  the  English  visitors  reported  that  they  ad- 
mired the  manhood  more  than  the  manners  of 
the  Scots.  The  '  Controller's  Accounts'  show 
an  expenditure  of  more  than  6,000/.  It  was, 
perhaps,  in  honour  of  the  marriage  that  a 
new  order  of  knighthood,  which  took  its 
pattern  from  the  round  table  of  Arthur  with 
the  thistle  as  its  symbol,  was  instituted. 
Though  this  cannot  be  proved  from  records, 
it  is  certain  that  the  national  symbol  then 
first  began  to  be  common  in  connection  with 

the  royal  arms.  The  windows  at  Holyrood 
were  painted  with  the  device  of  the  union 
of  the  English  flower  with  the  Scottish  wild 
plant,  and  Dunbar  wrote,  as  poet  of  the  court, 
'  The  Thistle  and  the  Rose.' 

Amid  all  the  festivities,  the  bride,  not  yet 
fourteen,  was  sad,  homesick,  and  petulant. 
Soon  after  the  wedding  James  visited  Elgin, 
Inverness,  and  Dingwall.  About  this  time 
the  Western  Isles  once  more  broke  out  into 
open  revolt  under  Donald  Dubh  (the  Black), 
an  illegitimate  son  of  Angus,  and  grandson 
of  John,  lord  of  the  Isles.  The  royal  forces 
under  Huntly  having  proved  insufficient, 
James  in  person,  with  his  whole  southern 
levy,  took  the  field  and  crushed  the  rebellion. 
The  parliament  of  1504  introduced  royal  law 
by  justiciars  or  sheriffs  for  the  north  and 
south  isles,  the  former  at  Inverness  or  Ding- 
wall,  and  the  latter  at  Loch  Kilkerran  orTar- 
bert,  and  provided  that  the  western  highlands 
of  the  mainland  were  to  attend  the  ayres  of 
Perth  and  Inverness,  and  for  the  appointment 
of  sheriff's  of  Ross  and  Caithness.  Such  im- 
portant steps  towards  the  civilisation  of  these 
districts  were  supplemented  by  further  expe- 
ditions in  April  1504.  During  summer  and 
early  autumn  James  made  a  raid  in  Eskdale, 
reducing  the  Armstrongs,  Jardines,  and  other 
border  clans,  and  after  returning  to  Stirling 
in  the  end  of  September  went  his  usual  pro- 
gress to  the  autumn  ayres  in  the  north,  as 
far  as  Torres  and  Elgin.  In  1505  he  was 
again  in  the  Western  Isles  ;  the  McLeans  of 
Mull  and  other  minor  chiefs  of  Mull  and 
Skye  submitted.  Next  year  Stornoway  Castle, 
the  fort  of  Torquil  Macleod  of  the  Lews, 
was  taken.  The  Earls  of  Argyll  and  Arran, 
Macleod  of  Harris,  and  Y  or  Odo  Mackay  of 
Strathnaver  had  all  along  supported  the  king. 
A  poem  of  Dunbar  blames  James  for  sparing 
the  life  of  the  agile  highlander,  Donald  Dubh, 
who  was  captured  in  1506.  Measures  were 
taken  in  1505  and  1506  to  bring  the  isles 
south  of  Ardnamurchan,  as  well  as  Trot- 
ternish  in  Skye,  into  subjection  by  leases  for 
short  terms  to  the  occupiers  or  others,  on  con- 
dition of  their  becoming  loyal  subjects.  But 
well  devised  as  these  plans  were,  the  chronic 
rebellion  of  the  Western  Isles  was  not  over- 
come. James  began,  however,  to  introduce 
law  and  order  among  the  islanders,  whose 
language,  it  is  worthy  of  notice,  he  is  said 
to  have  spoken. 

The  important  parliament  of  Edinburgh, 
on  4  June  1504,  sat  by  continuation  on  3  Oct. 
and  31  Dec.  A  daily  council  was  instituted 
to  meet  in  Edinburgh  instead  of  the  movable 
sessions.  This  was  the  first  attempt  to  con- 
stitute a  central  fixed  royal  court  for  civil 
causes,  a  blow  to  the  arbitrary  justice  of  the 

of  Scotland 

feudal  barons,  and  a  further  step  towards 
confirming  Edinburgh  in  the  position  of  capi- 
tal, which  it  had  begun  to  assume  since  the 
death  of  James  I.  Other  statutes  dealt  with 
the  administration  of  criminal  law.  The 
privileges  of  the  burghs  were  confirmed,  and 
provision  made  for  yearly  election  of  magis- 
trates from  those  who  traded  within  the 
burghs.  No  begging  was  to  be  tolerated  ex- 
cept by  sick  or  impotent  folk.  All  freeholders 
with  land  of  one  hundred  merks  value  were  to 
appear  in  parliament  personally  or  by  pro- 
curators. The  most  important  statutes,  all 
of  which  show  James  as  a  legislator  at  his 
best,  related  to  the  tenure  of  feu  farm.  This 
tenure,  known  from  early  times  in  reference 
to  church  lands,  had  been  regulated  by  sta- 
tute in  1457.  But  it  was  now  expressly  pro- 
vided by  one  act  that  the  king  might  let  his 
whole  lands  annexed  or  unannexed  in  feu  to 
any  person,  and  that  the  feu  should  '  stand 
perpetually  to  his  heirs,'  and  by  another  that 
every  man,  both  of  the  spiritual  and  temporal 
estate,  might  do  the  same.  Fixity  of  tenure 
was  thus  secured.  The  general  revocation 
which  closed  the  acts  of  this  parliament  in- 
cluded not  only  all  acts  prejudicial  to  the 
crown,  but  also  to  the  catholic  church.  James 
was  a  devoted  son  of  the  church,  and  deserved 
the  hat  and  sword  with  gold  hilt  and  scab- 
bard which  Julius  II  sent  him  as  a  special 
mark  of  favour  in  1507. 

The  peace  with  England  and  the  suppres- 
sion of  rebellion  gave  more  prominence  to 
James's  relations  with  foreign  powers,  with 
all  of  whom  he  desired  to  be  on  pacific  terms. 
With  Denmark  his  connection,  owing  to 
his  near  kinship,  was  intimate.  Between 
August  1501  and  August  1502  James  sent 
two  ships  of  war  to  aid  his  uncle,  Hans  of 
Denmark,  against  Swedish  rebels.  In  1507 
and  1508  James  again  assisted  Hans  in  his 
contest  with  Liibeck  and  the  Hanseatic 
League,  and  in  April  of  the  latter  year,  in 
response  to  an  embassy  of  Tycho  Vincent, 
dean  of  Copenhagen,  he  despatched  Andrew 
Barton  [q.  v.]  with  a  ship  to  the  Danish  king, 
which,  however,  Barton  appropriated  to  him- 
self. When  James  prepared  for  the  English 
war  at  the  close  of  his  reign  he  urgently,  but 
in  vain,  solicited  the  aid  of  his  uncle  of  Den- 
mark, but  succeeded  in  making  him  at  least 
the  nominal  ally  of  France.  His  amicable 
relations  with  the  Emperor  Maximilian, 
Louis  XII  of  France,  and  Henry  VII  enabled 
him  to  intercede  effectually  on  behalf  of 
Charles,  duke  of  Gueldres,  when  threatened 
by  Philip,  archduke  of  Austria,  and  entitled 
him  to  remonstrate  warmly  with  the  arch- 
duke when  he  showed  signs  of  being  inclined 
to  receive  with  favour  Edmund  de  la  Pole, 

earl  of  Suffolk.  In  1506  he  sent  an  embassy 
to  Louis  XII  of  France,  and  from  both  Den- 
mark and  France  he  procured  supplies  of  wood 
when  his  ship-building  had  exhausted  the- 
Scotch  forests.  On  21  Dec.  an  ambassador 
from  James  presented  a  letter  of  credence  to> 
the  Venetian  signory  stating  James's  inten- 
tion to  visit  Jerusalem,  and  requesting  galleys- 
or  artificers  to  build  them  from  the  Venetian 
republic — a  request  willingly  granted.  He 
also  asked  the  pope  to  excuse  him  from  visit- 
ing Rome  on  his  way.  But  the  remonstrances- 
of  the  king  of  Denmark  and  the  state  of  his- 
own  kingdom  prevented  James's  project  from 
being  realised.  Two  years  later  Blacader, 
archbishop  of  Glasgow,  actually  started  for 
the  Holy  Land,  perhaps  as  the  deputy  of 
James,  but  died  on  the  way.  With  Spain 
he  continued  on  good  terms,  and  he  remon- 
strated with  King  Emmanuel  of  Portugal 
against  the  piracy  practised  by  the  Portu- 
guese, though  he  found  the  granting  of  let- 
ters of  reprisal  to  the  Bartons  more  effectual. 
The  year  1507  and  the  first  half  of  150& 
were  the  most  brilliant  period  of  his  reign. 
He  was  courted  by  foreign  princes,  on 
friendly  terms  with  his  father-in-law,  blessed 
by  the  pope,  and  at  peace  with  his  own  sub- 
jects. The  last  five  years  are  a  period  of  de- 
cline, due  partly  to  external  causes,  but  still 
more  to  his  own  defects  of  character.  At  the- 
end  of  1507  the  Earl  of  Arran  and  his  brother, 
Sir  Patrick  Hamilton,  passed  through  Eng- 
land to  France  without  a  safe-conduct,  and 
on  their  return  in  January  1508  they  were- 
detained  as  prisoners,  though  treated  civilly. 
In  March,  Wolsey  (as  Mr.  Gairdner  thinks, 
and  not  West  as  Pinkerton  and  Tytler  sup- 
posed) was  sent  to  Scotland  to  receive  James's- 
remonstrances  against  Arran's  detention.  His 
letter  to  Henry  VII  in  April  contains  his 
view  of  the  character  of  James.  When  the 
English  envoy  reached  Edinburgh  the  king 
was  so  much  occupied  in  making  gunpowder 
that  he  could  not  be  received  till  2  April,  after 
which  he  had  daily  audiences  till  the  10th ; 
but  such  was '  the  inconstancy '  of  James  that 
the  envoy  did  not  know  what  report  to  send. 
His  chief  object  was  to  prevent  the  renewal 
of  the  old  league  between  Scotland  and 
France,  which  James  promised  to  suspend 
so  long  as  Henry  continued  to  be '  his  loving- 
father.'  The  whole  nation,  commons  as  well 
as  nobles,  were  in  favour  of  the  renewal ;  the 
king,  the  queen,  and  the  Bishop  of  Moray 
were  the  only  exceptions.  Bernard  Stewart, 
lord  d'Aubigny,  was  on  his  way  from  France, 
and  James  promised  that  after  he  had  heard 
his  proposals  the  Bishop  of  Moray  should  be- 
sent  to  Henry  with  a  secret  letter.  James 
was  willing  to  meet  Henry  on  the  borders. 

James  IV  i 

On  21  May  D'Aubigny  and  Sellat,  the  presi- 
dent of  the  parliament  of  Paris,  arrived. 
Their  object  was  to  enlist  James  in  the  alliance 
made  by  the  treaty  of  Cambrai,  between  the 
pope,  the  emperor,  and  France  against  Venice, 
and  to  consult  as  to  the  marriage  of  the  daugh- 
ter of  Louis  XII,  whose  hand  was  sought  by 
Charles  of  Castile,  and  also